Madrid, Spain
Madrid, Spain
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Munoz-Igualada J.,Tragsega | Shivik J.A.,Utah State University | Domnguez F.G.,Servicio de Especies Amenazadas | Mariano Gonzalez L.,Servicio de Especies Amenazadas | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Management | Year: 2010

Capturing animals is an essential tool of wildlife management, but the use of capture devices is being affected by public pressures on an international scale. In Europe, and particularly Spain, foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are often captured using traditional methods such as nonlocking Spanish Snares (SS) set in an ad hoc fence line known as an alar, but these traditional European methods are rarely compared to modernly described restraints such as the Wisconsin Cable Restraint (WR). We evaluated rates of efficiency, selectivity, injury, and impacts to foxes and nontarget species when using SS (as traditionally set in an alar) or WR within alars or on trails in Castilla-La Mancha, Spain. During 40,372 trap-nights from summer to winter of 2007, we captured 64 foxes, and 8 of 23 potential nontarget species. Our results indicated that WR set in trails were more efficient (0.28 capture rate) for capturing red foxes than SS set in an alar (0.11 capture rate). Relative to injury, foxes captured with the WR in the alar (95.4%), and WR in trails (90.5%), and the SS (90.9%) showed no indicators of poor welfare, and injury score analysis indicated that injuries were of similar magnitude for all capture devices. Overall, the WR set in trails may have performed the best, but all 3 methods are likely sufficient for capturing foxes with minimal injury, acceptable efficiency, and acceptable impact to foxes and sympatric nontarget species. Thus, wildlife managers in Spain and elsewhere can apply our findings to optimize capture and management of foxes. © 2010 The Wildlife Society.

Martin-Hernandez R.,Centro Apicola Regional | Botias C.,Centro Apicola Regional | Barrios L.,CTI | Martinez-Salvador A.,TRAGSEGA | And 3 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2011

Nosema ceranae is a relatively new and widespread parasite of the western honeybee Apis mellifera that provokes a new form of nosemosis. In comparison to Nosema apis, which has been infecting the honeybee for much longer, N. ceranae seems to have co-evolved less with this host, causing a more virulent disease. Given that N. apis and N. ceranae are obligate intracellular microsporidian parasites, needing host energy to reproduce, energetic stress may be an important factor contributing to the increased virulence observed. Through feeding experiments on caged bees, we show that both mortality and sugar syrup consumption were higher in N. ceranae-infected bees than in N. apis-infected and control bees. The mortality and sugar syrup consumption are also higher in N. apis-infected bees than in controls, but are less than in N. ceranae-infected bees. With both microsporidia, mortality and sugar syrup consumption increased in function of the increasing spore counts administered for infection. The differences in energetic requirements between both Nosema spp. confirm that their metabolic patterns are not the same, which may depend critically on host-parasite interactions and, ultimately, on host pathology. The repercussions of this increased energetic stress may even explain the changes in host behavior due to starvation, lack of thermoregulatory capacity, or higher rates of trophallaxis, which might enhance transmission and bee death. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Higes M.,Bee Pathology Laboratory | Martin-Hernandez R.,Bee Pathology Laboratory | Martinez-Salvador A.,TRAGSEGA | Garrido-Bailon E.,Bee Pathology Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
Environmental Microbiology Reports | Year: 2010

In recent years, a worldwide decline in the Apis mellifera populations has been detected in many regions, including Spain. This decline is thought to be related to the effects of pathogens or pesticides, although to what extent these factors are implicated is still not clear. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of honey bee colony depopulation symptoms in a random selected sample (n = 61) and we explored the implication of different pathogens, pesticides and the flora visited in the area under study. The prevalence of colony depopulation symptoms in the professional apiaries studied was 67.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 54.6-79.8; P < 0.0001]. The most prevalent pathogen found in the worker honey bee samples was Nosema ceranae [65.6%; 95% CI = 52.8-78.3; P < 0.0001], followed by Varroa destructor [32.7%; 95% CI = 20.2-45.4; P < 0.0001] and 97.5% of the colonies infected by N. ceranae were unhealthy (depopulated). Co-infection by V. destructor and N. ceranae was evident in 22.9% (95% CI = 11.6-34.3; P < 0.0001) of the samples and only in unhealthy colonies. Of the 40 pesticides studied, only nine were detected in 49% of the stored pollen samples analysed. Fipronil was detected in only three of 61 stored pollen samples and imidacloprid was not detected in any. Acaricides like fluvalinate, and chlorfenvinphos used to control Varroa mite were the most predominant residues in the stored pollen, probably as a result of their application in homemade formulae. None of the pesticides identified were statistically associated to colony depopulated. This preliminary study of epidemiological factors suggests that N. ceranae is a key factor in the colony losses detected over recent years in Spain. However, more detailed studies that permit subgroup analyses will be necessary to contrast these findings. © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Guil F.,Tragsega | Agudin S.,Tragsega | El-Khadir N.,Tragsega | Fernandez-Olalla M.,E.T.S. Ingenieros de Montes | And 7 more authors.
European Journal of Wildlife Research | Year: 2010

Camera trapping is the most used method for surveying medium-sized carnivores in Spain. The main target for these surveys has been the Iberian lynx, the most endangered cat in the world. The Iberian lynx conservation program has received the largest EU LIFE projects grant. So, efficiency is a key goal for managing this grant. During 2003 and 2007, we have applied these funds to the survey of the Iberian lynx in Eastern Sierra Morena (Spain). Using two different techniques, we have studied both to see which is the most efficient. The survey developed in active latrines resulted more efficient than that of scent stations and live prey camera trapping throughout the years, although there has been a variation between years. Otherwise, the live prey method has been the one providing the greatest speed and number of pictures per entrance. We suggest that camera-trapping surveys can be improved in terms of efficiency for a wide range of species, or at least for the Iberian lynx. To improve the results, cameras might be placed in relation to breeding territories. With this determinant, camera-trapping surveys would be shorter than 120 days. Finally, we suggest how those surveys for medium carnivores should be designed. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

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