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Bells Corners, Canada

Williams A.F.,Allan F. Williams LLC | McCartt A.T.,Insurance Institute for Highway Safety | Mayhew D.R.,Traffic Injury Research Foundation | Watson B.,Center for Accident Research and Road Safety
Traffic Injury Prevention | Year: 2013

Objective: To highlight the issues and discuss the research evidence regarding safety, mobility, and other consequences of different licensing ages.Methods: Information included is based on presentations and discussions at a 1-day workshop on licensing age issues and a review and synthesis of the international literature.Results: The literature indicates that higher licensing ages are associated with safety benefits. There is an associated mobility loss, more likely to be an issue in rural states. Legislative attempts to raise the minimum age for independent driving in the United States-for example, from 16 to 17-have been resisted, although in some states the age has been raised indirectly through graduated driver licensing (GDL) policies.Conclusions: Jurisdictions can achieve reductions in teenage crashes by raising the licensing age. This can be done directly or indirectly by strengthening GDL systems, in particular extending the minimum length of the learner period.Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention for the following supplemental resource: List of workshop participants. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


McDonald C.,University of Pennsylvania | Tanenbaum J.,Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia | Lee Y.-C.,Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia | Fisher D.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | And 2 more authors.
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2012

Teenage drivers are at their highest crash risk in their first 6 months or first 1,000 mi of driving. Driver training, adult-supervised practice driving, and other interventions are aimed at improving driving performance in novice drivers. Previous driver training programs have enumerated thousands of scenarios, with each scenario requiring one or more skills. Although there is general agreement about the broad set of skills needed to become a competent driver, there is no consensus set of scenarios and skills to assess whether novice drivers are likely to crash or to assess the effects of novice driver training programs on the likelihood of a crash. The authors propose that a much narrower, common set of scenarios can be used to focus on the high-risk crashes of young drivers. Until recently, it was not possible to identify the detailed set of scenarios that were specific to high-risk crashes. However, an integration of police crash reports from previous research, a number of critical simulator studies, and a nationally representative database of serious teen crashes (the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey) now make identification of these scenarios possible. In this paper, the authors propose this novel approach and discuss how to create a common set of simulated scenarios and skills to assess novice driver performance and the effects of training and interventions as they relate to high-risk crashes. Source


Bonilla-Escobar F.J.,University of Valle | Herrera-Lopez M.L.,University of Valle | Ortega-Lenis D.,University of Valle | Medina-Murillo J.J.,University of Valle | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion | Year: 2016

This study's goal was to establish the prevalence of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) and alcohol consumption patterns among drivers in Cali, Colombia, in 2013. A cross-sectional study based on a roadside survey using a stratified and multi-stage sampling design was developed. Thirty-two sites were chosen randomly for the selection of drivers who were then tested for blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and asked to participate in the survey. The prevalence of DUI was 0.88% (95% confidence intervals [95% CI] 0.26%–1.49%) with a lower prevalence when BAC was increasing. In addition, a higher prevalence was found during non-typical checkpoint hours (1.28, 95% CI −0.001%–0.03%). The overall prevalence is considered high, given the low alcohol consumption and vehicles per capita. Prevention measures are needed to reduce DUI during non-typical checkpoints and ongoing studies are required to monitor the trends and enable the assessment of interventions. © 2015 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Source


Vingilis E.,University of Western Ontario | Seeley J.,University of Western Ontario | Wiesenthal D.,York University | Mann R.,Center for Addiction and Mental Health | And 3 more authors.
Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour | Year: 2013

In the Canadian context, stunt driving refers to street racing and associated risky driving activities. Although no national official statistics are available, other data have found that stunt driving is a common activity among young males. Research from Australia, New Zealand and other jurisdictions has shown that those engaged in stunt driving are at higher crash and violation risk. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates of self-reported stunt driving and the effects of thrill seeking, competitive driving and attitudes towards risky driving on self-reported stunt driving among a sample of car and racing enthusiasts through a web-based survey of car and racing clubs. The Internet questionnaire included: (1) personality variables (Driver Thrilling Seeking Scale, Competitive Attitude Toward Driving Scale); (2) beliefs about seriousness and perceived crash likelihood of various drivers and driving behaviours; (3) attitudes regarding Ontario, Canada's new stunt driving legislation and street racing/stunt driving; (4) risky driving behaviours, as measured by the Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire subscale, Self-Report Driver Aggression Questionnaire, Risk-Taking Driving Scale, collisions in past five years, traffic offences in last year and stunt driving, as defined by Ontario's Street Racers, Stunt and Aggressive Drivers Legislation. A minority of car and racing enthusiasts reported stunt driving. Clear differences emerged between the self-reported stunt drivers and non-stunt drivers. Stunt drivers were more likely to be young, less concerned about excessive speeding and street racing, to hold more negative attitudes towards Ontario's stunt driving legislation and more positive attitudes towards street racing and stunt driving, to score higher on the driver thrill seeking, competitive attitude toward driving and risky driving scales and more likely to report traffic offences in the past year. The sequential logistic regression showed that personality characteristics and attitudes provided unique contributions to the model in predicting stunt driving. Thus, although a minority of the sampled car and racing enthusiasts engage in stunt driving, further interventions need to be considered to reduce their risky driving beliefs, attitudes and behaviours. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Vanlaar W.,Traffic Injury Research Foundation | Robertson R.,Traffic Injury Research Foundation | Marcoux K.,Traffic Injury Research Foundation | Mayhew D.,Traffic Injury Research Foundation | And 2 more authors.
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2012

While a general decreasing trend in the number of persons killed in a traffic crash involving a drinking driver has occurred in Canada since the 1980s, it is evident that much of this decrease occurred in the 1990s. Since 2002, less progress has been made as the number of persons killed in crashes involving drinking drivers remains high. To better understand the current situation, this paper describes trends in drinking and driving in Canada from 1998 to 2011 using multiple indicators based on data collected for the Traffic Injury Research Foundation's (TIRF) Road Safety Monitor (RSM), the National Opinion Poll on Drinking and Driving, and trends in alcohol-related crashes based on data collected for TIRF's national Fatality Database in Canada. There has been a continued and consistent decrease in the number of fatalities involving a drinking driver in Canada. This remains true when looking at the number of fatalities involving a drinking driver per 100,000 population and per 100,000 licensed drivers. This decreasing trend is also still apparent when considering the percentage of persons killed in a traffic crash in Canada involving a drinking driver although less pronounced. Data from the RSM further show that the percentage of those who reported driving after they thought they were over the legal limit has also declined. However, regardless of the apparent decreasing trend in drinking driving fatalities and behaviour, reductions have been relatively modest, and fatalities in crashes involving drivers who have consumed alcohol remain high at unacceptable levels. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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