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Madison, WI, United States

A proposal to lower the bulk tank Somatic Cell Count (SCC) maximum for United States of America (US) Grade "A" milk producers was not adopted by the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments in 2011 or 2013. The proposal would have made the US Grade "A" limit consistent with many other international standards, including that of the European Union (EU). Some US states, however, have proactively adopted their own SCC limit to mirror the EU limit. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impacts on Wisconsin dairy producers if Wisconsin should adopt the current EU limit and compliance criterion. Analyses were done on SCC results for Wisconsin Grade "A" and Grade "B" dairy producers reported each month to the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection (WDATCP) during January 1, 2009-December 31, 2012. Results were evaluated against the current US Grade "A" and EU compliance criteria for SCC and the percentage of (producer. ×. month) combinations in compliance was determined. If the current EU SCC compliance criterion was in place, 86.7-94.3 and 64.3-77.3% of Wisconsin Grade "A" and "Grade "B" (producer. ×. month) combinations, respectively, would have been in compliance for the years 2009-2012. Compliance of Wisconsin Grade "A" and Grade "B" producers with the existing US SCC compliance criterion during the same period was 99.3-99.7% and 87.9-93.9% (producer. ×. month combinations) respectively. An analysis of a subset of Wisconsin Grade "A" producers indicated that smaller-volume producers were less likely than larger-volume producers to meet the EU criterion. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Koch P.L.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Stier J.C.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Senseman S.A.,Texas A&M University | Sobek S.,Trade and Consumer Protection | Kerns J.P.,North Carolina State University
Crop Protection | Year: 2013

Repeated fungicide applications are often required for successful management of diseases on golf course turfgrass. Modification of existing commercially-available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for analyzing fungicide concentration on turfgrass would allow for more direct research of fungicide fate under varying environmental conditions. Our objective was to modify Horiba SmartAssay® ELISA kit procedures to increase their efficiency and practicality for analyzing iprodione and chlorothalonil from large numbers of turfgrass samples. Both fungicides were applied to creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) turfgrass maintained under fairway conditions. The ELISA results were compared to fungicide concentrations obtained using gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD). Iprodione concentrations from turfgrass 1h following application using ELISA averaged 371.3μgg-1 turfgrass, whereas GC/ECD averaged 151.2μgg-1. Chlorothalonil concentrations from turfgrass 1h following application using ELISA averaged 1883.7μgg-1, compared to average concentrations of 553.1μgg-1 using GC/ECD. Despite the higher fungicide concentrations observed using the ELISA method, the modified Horiba SmartAssay® kits yielded consistent results at a fraction of the cost, time, and skill set of using gas chromatographic methods. The modified ELISA protocol could be used to gain a further understanding of fungicide fate in turfgrass systems under varying environmental conditions, potentially improving the efficiency of future fungicide applications. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Bontrager Yoder A.B.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Liebhart J.L.,Nutrition | McCarty D.J.,University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point | Meinen A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior | Year: 2014

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of Wisconsin Farm to School (F2S) programs in increasing students' fruit and vegetable (FV) intake. Design: Quasi-experimental baseline and follow-up assessments: knowledge and attitudes survey, food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and lunch tray photo observation. Setting: Wisconsin elementary schools: 1 urban and 8 rural. Participants: Children, grades 3-5 (n = 1,117; 53% male, 19% non-Caucasian). Intervention(s): Farm to School programming ranging from Harvest of the Month alone to comprehensive, including school garden, locally sourced produce in school meals, and classroom lessons. Main Outcome Measures: Knowledge, attitudes, exposure, liking, willingness; FFQ-derived (total), and photo-derived school lunch FV intake. Analysis: t tests and mixed modeling to assess baseline differences and academic-year change. Results: Higher willingness to try FV (+1%; P <.001) and knowledge of nutrition/agriculture (+1%; P <.001) (n = 888), and lunch FV availability (+6% to 17%; P ≤.001) (n = 4,451 trays), both with increasing prior F2S program exposure and across the year. There was no effect on overall dietary patterns (FFQ; n = 305) but FV consumption increased among those with the lowest intakes (FFQ, baseline very low fruit intake, +135%, P <.001; photos: percentage of trays with no FV consumption for continuing programs decreased 3% to 10%, P ≤.05). Conclusions and Implications: Farm to School programming improved mediators of FV consumption and decreased the proportion of children with unfavorable FV behaviors at school lunch. Longer-term data are needed to further assess F2S programs. © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Source


Jackson R.D.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Paine L.K.,Trade and Consumer Protection | Woodis J.E.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Restoration Ecology | Year: 2010

Disturbances such as burning or grazing maintain the herbaceous nature of eastern tallgrass prairie. These disturbances are also known to affect the relative abundance of warm-season (C4) and cool-season (C3) grasses in native prairie. Although burning is a commonly used tool, the utility of livestock grazing to manage restored prairie is less understood. We established five monocultures and one mixture of C4 grass species of the eastern tallgrass prairie in southern Wisconsin. To examine their persistence under high-intensity, short-duration summer grazing, we estimated cover of several functional groups and C4 species over a 6-year period (2000 through 2006) in a randomized complete block design. After a 2-year establishment phase (1998-1999), bison were rotated through paddocks two or three times annually during late June, July, or early August. All C4 grasses declined over time but at different rates depending on the species. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) decreased at the lowest rate, whereas Little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) cover declined faster than Big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans), and Sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula), whose rates of decline were not significantly different from each other. Succession followed a predictable trajectory with annual grasses initially colonizing interstitial space among C4 grasses, followed by legumes, which ultimately gave way to exotic C3 forage grasses. The focal C4 grasses remained the dominant functional group 8 years postseeding, but recolonization by non-native C3 grasses increased over the study period. © 2008 Society for Ecological Restoration International. Source


Vasan A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Geier R.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Ingham S.C.,Trade and Consumer Protection | Ingham B.H.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2014

The non-O157 Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups most commonly associated with illness are O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145. We compared the thermal tolerance (D55°C) of three or more strains of each of these six non-O157 STEC serogroups with five strains of O157:H7 STEC in 7% fat ground beef. D55°Cwas also determined for at least one heattolerant STEC strain per serogroup in 15 and 27% fat ground beef. D55°Cof single-pathogen cocktails of O157 and non-O157 STEC, Salmonella, and potential pathogen surrogates, Pediococcus acidilactici and Staphylococcus carnosus, was determined in 7, 15, and 27% fat ground beef and in frankfurter batter. Samples (25 g) were heated for up to 120 min at 55°C, survivors were enumerated, and log CFU per gram was plotted versus time. There were significant differences in D55°Cacross all STEC strains heated in 7% fat ground beef (P < 0.05), but no non-O157 STEC strain had D55°Cgreater than the range observed for O157 STEC. D55°Cwas significantly different for strains within serogroups O45, O145, and O157 (P < 0.05). D55°Cfor non-O157 STEC strains in 15 and 27% fat ground beef were less than or equal to the range of D55°Cfor O157. D55°Cfor pathogen cocktails was not significantly different when measured in 7, 15, and 27% fat ground beef (P ≥ 0.05). D55°Cof Salmonella in frankfurter batter was significantly less than for O157 and non-O157 STEC (P < 0.05). Thermal tolerance of pathogen cocktails in ground beef (7, 15, or 27% fat) and frankfurter batter was significantly less than for potential pathogen surrogates (P < 0.05). Results suggest that thermal processes in beef validated against E. coli O157:H7 have adequate lethality against non-O157 STEC, that thermal processes that target Salmonella destruction may not be adequate against STEC in some situations, and that the use of pathogen surrogates P. acidilactici and S. carnosus to validate thermal processing interventions in ground beef and frankfurter batter would be of limited utility to processors. © International Association for Food Protection. Source

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