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Olofsson E.,Skaraborgs Hospital | Olofsson E.,Gothenburg University | Olofsson E.,Sahlgrenska University Hospital | Bunketorp O.,Gothenburg University | And 4 more authors.
Safety Science | Year: 2015

Aim: To investigate the use and protective effect of helmets in children injured in bicycle crashes and changes in injury patterns during a period of increased helmet use. Method: Injuries in 4246 children below 16. years of age, who attended an A&E ward after a bicycle crash in the Gothenburg region during 1993-2006, were analyzed. The injury severity was classified according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale. The occurrence of skull/brain injuries and facial injuries was analyzed for 3711 children with respect to injury severity, helmet use and demographic and crash-related factors. Changes in injury patterns during the period were analyzed for 4246 children with no regard to helmet use. The ratio of the number of subjects with head injuries to the number of subjects with extremity injuries of any severity and of at least moderate severity was used to estimate the protective effect of helmet at a population level. Results: Helmets were used by 40% of the injured children at the beginning of the period and by 80% at the end; much less frequently by teenagers, especially girls. The adjusted odds of serious or more severe skull/brain injuries and moderate or more severe facial injuries with a helmet were about one fourth of those without a helmet. The proportion of children with skull/brain injuries did not change significantly during the period. Serious or more severe skull/brain injuries were noted more often during the latter half of the period, most often in children without a helmet. The proportion of children with facial injuries decreased, and the proportion with injuries to the upper extremities increased, also for moderate and severe injuries. The ratio between the number of children with head injuries and the number with extremity injuries decreased for injuries of any severity and for moderate or more severe injuries. Conclusions: Bicycle helmets have an obvious protective effect against head injuries in children, regardless of the crash circumstances. Teenagers must be informed about the high risk of skull/brain injuries in bicycle crashes without a helmet. The increasing occurrence of injuries to the upper extremities needs attention. © 2015.


PubMed | Traffic Safety India and National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Industrial psychiatry journal | Year: 2015

Concerns about road safety have been increasingly associated with two-wheeler riding and especially with young commuters in India.The study was designed to explore inclination to speeding and to profile the driving behaviors in two-wheeler riding young men and women who reported a tendency to ride faster than their peers.A cross-sectional survey design was used.On the basis of three focus group discussions and review of literature, a survey was prepared to tap domains such as affect states associated with riding/speeding, factors contributing to speeding, inclination for competing, perceived speed and safety, etc. The study sample comprised of 961 two-wheeler riding college-going young men and women in Bangalore.Descriptive and inferential statistical procedures were used including Chi-square, Spearmans rank correlation, and independent sample t-test.The sample was divided into two subgroups on the basis of self-report of greater speeding than ones peers. A subgroup of 349 participants endorsed the item regarding inclination to ride faster than ones peers, whereas, the remaining 612 participants did not endorse it. The profiles of these two subgroups were obtained in terms of sociodemographic variables, riding behaviors, and associated domains. Significant differences between the subgroups emerged on domains such as motives for riding fast, tendency for competing, perceived safety and frequency of minor accidents while riding.Several correlates of the tendency to speeding among young two-wheeler riders emerged that have implications for enhancing safe riding.


Chandra S.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Mehar A.,National Institute of Technology Warangal | Velmurugan S.,Traffic Safety India
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering | Year: 2015

Mixed traffic has always been a major concern in all studies related to estimation of capacity of a highway in developing nations like India. The problem of mixed traffic is generally circumvented by making use of passenger car equivalency factors for different categories of vehicles and converting them into equivalent number of Passenger Cars Units (PCU). However, capacity is also required in terms of vehicles per hour, particularly for quick estimation of volume-to-capacity ratio on a highway. The present study investigates the effect of traffic mix on capacity of four-lane, six-lane divided highways in India. All vehicles on a highway are divided into five categories namely standard car, big car, heavy vehicle, motorized three-wheelers and motorized two-wheelers, and effect of each vehicle type on capacity of the highway is evaluated. The VISSIM software is calibrated and used to generate the traffic operations based on field data using capacity as the measure of performance. Speed-flow curves are developed to find simulated capacity values for different combinations of standard car and one of the remaining four types of vehicles in the traffic stream. The results are finally combined to propose the generalized equations to determine capacity when all or few of the five categories of vehicles are simultaneously present on a highway. © 2015 Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Mehar A.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Chandra S.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Velmurugan S.,Traffic Safety India
Journal of Transportation Engineering | Year: 2014

Passenger car units (PCU) of different types of vehicles are required to convert a mixed traffic stream into a homogeneous equivalent, and thereby to express the mixed traffic flow in terms of equivalent number of passenger cars. Earlier studies have reported that PCU for a vehicle is dynamic in nature and changes with traffic volume and proportional share of a vehicle type in the traffic stream. The present study provides PCU values for different types of vehicles typically found on interurban multilane highways in India at different levels of service (LOS). Traffic simulation model VISSIMis used to generate the traffic flow and speed data for conditions that are difficult to obtain from field observations. Important VISSIM parameters are first calibrated to reflect mixed traffic flow behavior and then the software is used to draw the speed-volume relationships for cars and one of the remaining four categories of vehicles in the traffic stream. The proportion of second category of the vehicle was also varied to observe its effects on PCU values. Finally, PCU values are suggested for different type of vehicles at different LOS and for different traffic composition on four-lane and six-lane divided highways. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Godavarthi G.R.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Chalumuri R.S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Velmurugun S.,Traffic Safety India
Journal of Transportation Engineering | Year: 2014

Various approaches have been deployed for evaluating the performance of bus rapid transit (BRT) systems based on qualitative, economic and quantitative parameters. In the present study, the performance evaluation of the bus rapid transit system (BRTS) in Indian cities using a microsimulation technique has been attempted. Base networks of Delhi and Ahmedabad BRT corridors were developed, calibrated, and validated using specialized software. After the validation process, speed versus volume to capacity (V-C) ratio equations were developed for mixed vehicle (MV) and bus lanes, respectively, of both the corridors considered in the study. These equations were optimized to find out the optimum value of V-C ratio on the MV and bus lanes, which were found to range between 0.64 and 0.75. An average value of 0.688 V-C ratio was derived in this study for BRTS based on the calculated optimal values. Then, the concept of user equilibrium (UE) was deployed to understand when the travel speeds in both an MV lane and a bus lane of a BRT corridor reach the point of congestion. Based on this study, it can be concluded that 0.688 V-C ratio is the optimal flow value for BRT corridors. This implies that up to 0.688, both the MV lane users and bus lane users will enjoy reasonable travel speeds and smaller delays. If the V-C ratio is exceeded on either bus lane or MV lane(s), then the BRT system becomes untenable for the MV lane and bus lane users, instead creating traffic congestion. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Mehar A.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Chandra S.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Velmurugan S.,Traffic Safety India
European Transport - Trasporti Europei | Year: 2013

This paper presents speed and acceleration characteristics of different types of vehicles on four-lane and six-lane divided highways under mixed traffic conditions. These characteristics are very intrinsic to the particular vehicle category plying on a roadway. Speed and acceleration data were collected on six sections of four-lane divided inter-urban highways and two sections of six-lane divided highways in India. Mean speeds of standard cars and big utility cars are compared using two tailed t-test and are found to be different on four-lane highway with earthen shoulders and paved shoulders. Average mean speeds of standard car are also compared on two classes of highway. F-test indicates that the mean speed of standard cars on six-lane divided highway is significantly higher than that on four-lane highway. Acceleration data were collected using GPS based V-Box device, and speed-acceleration profiles are established for each type of vehicle. Average acceleration of a vehicle is related with speed through an exponential relationship. Average acceleration rate of standard car on six-lane highway is found significantly different from that on four-lane divided highway. Acceleration of heavy vehicle is examined in three different loading conditions and relations are established for calculating average and maximum acceleration of a vehicle type at the given operational speed.


Pulugurtha S.S.,University of North Carolina at Charlotte | Self D.R.,Traffic Safety India
International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion | Year: 2015

This paper focuses on an analysis of pedestrian and motorists’ actions at sites with pedestrian hybrid beacons and assesses their effectiveness in improving the safety of pedestrians. Descriptive and statistical analyses (one-tail two-sample T-test and two-proportion Z-test) were conducted using field data collected during morning and evening peak hours at three study sites in the city of Charlotte, NC, before and after the installation of pedestrian hybrid beacons. Further, an analysis was conducted to assess the change in pedestrian and motorists’ actions over time (before the installation; 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after the installation). Results showed an increase in average traffic speed at one of the pedestrian hybrid beacon sites while no specific trends were observed at the other two pedestrian hybrid beacon sites. A decrease in the number of motorists not yielding to pedestrians, pedestrians trapped in the middle of the street, and pedestrian–vehicle conflicts were observed at all the three pedestrian hybrid beacon sites. The installation of pedestrian hybrid beacons did not have a negative effect on pedestrian actions at two out of the three sites. Improvements seem to be relatively more consistent 3 months after the installation of the pedestrian hybrid beacon. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.


Schueller H.,Traffic Safety India
ICTIS 2011: Multimodal Approach to Sustained Transportation System Development - Information, Technology, Implementation - Proceedings of the 1st Int. Conf. on Transportation Information and Safety | Year: 2011

This paper presents the main results from modeling relationships between road design, and speed behavior as well as the influence of speed in the occurrence of accidents. In order to describe speed choice of drivers by using parameters of the speed distribution different kinds of classification of free-flow-vehicles were analyzed as well as spatial and temporal aspects of spot speed measurements. Results of multiple regression models for mean speeds and 85-percentiles of the speed distribution are documented and discussed. Road classification, cross section characteristics, land-use and the road surface condition among others are found to be significant parameters that correlate with driving speed. Generalized Linear Models are used to describe the influence of mean speeds on the occurrence of road accidents. This is done for different accident groups under consideration of the annual daily traffic and a parameter that describes the length and type of land-use of the adjacent buildings next to the road section. The relationship between speed and accidents count is described using a power function. © 2011 ASCE.


Mehar A.,National Institute of Technology Warangal | Chandra S.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Velmurugan S.,Traffic Safety India
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering | Year: 2014

The present study demonstrates applicability of VISSIM software to determine capacity of multilane highways under mixed traffic flow conditions. Traffic flow data collected on a section of four-lane divided highway are used to develop the speed-flow curve. The same set of field data is used in VISSIM and simulated speed-flow curve is compared with field curve. It was found that VISSIM in its original form overestimates both speed and capacity of the highway. Driver behaviour parameters CC0 and CC1 are first determined for homogeneous traffic conditions having only one of the four types of vehicles in the stream and then results are aggregated to get the values of these parameters for a mixed traffic stream. Further analysis of field data with calibrated values of CC0 and CC1 indicated a good match between field and simulated capacity. The procedure is shown to work on another section of four-lane divided highway with paved shoulders, where simulated capacity was 5329 pcu/hr against the field capacity of 5277 pcu/hr. © 2014 Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


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