Maceda, Spain
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Garcia-Asensio J.M.,TRAGSA | Ayuga F.,Technical University of Madrid
European Countryside | Year: 2017

Irrigation is a rural development technique widely extended in, and affecting the landscape of, areas of Mediterranean climate. In Spain, irrigation accounts for 2/3 of all water use. The country has over 3.5 million ha of irrigated land, some 15% of all its agricultural land. Valley bottoms and riversides are the landscapes most commonly associated with irrigation in Spain, followed by peninsular coastal and interior plains, basins, hollows and depressions. This paper describes the engineering infrastructures associated with irrigation, the structures involved in water capture, transport, storage and distribution, and water use and drainage in the irrigated lowlands of Spain. It also examines the environmental impact of such water use. Several descriptors are proposed to describe its association with the landscape. © 2017 by José M. García-Asensio.

Climent J.,Cifor Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion Y Tecnologia Agraria Y Alimentaria Inia | Climent J.,Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute UVA INIA | Chambel M.R.,Cifor Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion Y Tecnologia Agraria Y Alimentaria Inia | Chambel M.R.,Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute UVA INIA | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2011

Rooting space is considered as a resource in plants, but comparative studies on the biomass allocation plasticity in response to rooting volume (RV) are rare. We compared responses in growth, biomass allocation and ontogenetic heteroblasty in nine hard pine species of contrasted ecology. Seedlings were cultivated in containers of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.8 and 7 L for two growing seasons (425 days). Reduction in RV caused a reduction in plant absolute and relative growth rate and biomass allocated to stems but it increased biomass allocated to roots. RV affected to a lesser extent and in a less consistent direction allocation to leaves. Species that grew faster (higher relative growth rate) had a steeper decrease in growth with the reduction in RV. Ontogenetic heteroblasty, evaluated as the proportion of secondary needles in the needle biomass, showed highly different plasticity patterns in response to RV. Decrease in RV caused negligible or no change either in the most ontogenetically delayed Mediterranean pines or in the most ontogenetically advanced pines, the mesic Pinus sylvestris and P. uncinata. By contrast, ontogenetically intermediate species showed steep reaction norms in response to reduction in RV. While P. pinaster and P. brutia showed marked rejuvenation, P. nigra accelerated the development of adult foliage. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Subida M.D.,Institute Ciencias Marinas Of Andalucia Csic | Drake P.,Institute Ciencias Marinas Of Andalucia Csic | Jordana E.,CSIC - Center for Advanced Studies of Blanes | Mavric B.,Slovenian National Institute of Biology | And 5 more authors.
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2012

According to the Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/CE), assessment methods for the biological quality element benthic invertebrates must include diversity, abundance and proportion of pollution sensitive/indicator taxa as indicative parameters. By one hand, the use of pollution sensitive/indicator taxa (indicator taxa indices) is criticized due to the lack of a reliable methodology to know the level at which indicator species can be well represented in unaffected communities. By the other hand, it is often remarked in the literature that the response of diversity measures may be biased by several methodological constraints. In the last few years, several multimetrics, combining both types of indices, have been proposed with the aim of providing a better picture of the response of benthic communities to disturbance gradients. In order to understand how different responses of diversity measures may affect the responses of multimetric indices, several biotic indices, including diversity measures, indicator taxa indices and multimetrics, were calculated for a set of Mediterranean coastal ecosystems affected by different ranges of organic matter content. Diversity measures did not show monotonic patterns of response to the gradient of organic content, particularly at the low end of its range, while strong correlations were found between indicator taxa indices and this pressure indicator gradient. The multimetric used in the study (M-AMBI) was more correlated with its diversity components (H′ and S) than with its indicator taxa component (AMBI) and, consequently, M-AMBI was always less correlated with the gradient of organic content than AMBI. In Mediterranean coastal water ecosystems naturally poor in sediment organic matter content, indicator taxa indices, such as MEDOCC, BOPA, AMBI or BENTIX, seem to give a more reliable picture of the response of benthic communities to moderate increments of organic content than diversity indices. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Pinedo S.,CSIC - Center for Advanced Studies of Blanes | Jordana E.,CSIC - Center for Advanced Studies of Blanes | Salas F.,TRAGSA | Salas F.,University of Coimbra | And 3 more authors.
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2012

The implementation of the European Water Framework Directive has enhanced the development of several indices based on benthic invertebrate communities. Some of them, such as BOPA, simplify the calculation employing the taxonomic sufficiency principle to assess the ecological status of ecosystems since they only consider opportunistic polychaetes and amphipods; others, such as MEDOCC, include all the species found in the community, and assign them to four ecological groups: sensitive, indifferent, tolerant, and opportunistic. Anyway, there is the need for testing, validating and improving these indices in different regions and communities. In this study we test the application of MEDOCC and BOPA along the Spanish Mediterranean coastal waters (Catalonia, Balearic Islands, Valencia, Murcia, and Andalusia regions) in order to investigate whether benthic indices with different taxonomic resolution provide similar ecological status assessment. Shallow fine soft-bottom communities were sampled from 2002 to 2010 in a total of 241 locations. The comparison between both indices demonstrated that the concordance for the studied communities reached up to 79% in some areas, although it was less than 30% in natural and anthropogenically modified ecosystems dominated by stress-tolerant species. Even though BOPA index provides good results, in general it evaluates in higher ecological status than MEDOCC does and it does not always allow discriminating more disturbed situations. The assignation of a same species to different ecological groups (some opportunistic polychaetes of one method are classified as indifferent by the other) and the fact that all the amphipods (except genus Jassa) are considered as sensitive species in BOPA index but not in MEDOCC, could contribute to the observed discrepancies. Some suggestions to improve the agreement between both methods are pointed and discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Vidal N.,CSIC - National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences | Blanco B.,CSIC - National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences | Cuenca B.,TRAGSA
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture | Year: 2015

A protocol for culturing chestnut axillary shoots by temporary immersion in liquid medium was developed. The influence of type of explant, support material, bioreactor, and immersion was investigated for five artificial hybrids and five natural hybrids of Asian and European chestnut selected for resistance to ink disease. The type of explant influenced shoot quality and proliferation rates, and basal explants with callus produced more and longer shoots than apical and nodal segments. Use of rockwool cubes as support material prevented hyperhydricity and allowed proliferation of explants in Murashige and Skoog medium with half-strength nitrates supplemented with 0.22 µM BA and 3 % sucrose, cultured both in plantform™ and RITA® vessels with three or six immersions per day and additional aeration of 1 min per hour in the case of plantform™ bioreactors. Basal explants cultured in plantform™ for 5 weeks produced long shoots suitable for rooting, whereas apical and nodal explants cultured in plantform™ or RITA® produced shorter shoots that were suitable for maintenance of stock. For most of the clones, similar or higher proliferation rates were observed when cultured in liquid medium than in semisolid medium, with the additional benefit of cost-reduction of the former system. Shoots developed in liquid medium were submitted to ex vitro root induction by dipping in indole-3-butyric acid, and acclimatized under greenhouse conditions. This is the first demonstration of the production of chestnut plantlets from shoots cultured in liquid medium, and the protocol presented here shows good potential for application in large-scale propagation. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Vidal N.,CSIC - National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences | Correa B.,CSIC - National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences | Rial E.,CSIC - National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences | Regueira M.,CSIC - National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

In this study the response to culture in liquid medium of axillary shoots of two woody species, chestnut and willow, has been compared. Both species differ in their recalcitrance to micropropagation, especially in their rooting and acclimatization abilities. Parameters such as explant type, supporting material, bioreactor type, number of immersions and/or aerations were tested. Continuous and temporary immersion systems have been applied to both species and several differences were detected. Hyperhydricity was not observed in willow shoots cultured in liquid medium with aeration, but this disorder affected chestnut cultures unless supporting materials as rockwool cubes were used. Besides, willow shoots rooted spontaneously in liquid culture, whereas chestnut shoots required an auxin treatment. In spite of these differences, both species showed better performance in liquid culture than in semi-solid medium, and shoots from an adult willow genotype and from eight selected chestnut genotypes (hybrids of European and Asian chestnuts) were successfully rooted and acclimatized. © 2015 ISHS.

Vidal N.,CSIC - National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences | Vieitez A.M.,CSIC - National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences | Fernandez M.R.,TRAGSA | Cuenca B.,TRAGSA | Ballester A.,CSIC - National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences
European Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2010

Cryopreservation of selected genotypes of European chestnut and cork oak was carried out in two laboratories in a project involving conservation of field collections. Plant material was selected on the basis of disease resistance (chestnut), growth habit, phytosanitary performance and cork quality (cork oak). The cryopreservation technique comprised of vitrification of shoot apices isolated from in vitro stock shoot cultures (chestnut) and somatic embryos (cork oak). Forty-three out of 46 chestnut genotypes assayed survived the freezing process, but only 63% recovered their capacity to produce new shoots. After completion of multiplication and rooting steps, the surviving shoots produced plants that were morphologically identical to those derived from non-supercooled material. All 51 cork oak genotypes withstood freezing and were able to produce new somatic embryos through a process of secondary embryogenesis. Multiplication and germination of the recovered embryos enabled production of plants that were morphologically identical to those derived from non-supercooled material. In light of the results obtained, long-term cryopreservation of these species is feasible, thereby ensuring conservation of valuable genotypes during field evaluation. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Santin-Montanya M.I.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion Agraria Y Alimentaria | Jimenez J.,TRAGSA | Ocana L.,TRAGSA | Sanchez F.J.,Direccion General del Agua
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part B Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes | Year: 2013

Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis (CFA) has been successfully used to rapidly determine the responses of different plants to herbicides. It has not, however, been used to test the effect of these products on invasive riparian species. This paper reports the use of CFA to determine photosynthetic activity in Arundo donax, an invasive reed causing serious problems in Mediterranean riparian habitats, in response to systemic herbicide application following cutting. Growth was measured in terms of new sprout relative height and sprout and rhizome relative biomass. CFA showed glyphosate, from half the on-label dose of 5 L ai.ha-1upwards, to have a significant effect (100% reduction) on photosynthetic activity at 21 days after treatment (DAT), while profoxydim, from half the on-label dose of 0.375 L ai.ha-1upwards, caused a 70% reduction soon after application, although these plants later recovered. Azimsulfuron, cyhalofop-butyl and penoxsulam had no significant effect on photosynthetic activity at any dose. At 60 DAT, glyphosate (from half the on-label dose of 5 L ai.ha-1upwards) was associated with a 90% reduction in sprout height, while profoxydim (from half the on-label dose of 0.375 L ai.ha-1upwards) caused a 50% reduction. No dose (0-2x the on-label dose) of azimsulfuron, penoxsulam or cyhalofop-butyl was associated with any significant growth reduction at 60 DAT. The results show that CFA can be used to successfully measure the response of these invasive plants to herbicides, and that glyphosate, and possibly profoxydim, might be used to control Arundo donax after initial cutting. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Garcia-Miravete A.,TRAGSA
WIT Transactions on Information and Communication Technologies | Year: 2012

The primary emergency response to a particular disaster will only minimize its overall impact when two factors operate efficiently: rapidity and proportionality. After a thorough threat assessment on the level of risk that Spain faces regarding natural or man-made disasters, TRAGSA's emergency management system can be recognized as an effective and efficient solution for immediate response. (TRAGSA is the Governmental Agency (Public Company) in charge of rural development, environmental protection and emergency management.) Within the context of limited resources and the need for an operationallyoriented policy mainly focused on the identified priorities, our emergency management system for environmental disasters does offer reasonable satisfaction in terms of rapidity and proportionality. We intend, therefore, to explain how to achieve the best possible results (quick and proportionate) in a crisis scenario with environmental impact (from those identified within the National security strategy) occurring in any territory of a country 500,000 square kilometres wide. To that end, we will show how the model has behaved in real scenarios. The involvement of the civil agency for environmental catastrophes (TRAGSA) is providing adequate answers to the incident regardless of the magnitude and place of occurrence, as it will be shown in the case studies. The specific interest of this paper is to consider and communicate the idea of a "non stand-by approach and multifunctional team", that is to say, the way in which TRAGSA operates during emergencies. The main strengths of the system are: a) Rapidity of the response regardless the emergency location. b) Proportional deployment according to the magnitude of the incident. c) Accurate expertise and knowledge on the main emergency categories. d) Effective and efficient use of "scarce" resources. In conclusion, the purpose of our work is to present a tested and proven case study on emergency response management based upon recent real scenarios occurred in Spain, namely BOLIDEN (toxic waste in Guadalquivir river), ARENAS (severe forest wildfire) and ARRIONDAS (case of floods in Asturias) to demonstrate how the system offers rapidity, proportionality, expertise and economy, taking into account, in addition, the EU wider scenario that new regulations and strategy are shaping in Europe. © 2012 WIT Press.

Santin-Montanya M.I.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion Y Tecnologia Agraria Y Alimentaria | Jimenez J.,TRAGSA | Vilan X.M.,TRAGSA | Ocana L.,TRAGSA
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part B Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes | Year: 2014

Studies were conducted under controlled conditions to determine growth and reproductive capabilities of Arundo donax L. (giant reed), a riparian invasive perennial plant that has spread widely. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the influence of rhizome size and moisture content in the early invasiveness ability of giant reed. We tested different sizes of rhizomes: rhizome size of 1 cm, 3 cm, 5 cm and shredded rhizome. (fragments < 1 cm). These rhizomes were observed at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after planting (DAP). To test the effect of moisture content we used fresh rhizome fragments; rhizomes with moderate dehydration (50%); rhizomes with high dehydration (over 70%) with 48 hours of rehydration and rhizomes with high dehydration (70-90%). The rhizomes monitored for moisture content and biomass increase were between 3 and 5 cm, and were observed 60 DAP. The initial size of rhizomes affected the level of sprouting. Rhizomes with low moisture content (due to dehydration) showed high increase in biomass compared with the rhizomes that had not been treated or had been dehydrated and then rehydrated. Our results indicated that size of rhizomes is related to regrowth and low moisture (dehydration) content can be overcome by this species. This could be linked to high rates of colonization and early establishment ability of this species even after mechanical treatment of rhizomes, in riparian environments. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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