Trade and Consumer Protection
Trade and Consumer Protection
Bell J.R.,Rothamsted Research |
Burkness E.C.,University of Minnesota |
Milne A.E.,Rothamsted Research |
Onstad D.W.,Urbana University |
And 2 more authors.
Ecology Letters | Year: 2012
Pest population density oscillations have a profound effect on agroecosystem functioning, particularly when pests cycle with epidemic persistence. Here, we ask whether landscape-level manipulations can be used to restrict the cycle amplitude of the European corn borer moth [Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)], an economically important maize pest. We analysed time series from Minnesota (1963-2009) and Wisconsin (1964-2009) to quantify the extent of regime change in the US Corn Belt where rates of transgenic Bt maize adoption varied. The introduction of Bt maize explained cycle damping when the adoption of the crop was high (Minnesota); oscillations were damped but continued to persist when Bt maize was used less intensely (Wisconsin). We conclude that host plant quality is key to understanding both epidemic persistence and the success of intervention strategies. In particular, the dichotomy in maize management between states is thought to limit the spatial autocorrelation of O. nubilalis. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.
Hutchison W.D.,University of Minnesota |
Burkness E.C.,University of Minnesota |
Mitchell P.D.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
Moon R.D.,University of Minnesota |
And 14 more authors.
Science | Year: 2010
Transgenic maize engineered to express insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has become widely adopted in U.S. agriculture. In 2009, Bt maize was planted on more than 22.2 million hectares, constituting 63% of the U.S. crop. Using statistical analysis of per capita growth rate estimates, we found that areawide suppression of the primary pest Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer) is associated with Bt maize use. Cumulative benefits over 14 years are an estimated $3.2 billion for maize growers in Illinois, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, with more than $2.4 billion of this total accruing to non-Bt maize growers. Comparable estimates for Iowa and Nebraska are $3.6 billion in total, with $1.9 billion for non-Bt maize growers. These results affirm theoretical predictions of pest population suppression and highlight economic incentives for growers to maintain non-Bt maize refugia for sustainable insect resistance management.
News Article | February 27, 2017
SPRING HOPE, NC--(Marketwired - Feb 26, 2017) - "With the succession of states legalizing or on track for legalizing industrial hemp, the industrial hemp industry in America is rapidly reaching a tipping point," says Bruce Perlowin, CEO of Hemp, Inc. ( : HEMP). For the past four days, Hemp, Inc. has reported on a series of states that are on track to legalizing industrial hemp -- Arizona, New Mexico, Alaska, and South Dakota. Wisconsin joins that list today with hopes of reinvigorating their state's agriculture sector. So what is making industrial hemp so important to Americans and so important to states that they are willing to simply ignore a federal ban now? As the uninformed become informed on the difference between hemp and marijuana and the fog of ignorance dissipates, a miracle crop stands in clear sight as ways to help the economy and expand sources of revenue are sought. "Industrial hemp has absolutely no recreational applications. It only has medical and industrial applications. Sorry, you can't get high on hemp. If there is any federal pushback against recreational marijuana, this would not affect industrial hemp or Hemp, Inc.," said Bruce Perlowin, CEO of Hemp, Inc. ( : HEMP). In fact, Wisconsin lawmaker, Representative Jesse Kremer recently issued the following statement from his office on February 23, 2017: "I am really excited to have had the opportunity to educate myself on this topic over the past six months. The 59th Assembly District has a rich history of agricultural hemp production in the first half of the 20th century and processed industrial hemp in Hartford for the war department. Today, the future is bright for this commodity -- new jobs, increased tax revenue, brand new tech industries and agricultural growth." Now, Rep. Kremer hopes to bring industrial hemp back as a farm commodity and has been meeting with various state agencies and farm groups to provide growers an opportunity to grow the crop for profit. According to the State of Wisconsin Legislature, this bill requires the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection to issue licenses that authorize the growing and processing of industrial hemp. Industrial hemp is an agricultural crop with a very rich history in Wisconsin. It was primarily used in the production of rope, textiles and paper during the early 20th century. With the United States manufacturers importing nearly half a billion dollars of industrial hemp annually, political figures in Wisconsin believe allowing the crop to grow in their state could create greater economic opportunities. Industrial hemp can be used for a wide range of products, including fibers, construction, food, paper, insulation materials, textiles, cosmetic products, and beverages, to name a few and is estimated to be used in more than twenty-five thousand products spanning multiple markets (agriculture, textiles, recycling, automotive, electronics, furniture, food/nutrition/beverages, paper, construction materials, personal care and others). Hemp, Inc. forecasted this tipping point years ago and started developing the solid infrastructure for what is in place today. That infrastructure includes Hemp, Inc.'s commercial multi-purchase industrial hemp processing facility in North Carolina, industrial hemp farming in North Carolina, Nevada, Arizona (and more states soon), marketing systems to market in the U.S. and globally, and an educational component ('The Hemp University' in North Carolina). This has put Hemp, Inc. at the forefront of this multibillion dollar emerging industry as a leader while it continues to collectively build a new clean green agricultural and industrial American Revolution. Under the proposed Wisconsin law, "a person may possess, transport, sell, distribute, or buy industrial hemp without a license if the industrial hemp was planted, grown, cultivated, and processed by a person licensed by Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection (DATCP) or by a person in another state or country who planted, grew, cultivated, or processed the industrial hemp in accordance with the laws of that state or country. The bill requires reporting by a person with an industrial hemp license, including reporting all sales of industrial hemp." While prospective hemp growers would still have to take federal law into consideration, by eliminating the state requirement for federal permission, the Wisconsin law would eliminate a major obstacle to widespread commercial hemp farming within the borders of the state. "It's no doubt that industrial hemp industry is here to stay and it's only going to grow. Trying to slow that evolutionary progress down is like trying to sweep back an incoming tide with a broom. State legislatures are taking action to promote industrial hemp as an agricultural commodity and now the time is approaching for Wisconsin to do the same," said Perlowin. As more states legalize industrial hemp, more opportunities become available for Hemp, Inc. to process the raw hemp. Hemp, Inc.'s commercial, large scale, 70,000 square foot industrial hemp processing facility, on 9 acres of land in Spring Hope, North Carolina is the only one of this magnitude in the entire western hemisphere. The milling portion of Hemp, Inc.'s industrial hemp processing facility has just been completed which strategically expands the company's worldwide industrial base for producing hemp-based products. Hemp, Inc.'s industrial hemp processing facility is bound to become the mecca of this new clean green agricultural and industrial American revolution. To see the most recent video of the mill being completed, click here. To see the video of America's largest hemp processing facility (70,000 square feet under roof, on 9 acres) and 60-foot silo installation, click here. Aligned with Hemp, Inc.'s Triple Bottom Line approach, Perlowin is exploring the possibilities of developing Hemp Growing Veteran Village Kins Communities in Wisconsin (similar to the 500-acre demonstration community being built in Arizona where Perlowin plans on growing 300 acres of hemp this year) that would consist of smaller lots for Kins Domains (eco-villages). "The eco-villages would also include organic gardens, natural beehives, a pond, a living fence and other elements," said Perlowin. From rehabilitation to job creation, Perlowin says this model presents a holistic solution to those individuals that all Americans owe a great debt of gratitude towards... the American veterans. Perlowin expects this model to produce very lucrative revenue for Hemp, Inc., the veterans themselves and the local communities these Kins Communities are built near. "The infrastructure for 'The Hemp Growing, CBD-Producing, Veteran-Village Kins Community,' which takes time to build, is already in place in Arizona which I've been building for the last 4 years and can be duplicated for Wisconsin," concluded Perlowin. THE HEMP UNIVERSITY The Hemp University has been established to be the blueprint for farming, navigating and thriving in the industrial hemp revolution. With the goal to educate its attendees on key topics such as transitioning from traditional farming to organic farming, different hemp cultivar strains, how and where to get certified seeds, planting and harvesting industrial hemp, an in depth history of hemp and its many uses, agronomy, permaculture, ecological advantages and many more courses with an ever expanding curriculum. Hemp, Inc. ( : HEMP) has secured an outstanding lineup of experts from at least a dozen states all over the country, including New York, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Nevada, Colorado, Oregon and Kentucky and more for the 2017 season. Classes will also cover such topics as organic certification, potential licensing fees, what's happening with industrial hemp in different states around America, high CBD strains and different CBD extraction technologies (which will also be installed and showcased at Hemp, Inc.'s processing facility) and marketability of the crop. The seminars are expected to start March 18, 2017. Hemp retail products from all around the country will be showcased at The Hemp University. Attendees will also be able to connect with potential industrial hemp distributors and product manufacturers. Our new "Hemp Hub" will be a one stop shop for every aspect of industrial hemp from seed and soil to sale. Providing as many resources as possible to our American farmers and land owners to successfully grow hemp and have sales channels for the potential 25,000 products our hemp industry can produce. For those interested in attending, teaching, touring the hemp field and hemp processing facility or showcasing your company's hemp products, at The Hemp University, visit www.thehempuniversity.com. With less than 30 days and 50 slots available for land owners and farmers, it's advisable to purchase your ticket(s) today at https://www.eventbrite.com/e/farming-hemp-for-profit-tickets-32189961040. SUBSCRIBE TO HEMP, INC.'S VIDEO UPDATES "Hemp, Inc. Presents" is capturing the historic, monumental re-creation of the hemp decorticator today as America begins to evolve into a cleaner, green, eco-friendly sustainable environment. What many see as the next American Industrial Revolution is actually the Industrial Hemp Revolution. Watch as Hemp, Inc., the #1 leader in the industrial hemp industry, engages its shareholders and the public through each step in bringing back the hemp decorticator as described in the "Freedom Leaf Magazine" article "The Return of the Hemp Decorticator" by Steve Bloom. Freedom Leaf Magazine, one of the preeminent news resources for the cannabis, medical marijuana, and industrial hemp industry in America, is published by Freedom Leaf, Inc., a fully reporting, audited, publicly traded company on OTC Markets. Stay in the loop with Freedom Leaf Magazine as it continues to deliver the good news in marijuana reform with some of the most compelling art, entertainment, and lifestyle-driven industry news in the cannabis/hemp sector. On the go? Download the Freedom Leaf mobile app to stay connected as they transform the delivery of cannabis news and information across the digital landscape. Get the mobile app on Apple iOS or Google Play. "Hemp, Inc. Presents" is accessible 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, by visiting www.hempinc.com. To subscribe to the "Hemp, Inc. Presents" YouTube channel, be sure to click the subscribe button. ABOUT INDUSTRIAL HEMP Hemp is a durable natural fiber that is grown as a renewable source for raw materials that can be incorporated into thousands of products. It's one of the oldest domesticated crops known to man. Hemp is used as a nutritional food product for humans and pets, building materials, paper, textiles, cordage, organic body care and other nutraceuticals, just to name a few. It has thousands of other known uses. A hemp crop requires half the water alfalfa uses and can be grown without the heavy use of pesticides. Farmers worldwide grow hemp commercially for fiber, seed, and oil for use in a variety of industrial and consumer products. The United States is the only developed nation that fails to cultivate industrial hemp as an economic crop on a large scale, according to the Congressional Resource Service. However, with rapidly changing laws and more states gravitating towards industrial hemp and passing an industrial hemp bill, that could change. Currently, the majority of hemp sold in the United States is imported from China and Canada, the world's largest exporters of the industrial hemp crop. To see the video showcasing the dramatic footage of our hemp and kenaf grows, click here. To see 1-minute daily video updates (from Hemp, Inc. CEO Bruce Perlowin) on the final phases of completion of Hemp, Inc.'s 70,000 square foot industrial hemp processing facility and milling operation and other developments, click here. (Remember to scroll down to see the other videos of this historical event of building an American industrial hemp processing facility and factory from the ground up.) HOW HEMP CAN CHANGE THE WORLD Industrial, medicinal and commercial properties of hemp have been known to mankind for decades. Cultivating hemp does not require any particular climate or soil, and is thus found in all parts of the world and has been found to be a better alternative than other raw materials. Hemp products can be recycled, reused and are 100% biodegradable. The growth speed of the plant is fast enough to meet the increasing industrial and commercial demand for these products. Switching to hemp products will help save the environment, leaving a cleaner and greener planet for the next generation. "The hemp crop grows dense and vigorously. Sunlight cannot penetrate the plants to reach the ground, and this means the crop is normally free of weeds. Its deep roots use ground water and reduce its salinity. Also, erosion of topsoil is limited, thereby reducing water pollution. The roots give nitrogen and other nutrients to the soil. After the harvest, this soil makes excellent compost amendments for other plants, and hemp cultivation can follow the rotation of agriculture with wheat or soybean. In fact, the same soil can be used to grow hemp for many years, without losing its high quality. The hemp plant absorbs toxic metals emitted by nuclear plants into the soil, such as copper, cadmium, lead and mercury." (Source: www.HempBenefits.org) To see 1-minute daily video updates (from Hemp, Inc. CEO Bruce Perlowin) on the final phases of completion of Hemp, Inc.'s 70,000 square foot industrial hemp processing facility and milling operation and other developments, click here. (Remember to scroll down to see the other videos of this historical event of building an American industrial hemp processing facility and factory from the ground up.) ABOUT NORTH CAROLINA INDUSTRIAL HEMP ASSOCIATION Through education we believe that the law of our state can be changed to allow the growing, processing, and sale of Hemp and Hemp products within North Carolina in a responsible manner. Through education, dedication and fundraising, North Carolina can be accelerated to the forefront of global growth in Industrial and Medicinal Hemp. North Carolina can and should lead the country in cultivation, processing and support the consumption of hemp's many beneficial products. Hemp was, for almost 200 years, a legal and fundamental crop in North Carolina and should be again. Farmers should be able to grow and consumers buy Hemp products grown and processed in our state. Visit www.ncindhemp.org for more information. To join the North Carolina Industrial Hemp Association, click here. ABOUT THE NATIONAL HEMP ASSOCIATION NHA represents hemp farmers, processors, manufacturers, start-up businesses, entrepreneurial endeavors, and retailers and strives to build a viable industrial hemp economy by providing education about the benefits of hemp and providing expert consultation to producers and processors entering the hemp industry. NHA has developed close relationships with local and state government agencies to establish regulations that benefit the hemp industry across the nation. We provide a wealth of expertise in fields ranging from mining and agriculture to hemp materials processing and the latest developments pertaining to laws and regulations. For more information on the National Hemp Association, visit www.NationalHempAssociation.org. HEMP, INC.'S TRIPLE BOTTOM LINE Hemp, Inc. ( : HEMP) seeks to benefit many constituencies from a "Cultural Creative" perspective, thereby not exploiting or endangering any group. CEO of Hemp, Inc., Bruce Perlowin, is positioning the company as a leader in the industrial hemp industry, with a social and environmental mission at its core. Thus, the publicly traded company believes in "up streaming" a portion of its profits back to its originator, in which some cases will one day be the American small farmer, American veterans and others -- cultivating natural, sustainable products as an interwoven piece of nature. By Hemp, Inc. focusing on comprehensive investment results -- that is, with respect to performance along the interrelated dimensions of people, planet, and profits -- the triple bottom line approach can be an important tool to support its sustainability goal. To see the video showcasing the dramatic footage of our hemp and Kenaf grows, click here. To see 1-minute daily video updates (from Hemp, Inc. CEO Bruce Perlowin) on the final phases of completion of Hemp, Inc.'s 70,000 square foot industrial hemp processing facility and milling operation and other developments, click here. (Remember to scroll down to see the other videos of this historical event of building an American industrial hemp processing facility and factory from the ground up.) SAFE HARBOR ACT Forward-Looking Statements are included within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. All statements regarding our expected future financial position, results of operations, cash flows, financing plans, business strategy, products and services, competitive positions, growth opportunities, plans and objectives of management for future operations, including words such as "anticipate," "if," "believe," "plan," "estimate," "expect," "intend," "may," "could," "should," "will," and other similar expressions are forward-looking statements and involve risks, uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are beyond our control, which may cause actual results, performance, or achievements to differ materially from anticipated results, performance, or achievements. We are under no obligation to (and expressly disclaim any such obligation to) update or alter our forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
Koch P.L.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
Stier J.C.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville |
Senseman S.A.,Texas A&M University |
Sobek S.,Trade and Consumer Protection |
Kerns J.P.,North Carolina State University
Crop Protection | Year: 2013
Repeated fungicide applications are often required for successful management of diseases on golf course turfgrass. Modification of existing commercially-available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for analyzing fungicide concentration on turfgrass would allow for more direct research of fungicide fate under varying environmental conditions. Our objective was to modify Horiba SmartAssay® ELISA kit procedures to increase their efficiency and practicality for analyzing iprodione and chlorothalonil from large numbers of turfgrass samples. Both fungicides were applied to creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) turfgrass maintained under fairway conditions. The ELISA results were compared to fungicide concentrations obtained using gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD). Iprodione concentrations from turfgrass 1h following application using ELISA averaged 371.3μgg-1 turfgrass, whereas GC/ECD averaged 151.2μgg-1. Chlorothalonil concentrations from turfgrass 1h following application using ELISA averaged 1883.7μgg-1, compared to average concentrations of 553.1μgg-1 using GC/ECD. Despite the higher fungicide concentrations observed using the ELISA method, the modified Horiba SmartAssay® kits yielded consistent results at a fraction of the cost, time, and skill set of using gas chromatographic methods. The modified ELISA protocol could be used to gain a further understanding of fungicide fate in turfgrass systems under varying environmental conditions, potentially improving the efficiency of future fungicide applications. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
News Article | April 11, 2016
Emerald ash borers (EAB) have wiped out millions of trees and caused great loss for wood businesses. After the attack on Midwest, the beetle is now present in Stevens Point, Wisconsin. EABs were first positively identified in Wisconsin on Aug. 1, 2008 but are currently marking their first destruction in Portage County. The bugs were found at 2900 block of Center Street by a resident who reported heavy wood-pecking activity just near a tree. The presence of EAB was confirmed by Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection (DATCP) on April 6. "We knew it was eventually going to get here, we just didn't know it was going to get here this quick," said Tom Schrader, director of Parks and Recreation in Stevens Point. DATCP added that wood products will not be allowed to be transported out of Portage and Wood County to areas that are not infested by the pest. The two counties will also be quarantined. An estimate of 700 ash trees in public land will need to be taken down, but about 500 could be saved through treatment. Residents with ash trees in their yards are also advised to treat them with insecticide. "We're not cutting down every tree that has a green ribbon on it," Schrader said. Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) or Agrilus Planipennis Fairmaire is an exotic beetle with a green metallic color that typically measure about half an inch. This tree-killing pest was first discovered in southeastern Michigan in 2002 and believed to have reached U.S. through packing material imported from Asia. EAB attacks on ash trees. Adult EAB will feed on the foliage while the larvae devour the inner barks, disrupting the flow of water and nutrients within the tree. If an ash tree is infected with EAB, it will show signs of drying and thinning of branches, heavy wood-pecking activity, D-shaped exit holes, S-shaped feeding trail in the barks, and water sprouts scattered along the main branches and tree trunk. Ash trees provide the main raw material in making baseball bats, tool handles, flooring and cabinets. If these trees are infested with the pest, it can create a domino effect on businesses mainly on wood products. EAB killed millions of trees in North America and raised quarantines in Wisconsin, Michigan, Quebec, Georgia, Connecticut, Iowa, Indiana, Illinois, Maryland, Kentucky, Kansas, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Ohio, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, New Hampshire, Ontario, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia and Tennessee. © 2016 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.
Jackson R.D.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
Paine L.K.,Trade and Consumer Protection |
Woodis J.E.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Restoration Ecology | Year: 2010
Disturbances such as burning or grazing maintain the herbaceous nature of eastern tallgrass prairie. These disturbances are also known to affect the relative abundance of warm-season (C4) and cool-season (C3) grasses in native prairie. Although burning is a commonly used tool, the utility of livestock grazing to manage restored prairie is less understood. We established five monocultures and one mixture of C4 grass species of the eastern tallgrass prairie in southern Wisconsin. To examine their persistence under high-intensity, short-duration summer grazing, we estimated cover of several functional groups and C4 species over a 6-year period (2000 through 2006) in a randomized complete block design. After a 2-year establishment phase (1998-1999), bison were rotated through paddocks two or three times annually during late June, July, or early August. All C4 grasses declined over time but at different rates depending on the species. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) decreased at the lowest rate, whereas Little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) cover declined faster than Big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans), and Sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula), whose rates of decline were not significantly different from each other. Succession followed a predictable trajectory with annual grasses initially colonizing interstitial space among C4 grasses, followed by legumes, which ultimately gave way to exotic C3 forage grasses. The focal C4 grasses remained the dominant functional group 8 years postseeding, but recolonization by non-native C3 grasses increased over the study period. © 2008 Society for Ecological Restoration International.
Vasan A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
Geier R.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
Ingham S.C.,Trade and Consumer Protection |
Ingham B.H.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2014
The non-O157 Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups most commonly associated with illness are O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145. We compared the thermal tolerance (D55°C) of three or more strains of each of these six non-O157 STEC serogroups with five strains of O157:H7 STEC in 7% fat ground beef. D55°Cwas also determined for at least one heattolerant STEC strain per serogroup in 15 and 27% fat ground beef. D55°Cof single-pathogen cocktails of O157 and non-O157 STEC, Salmonella, and potential pathogen surrogates, Pediococcus acidilactici and Staphylococcus carnosus, was determined in 7, 15, and 27% fat ground beef and in frankfurter batter. Samples (25 g) were heated for up to 120 min at 55°C, survivors were enumerated, and log CFU per gram was plotted versus time. There were significant differences in D55°Cacross all STEC strains heated in 7% fat ground beef (P < 0.05), but no non-O157 STEC strain had D55°Cgreater than the range observed for O157 STEC. D55°Cwas significantly different for strains within serogroups O45, O145, and O157 (P < 0.05). D55°Cfor non-O157 STEC strains in 15 and 27% fat ground beef were less than or equal to the range of D55°Cfor O157. D55°Cfor pathogen cocktails was not significantly different when measured in 7, 15, and 27% fat ground beef (P ≥ 0.05). D55°Cof Salmonella in frankfurter batter was significantly less than for O157 and non-O157 STEC (P < 0.05). Thermal tolerance of pathogen cocktails in ground beef (7, 15, or 27% fat) and frankfurter batter was significantly less than for potential pathogen surrogates (P < 0.05). Results suggest that thermal processes in beef validated against E. coli O157:H7 have adequate lethality against non-O157 STEC, that thermal processes that target Salmonella destruction may not be adequate against STEC in some situations, and that the use of pathogen surrogates P. acidilactici and S. carnosus to validate thermal processing interventions in ground beef and frankfurter batter would be of limited utility to processors. © International Association for Food Protection.
Wiegand K.M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
Ingham S.C.,Trade and Consumer Protection |
Ingham B.H.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2012
Added salt, seasonings, and phosphates, along with slow-and/or low-temperature cooking impart desirable characteristics to whole-muscle beef, but might enhance Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival. We investigated the effects of added salt, seasoning, and phosphates on E. coli O157:H7 thermotolerance in ground beef, compared E. coli O157:H7 thermotolerance in seasoned roasts and ground beef, and evaluated ground beef-derived D-and z-values for predicting destruction of E. coli O157:H7 in whole-muscle beef cooking. Inoculated seasoned and unseasoned ground beef was heated at constant temperatures of 54.4, 60.0, and 65.5deg;C to determine D-and z-values, and E. coli O157:H7 survival was monitored in seasoned ground beef during simulated slow cooking. Inoculated, seasoned whole-muscle beef roasts were slow cooked in a commercial smokehouse, and experimentally determined lethality was compared with predicted process lethality. Adding 5% seasoning significantly decreased E. coli O157:H7 thermotolerance in ground beef at 54.4uC, but not at 60 or 65.5deg;C. Under nonisothermal conditions, E. coli O157:H7 thermotolerance was greater in seasoned whole-muscle beef than in seasoned ground beef. Meeting U.S. Government (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service, 1999, Appendix A) whole-muscle beef cooking guidance, which targets Salmonella destruction, would not ensure ≥6.5-log CFU/g reduction of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef systems, but generally ensured ≥6.5-log CFU/g reduction of this pathogen in seasoned whole-muscle beef. Calculations based on D-and z-values obtained from isothermal ground beef studies increasingly overestimated destruction of E. coli O157:H7 in commercially cooked whole-muscle beef as process severity increased, with a regression line equation of observed reduction = 0.299 (predicted reduction) z 1.4373. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection.
Borneman D.L.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
Ingham S.,Trade and Consumer Protection
Food Policy | Year: 2014
A proposal to lower the bulk tank Somatic Cell Count (SCC) maximum for United States of America (US) Grade "A" milk producers was not adopted by the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments in 2011 or 2013. The proposal would have made the US Grade "A" limit consistent with many other international standards, including that of the European Union (EU). Some US states, however, have proactively adopted their own SCC limit to mirror the EU limit. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impacts on Wisconsin dairy producers if Wisconsin should adopt the current EU limit and compliance criterion. Analyses were done on SCC results for Wisconsin Grade "A" and Grade "B" dairy producers reported each month to the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection (WDATCP) during January 1, 2009-December 31, 2012. Results were evaluated against the current US Grade "A" and EU compliance criteria for SCC and the percentage of (producer. ×. month) combinations in compliance was determined. If the current EU SCC compliance criterion was in place, 86.7-94.3 and 64.3-77.3% of Wisconsin Grade "A" and "Grade "B" (producer. ×. month) combinations, respectively, would have been in compliance for the years 2009-2012. Compliance of Wisconsin Grade "A" and Grade "B" producers with the existing US SCC compliance criterion during the same period was 99.3-99.7% and 87.9-93.9% (producer. ×. month combinations) respectively. An analysis of a subset of Wisconsin Grade "A" producers indicated that smaller-volume producers were less likely than larger-volume producers to meet the EU criterion. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Vasan A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
Mei Leong W.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
Ingham S.C.,Trade and Consumer Protection |
Ingham B.H.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2013
The non-O157 Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups most commonly associated with illness are O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145. In the United States, these serogroups are considered adulterants in raw nonintact beef. To begin to understand the behavior of these pathogens in meat systems, we compared the thermal tolerance of acid-adapted cells of non- O157 STEC and O157:H7 STEC in a beef-derived broth. D58uC-values were determined for at least three strains per serogroup, and D54.6uC-values and D63.6uC-values were determined for one strain per serogroup. Each strain was grown to stationary phase in brain heart infusion broth (BHIB; pH 7.0) and inoculated into prewarmed BHIB in a shaking water bath for thermotolerance experiments at 54.6, 58.0, or 63.6uC (three trials per strain). Samples were heated for up to 160 min at 54.6uC, 3 min at 58.0uC, or 45 s at 63.6uC, with periodic sampling followed by rapid cooling and plating on modified Levine's eosin methylene blue agar. For each strain and temperature, the log CFU per milliliter was plotted versus time, and D-values were determined. Across all strains, the least and most heat tolerant STEC serogroups at 58uC were O145 and O157, respectively. D58uC-values in BHIB ranged from 0.44 min for an O145 strain to 1.42 min for an O157:H7 strain. D58uC-values for O157 STEC strains were significantly higher than those for at least one strain in each of the non-O157 STEC serogroups (P , 0.05) except for serogroup O103. At 54.6uC, the most heat-resistant STEC strain belonged to serogroup O103 and was significantly more heat tolerant than the O157:H7 strains (P , 0.05). Grouping the strains, there were no significant differences in heat tolerance between O157 and non-O157 STEC at 63.6uC (P $ 0.05). The z-values for non-O157 STEC strains were comparable to those for O157:H7 STEC strains (P $ 0.05), ranging from 4.10 to 5.21uC. These results suggest that thermal processing interventions that target destruction of E. coli O157:H7 may have adequate lethality against non-O157 STEC. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection.