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Maceda, Spain

Gonzalez M.V.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Cuenca B.,Tragsa | Lopez M.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Prado M.J.,University of Vigo | Rey M.,University of Vigo
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2011

A set of nine short sequence repeat (SSR) loci was used for the molecular characterization of 32 accessions of 15 chestnut trees selected in the field because of their putative resistance to the ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. The goal of the present study was to determine the genetic identity of those selected European chestnut trees (Castanea sativa) or interspecific hybrids, considering that hybridization programs between European chestnut and Asiatic species (mainly Japanese chestnut, Castanea crenata) have been carried out in Galicia (Spain) since the early 20th century. The results showed that the analyzed SSR loci were useful to discriminate three Asiatic and the European species of Castanea. The joint information provided by a factorial correspondence analysis (FCA) and the presence of privative alleles allowed the putative molecular assignment of the selected plants to a certain identity. Most of them were determined as hybrids between C. crenata and C. sativa. The individuals coded C036 and C048 were assigned, with a high probability, to C. sativa due to their clustering with accessions of this species and because they had a number of privative alleles of this species. Only a few individuals could not be assigned to any particular genotype. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Pinedo S.,CSIC - Center for Advanced Studies of Blanes | Jordana E.,CSIC - Center for Advanced Studies of Blanes | Salas F.,Tragsa | Salas F.,University of Coimbra | And 3 more authors.
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2012

The implementation of the European Water Framework Directive has enhanced the development of several indices based on benthic invertebrate communities. Some of them, such as BOPA, simplify the calculation employing the taxonomic sufficiency principle to assess the ecological status of ecosystems since they only consider opportunistic polychaetes and amphipods; others, such as MEDOCC, include all the species found in the community, and assign them to four ecological groups: sensitive, indifferent, tolerant, and opportunistic. Anyway, there is the need for testing, validating and improving these indices in different regions and communities. In this study we test the application of MEDOCC and BOPA along the Spanish Mediterranean coastal waters (Catalonia, Balearic Islands, Valencia, Murcia, and Andalusia regions) in order to investigate whether benthic indices with different taxonomic resolution provide similar ecological status assessment. Shallow fine soft-bottom communities were sampled from 2002 to 2010 in a total of 241 locations. The comparison between both indices demonstrated that the concordance for the studied communities reached up to 79% in some areas, although it was less than 30% in natural and anthropogenically modified ecosystems dominated by stress-tolerant species. Even though BOPA index provides good results, in general it evaluates in higher ecological status than MEDOCC does and it does not always allow discriminating more disturbed situations. The assignation of a same species to different ecological groups (some opportunistic polychaetes of one method are classified as indifferent by the other) and the fact that all the amphipods (except genus Jassa) are considered as sensitive species in BOPA index but not in MEDOCC, could contribute to the observed discrepancies. Some suggestions to improve the agreement between both methods are pointed and discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Subida M.D.,Institute Ciencias Marinas Of Andalucia Csic | Drake P.,Institute Ciencias Marinas Of Andalucia Csic | Jordana E.,CSIC - Center for Advanced Studies of Blanes | Mavric B.,Slovenian National Institute of Biology | And 5 more authors.
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2012

According to the Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/CE), assessment methods for the biological quality element benthic invertebrates must include diversity, abundance and proportion of pollution sensitive/indicator taxa as indicative parameters. By one hand, the use of pollution sensitive/indicator taxa (indicator taxa indices) is criticized due to the lack of a reliable methodology to know the level at which indicator species can be well represented in unaffected communities. By the other hand, it is often remarked in the literature that the response of diversity measures may be biased by several methodological constraints. In the last few years, several multimetrics, combining both types of indices, have been proposed with the aim of providing a better picture of the response of benthic communities to disturbance gradients. In order to understand how different responses of diversity measures may affect the responses of multimetric indices, several biotic indices, including diversity measures, indicator taxa indices and multimetrics, were calculated for a set of Mediterranean coastal ecosystems affected by different ranges of organic matter content. Diversity measures did not show monotonic patterns of response to the gradient of organic content, particularly at the low end of its range, while strong correlations were found between indicator taxa indices and this pressure indicator gradient. The multimetric used in the study (M-AMBI) was more correlated with its diversity components (H′ and S) than with its indicator taxa component (AMBI) and, consequently, M-AMBI was always less correlated with the gradient of organic content than AMBI. In Mediterranean coastal water ecosystems naturally poor in sediment organic matter content, indicator taxa indices, such as MEDOCC, BOPA, AMBI or BENTIX, seem to give a more reliable picture of the response of benthic communities to moderate increments of organic content than diversity indices. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Garcia-Miravete A.,Tragsa
WIT Transactions on Information and Communication Technologies | Year: 2012

The primary emergency response to a particular disaster will only minimize its overall impact when two factors operate efficiently: rapidity and proportionality. After a thorough threat assessment on the level of risk that Spain faces regarding natural or man-made disasters, TRAGSA's emergency management system can be recognized as an effective and efficient solution for immediate response. (TRAGSA is the Governmental Agency (Public Company) in charge of rural development, environmental protection and emergency management.) Within the context of limited resources and the need for an operationallyoriented policy mainly focused on the identified priorities, our emergency management system for environmental disasters does offer reasonable satisfaction in terms of rapidity and proportionality. We intend, therefore, to explain how to achieve the best possible results (quick and proportionate) in a crisis scenario with environmental impact (from those identified within the National security strategy) occurring in any territory of a country 500,000 square kilometres wide. To that end, we will show how the model has behaved in real scenarios. The involvement of the civil agency for environmental catastrophes (TRAGSA) is providing adequate answers to the incident regardless of the magnitude and place of occurrence, as it will be shown in the case studies. The specific interest of this paper is to consider and communicate the idea of a "non stand-by approach and multifunctional team", that is to say, the way in which TRAGSA operates during emergencies. The main strengths of the system are: a) Rapidity of the response regardless the emergency location. b) Proportional deployment according to the magnitude of the incident. c) Accurate expertise and knowledge on the main emergency categories. d) Effective and efficient use of "scarce" resources. In conclusion, the purpose of our work is to present a tested and proven case study on emergency response management based upon recent real scenarios occurred in Spain, namely BOLIDEN (toxic waste in Guadalquivir river), ARENAS (severe forest wildfire) and ARRIONDAS (case of floods in Asturias) to demonstrate how the system offers rapidity, proportionality, expertise and economy, taking into account, in addition, the EU wider scenario that new regulations and strategy are shaping in Europe. © 2012 WIT Press.


Vidal N.,CSIC - National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences | Blanco B.,CSIC - National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences | Cuenca B.,Tragsa
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture | Year: 2015

A protocol for culturing chestnut axillary shoots by temporary immersion in liquid medium was developed. The influence of type of explant, support material, bioreactor, and immersion was investigated for five artificial hybrids and five natural hybrids of Asian and European chestnut selected for resistance to ink disease. The type of explant influenced shoot quality and proliferation rates, and basal explants with callus produced more and longer shoots than apical and nodal segments. Use of rockwool cubes as support material prevented hyperhydricity and allowed proliferation of explants in Murashige and Skoog medium with half-strength nitrates supplemented with 0.22 µM BA and 3 % sucrose, cultured both in plantform™ and RITA® vessels with three or six immersions per day and additional aeration of 1 min per hour in the case of plantform™ bioreactors. Basal explants cultured in plantform™ for 5 weeks produced long shoots suitable for rooting, whereas apical and nodal explants cultured in plantform™ or RITA® produced shorter shoots that were suitable for maintenance of stock. For most of the clones, similar or higher proliferation rates were observed when cultured in liquid medium than in semisolid medium, with the additional benefit of cost-reduction of the former system. Shoots developed in liquid medium were submitted to ex vitro root induction by dipping in indole-3-butyric acid, and acclimatized under greenhouse conditions. This is the first demonstration of the production of chestnut plantlets from shoots cultured in liquid medium, and the protocol presented here shows good potential for application in large-scale propagation. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

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