Croud V.B.,Tracerco Ltd |
Marchant C.A.,Tracerco Ltd |
Maltas P.,Tracerco Ltd |
Hecht L.,Tracerco Ltd |
Douglas R.,Queen's University of Belfast
Fuel Processing Technology | Year: 2016
Samples of locally sourced UK Diesel fuel spiked with the two organic compounds 2-(butan-2-yl)-1-(decyloxy)-4-(triphenylmethyl)benzene (TPMB) and 1,3-dibromotetrafluorobenzene (BFB) were subjected to laboratory-scale distillations to assess the suitability of TPMB and BFB as effective markers of Diesel fuel. Industrial-scale distillations of these spiked Diesel samples were performed to establish whether TPMB and BFB could be successfully and cost-effectively separated from Diesel on a significantly larger scale. Diesel distillate does not contain any TPMB; newly formulated performance criteria of an ideal, distillation resistant fuel marker clearly reject TPMB as a marker suitable for the tagging of Diesel. In contrast, BFB is retained in all fractions of distilled Diesel and largely satisfies the performance criteria of a distillation resistant fuel marker. BFB consequently functions as a significantly better fuel marker than TPMB for the tagging of Diesel. It is demonstrated that distillation is also a highly effective means of removing current overt dye markers. Conservative estimates suggest that an appropriately equipped laundering facility for the distillative removal of fuel markers or vice versa fuel from marked Diesel offers the potential of generating a vastly lucrative, multi-million pound annual profit. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kapitan J.,University of Glasgow |
Kapitan J.,Palacky University |
Barron L.D.,University of Glasgow |
Hecht L.,Tracerco Ltd.
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy | Year: 2015
Raman optical activity (ROA) has been exclusively observed in the visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) spectral regions to date. During the last few years, we have designed, constructed and tested the first ROA instrument, operating in the deep-ultraviolet (DUV) spectral region employing 244-nm excitation. This novel DUV ROA instrument is based on a backscattering geometry and incident circular polarization modulation (ICP); it makes use of a fast DUV imaging lens-based spectrograph and specially designed DUV grade polarization optics. The performance of this instrument has been evaluated by analysing measured non-resonant DUV ROA spectra of non-absorbing enantiomeric liquid samples and by comparing these with corresponding ROA spectra recorded in the visible spectral region. © 2015 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.