Hsi W.C.,Proton Therapy |
Hsi W.C.,Shanghai Proton and Heavy Ion Center |
Law A.,ProCure Training and Development Center |
Schreuder A.N.,ProCure Training and Development Center |
And 3 more authors.
Medical Physics | Year: 2014
Purpose: An optical tracking and positioning system (OTPS) was developed to validate the software-driven isocentric (SDI) approach to control the six-degrees-of-freedom movement of a robotic couch. Methods: The SDI approach to movements rotating around a predefined isocenter, referred to as a GeoIso, instead of a mechanical pivot point was developed by the robot automation industry. With robotic couch-sag corrections for weight load in a traditional SDI approach, movements could be accurately executed for a GeoIso located within a 500 mm cubic volume on the couch for treatments. The accuracy of SDI movement was investigated using the OTPS. The GeoIso was assumed to align with the proton beam isocenter (RadIso) for gantry at the reference angle. However, the misalignment between GeoIso and RadIso was quantitatively investigated by measuring the displacements at various couch angles for a target placed at the RadIso at an initial couch angle. When circular target displacements occur on a plane, a relative isocenter shift (RIS) correction could be applied in the SDI movement to minimize target displacements. Target displacements at a fixed gantry angle without and with RIS correction were measured for 12 robotic couches. Target displacements for various gantry angles were performed on three couches in gantry rooms to study the gantry-induced RadIso shift. The RIS correction can also be applied for the RadIso shift. A new SDI approach incorporating the RIS correction with the couch sag is described in this study. In parallel, the accuracy of SDI translation movements for various weight loads of patients on the couch was investigated during positioning of patients for proton prostate treatments. Results: For a fixed gantry angle, measured target displacements without RIS correction for couch rotations in the horizontal plane varied from 4 to 20 mm. However, measured displacements perpendicular to couch rotation plane were about 2 mm for all couches. Extracted misalignments of GeoIso and RadIso in the horizontal plane were about 10 mm for one couch and within 3 mm for the rest of couches. After applying the RIS correction, the residual target displacements for couch rotations were within 0.5 mm to RadIso for all couches. For various gantry angles, measured target location for each angle was within 0.5 mm to its excepted location by the preset RadIso shift. Measured target displacements for ±30° of couch rotations were within 0.5 mm for gantry angles at 0° and 180°. Overall, nearly 85% of couch movements were within 0.5 mm in the horizontal plane and 0.7 mm vector distance from required displacements. Conclusions: The authors present an optical tracking methodology to quantify for software-driven isocentric movements of robotic couches. By applying proper RIS correction for misaligned GeoIso and RadIso for each couch, and the RadIso shifts for a moving gantry, residual target displacements for isocentric couch movements around the actual RadIso can be reduced to submillimeter tolerance. © 2014 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
Hsi W.C.,Proton Therapy |
Fagundes M.,Proton Therapy |
Zeidan O.,Proton Therapy |
Hug E.,Proton Therapy |
Schreuder N.,ProCure Training and Development Center
Medical Physics | Year: 2013
Purpose: To present a practical image-guided method to position an endorectal balloon that improves in vivo thermoluminiscent dosimeter (TLD) measurements of rectal doses in proton therapy for prostate cancer. Methods: TLDs were combined with endorectal balloons to measure dose at the anterior rectal wall during daily proton treatment delivery. Radiopaque metallic markers were employed as surrogates for balloon position reproducibility in rotation and translation. The markers were utilized to guide the balloon orientation during daily treatment employing orthogonal x-ray image-guided patient positioning. TLDs were placed at the 12 oclock position on the anterior balloon surface at the midprostatic plane. Markers were placed at the 3 and 9 oclock positions on the balloon to align it with respect to the planned orientation. The balloon rotation along its stem axis, referred to as roll, causes TLD displacement along the anterior-posterior direction. The magnitude of TLD displacement is revealed by the separation distance between markers at opposite sides of the balloon on sagittal x-ray images. Results: A total of 81 in vivo TLD measurements were performed on six patients. Eighty-three percent of all measurements (65 TLD readings) were within 5% and -10% of the planning dose with a mean of -2.1% and a standard deviation of 3.5%. Examination of marker positions with in-room x-ray images of measured doses between -10% and -20% of the planned dose revealed a strong correlation between balloon roll and TLD displacement posteriorly from the planned position. The magnitude of the roll was confirmed by separations of 10-20 mm between the markers which could be corrected by manually adjusting the balloon position and verified by a repeat x-ray image prior to proton delivery. This approach could properly correct the balloon roll, resulting in TLD positioning within 2 mm along the anterior-posterior direction. Conclusions: Our results show that image-guided TLD-based in vivo dosimetry for rectal dose verification can be perfomed reliably and reproducibly for proton therapy in prostate cancer. © 2013 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.