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News Article | May 23, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

Schoolcraft Publishing, a leading provider of industrial and vocational course materials, launched its restructured website today. The new website simplifies matching relevant content to instructor curricula through advanced search and catalog features. The website has many new features including a new custom book builder tool and personalized resource library. The custom book builder allows instructors to virtually create an outline for a custom textbook that resembles their semester’s course syllabus. The custom book tool allows users to interact with course materials on the website like never before. As instructors browse through relevant lessons, they can add individual chapters from off the shelf textbooks to a saved profile that can be submitted to Schoolcraft for a quote. The easy to use and interactive tool guides instructors in constructing a tailored textbook from over 320 courses. “Many instructors find it challenging to find relevant course materials that cover their broad curricula all included in one text, resulting in students purchasing multiple textbooks,” said Pete Heinrich, Senior Account Manager. “However, with our new addition of the custom book builder, instructors can easily visualize the individual topics that are required in their syllabus as one affordable textbook solution.” In addition to the custom book building tool, the website now features an instructor resource center which serves as a one-stop location providing instructors access to all catalogs, interactive demos, downloads, and even a curated list of current grants! By creating an account or logging in, instructors are given unlimited access to view every resource Schoolcraft offers on its website. For additional information about Schoolcraft Publishing visit http://www.schoolcraftpublishing.com. You can also contact us at 800-837-1255. About Schoolcraft Publishing: Schoolcraft Publishing is a privately held company, with headquarters in Buffalo Grove, IL. As the educational affiliate of TPC Training Systems, Schoolcraft Publishing benefits from TPC’s extensive library of industrial skills training resources to provide training, teaching, and learning materials for industrial education and safety training programs across many industries.


The TPC-H test suite was selected to measure the performance of Memory1 for Spark SQL workloads. Benchmarks were run on the following configurations with different anticipated results: All DRAM nodes used SSD drives and all Memory1 nodes used DMX RAM Disk for Spark local storage. The results on Memory1 demonstrate that users can achieve more work per server and greatly reduce the time needed to process increasingly larger datasets than servers with DRAM alone. Customers can now improve performance, get more work done with existing resources and, in some instances, realize a lower TCO. The TPC-H test suite is comprised of 22 queries that retrieve data from various subsets of the eight source tables under varying query parameters to obtain an aggregated indication of performance. For each configuration, the full 22 query set was run seven times. The results were then reviewed and normalized across all seven sets as follows: The servers were configured as follows: In order to comparatively test a Memory1 cluster to a DRAM-only cluster, a common 1TB CSV dataset was used. The source data was then converted to Parquet format with one Parquet file generated for each of the eight source tables. This was utilized for all tests to ensure data uniformity. The tests were executed using the tpch-spark test repository as its foundation. Using Spark v2.0.1, the servers were first configured to use only the installed 256GB of DRAM per server to process the dataset. Next, the cluster was set up to run the tests on the same datasets with 2TB of Memory1 per server. 5 x Memory1 nodes with DMX RAM Disk vs. 5 x DRAM nodes with SSD Looking at the five node cluster comparisons, the Memory1 cluster completed the seven sets faster than DRAM with an average time of 48.41 minutes vs. the DRAM average of 144.41 minutes. In this configuration, Memory1 delivers a 289% work per node advantage. 2 x Memory1 Node with DMX RAM Disk vs. 7 x DRAM Node with SSD The performance results show that the Memory1 node outperformed the DRAM node, completing the TPC-H set in an average time of 90.47 minutes vs. the DRAM average of 100.09 minutes. That is 11% faster than DRAM with five fewer compute nodes. In this configuration, Memory1 delivers 389% more work per node at a 51% lower TCO than DRAM. Read the whitepaper in full here: https://goo.gl/NIIrH6 "With dataset sizes increasing daily, the need for larger memory footprints while maintaining affordability has become a business imperative," said Maher Amer, Chief Technology Officer (CTO) at Diablo Technologies. "With Memory1, customers can achieve more work per server and greatly reduce the time needed to process increasingly larger datasets than servers with DRAM-alone. Memory1 not only improves Spark SQL performance but it also significantly lowers the Total Cost of Ownership, and that is a very real and tangible business advantage." Diablo's Memory1 solution delivers high-capacity flash-as-memory DIMMs and intelligent memory management software to enable more work per server. Memory1 scales up memory resources, delivering up to 40TB of application memory in a single rack. More efficient and resource dense servers means improved real-time analytics, faster business decisions, and more transactions completed in a shorter amount of time. The net result provides users with the flexibility to address evolving business needs and technologies at a lower TCO. Memory 1 solutions are currently available from Inspur and Supermicro. Contact your authorized reseller for more information and pricing. Diablo Technologies, a pioneer and innovator of memory expansion technology, leverages the benefits of Software-Defined-Memory and NAND flash to deliver up to 10 times more work per server, at a lower cost. Diablo's Memory1™ solutions provide terabytes of system memory in a single industry-standard, two-socket x86 server – unleashing the power of Big Memory for Big Data. Memory1, through Diablo's Memory Expansion software (DMX), is the industry's first solution to enable NAND flash as standard application memory. It is uniquely designed for environments that require large memory footprints for workloads such as in-memory computing, big data analytics, caching, database, and complex web applications. DMX intelligently manages memory virtualization, tiering, and data access between DRAM and NAND Flash devices. It also includes a learning engine that dynamically profiles applications, predicting and prefetching data, achieving significantly more work per server. Memory1 interfaces seamlessly with existing x86 server architectures, and requires no changes to hardware, operating systems, or applications. Supported NAND Flash devices include 128GB JEDEC-compliant DDR4 Flash-DIMMs and industry standard PCIe-based NVMe SSDs. Diablo Technologies is headquartered in Ottawa, Canada with customer support offices in San Jose, CA and China. In August 2016, Diablo announced the close of $37M in oversubscribed Series C funding and production availability of Memory1. For more information visit diablo-technologies.com. To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/tpc-h-benchmarks-show-memory1-improves-spark-sql-performance-by-as-much-as-289-while-lowering-costs-by-up-to-51-300459084.html


SAN FRANCISCO--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Today the Transaction Processing Performance Council (TPC) announced the immediate availability of TPCx-HS Version 2, extending the original benchmark’s scope to include the Spark execution framework and cloud services. The original TPCx-HS benchmark was the industry’s first objective specification enabling measurement of both hardware and software including Hadoop Runtime™, Hadoop Filesystem API compatible systems and MapReduce layers. TPCx-HS Version 2 is designed to broaden the range of system topologies and implementation methodologies in a technically rigorous, directly comparable and vendor-neutral manner. TPCx-HS Version 2 models continuous system availability 24 hours a day, seven days a week and – as an “Express” class benchmark – is publicly available for download via the TPC’s Web site at the following URL: www.tpc.org/tpcx-hs. “Enterprise investment in Big Data analytics tools is growing exponentially, to keep pace with the rapid expansion of datasets,” said Tariq Magdon-Ismail, chairman of the TPCx-HS committee and staff engineer at VMware. “This is leading to an explosion in new hardware and software solutions for collecting and analyzing data. So there is enormous demand for robust, industry standard benchmarks to enable direct comparison of disparate Big Data systems across both hardware and software stacks, either on-premise or in the cloud. TPCx-HS Version 2 significantly enhances the original benchmark’s scope, and based on industry feedback, we expect immediate widespread interest.” TPCx-HS Version 2 was developed as researchers and industry experts identified Big Data as a priority area for further benchmark development during the 2016 TPC Technology Conference on Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking (TPCTC). This year’s TPCTC conference will be held in Munich, Germany on August 28, co-located with VLDB 2017. Individuals who wish to contribute to the benchmark development process are encouraged to submit abstracts via the following URL: http://www.tpc.org/tpctc/tpctc2017/default.asp Organizations interested in contributing to the TPC’s benchmark development process are encouraged to become members. Additional information is available via the following URL: http://www.tpc.org/information/about/join.asp. TPC benchmarks are unique in that they provide the industry with verifiable performance, price-performance and availability metrics. Considering the emergence of cloud deployments, the TPC pricing specification has been updated to accommodate executing benchmarks in cloud environments. The new specification is available via the following URL: http://www.tpc.org/tpc_documents_current_versions/current_specifications.asp. The TPC is a non-profit corporation founded to define transaction processing and database benchmarks and to disseminate objective, verifiable TPC performance data to the industry. The TPC currently has 21 full members: Actian, Cisco, Dell, DataCore Software, Fujitsu, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, Hitachi, Huawei, IBM, Inspur, Intel, Lenovo, Microsoft, Nutanix, Oracle, Pivotal, Red Hat, SAP, Teradata, TTA and VMware; and three associate members: China Academy of Information and Communications Technology (CAICT), Ideas International, and the University of Coimbra. Further information is available at http://www.tpc.org.


News Article | May 24, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

Medpricer, the only complete cost management solution for purchased services, together with TPC, a partnership of independent hospitals formed as a regional purchasing coalition across Arkansas, Missouri and Texas, have announced a complimentary webinar on “How TPC Uses Precision Benchmarking to Supercharge Negotiation Success and Savings.” The webinar will take place at 11:00 am EDT on Wednesday, May 31st. Healthcare organizations are under extreme pressure to reduce operating costs and they use benchmarks to help them determine how much cost reduction is possible. However, using the same approach for purchased services as for purchased goods and capital is ineffective. “In purchased services, many organizations rely on simple ratios comparing purchased services spend to number of beds, square footage, etc. While this may work as a rough cut to judge relative orders of magnitude, it’s not generally effective data for a successful supplier negotiation. But with Medpricer precision benchmarking you have the exact data you need,” said Medpricer CEO Chris Gormley. “Medpricer precision benchmarking leverages contract details and Medpricer’s competitive bidding results to create a detailed assessment of what price and terms you should be paying so that you can provide suppliers with data-backed expectations,” he explained. In this impactful webinar participants will learn: “TPC has proven itself as a frontrunner in purchased services contracting. Through our dedicated focus, we have demonstrated industry-leading results for our Members year after year. By partnering with Medpricer, we have had the opportunity to enhance our purchased services strategy and thus increase the value we can provide to our Members,” says TK Khen, Director of Purchased Services at TPC. “At this event, participants will gain insights into how we leveraged Medpricer’s nationwide data to confidently challenge existing suppliers on their pricing, service levels and terms resulting in increased savings and a more efficient process to advance negotiations faster,” he added. For more information and to register for the webinar, visit http://info.medpricer.com/precision-benchmarking-tpc. About the presenters: TK Khen, TPC Director of Purchased Services, collaborates with the TPC Purchased Services team and TPC Members to identify, evaluate and execute savings opportunities. TK holds an MBA in MIS and Marketing, and a BS in Business Administration from the University of Texas at Dallas and is certified as a Master Project Manager. Chris Gormley, CEO of Medpricer, sets the strategic direction for continuous innovation, improvement, and growth at Medpricer, drawing from a wealth of experience in Cloud Technology, electronic Sourcing, and Healthcare. Chris earned an MBA in Finance & Strategy from the Wharton School and a BS degree with high distinction in Chemical Engineering from Worcester Polytechnic Institute. About Medpricer Medpricer provides a complete Purchased Services cost management platform that improves operating margins through superior visibility, savings, and control over unmanaged spending. Medpricer empowers healthcare providers with technology so that they can independently find, get, and keep purchased services savings. For more information, please visit http://www.medpricer.com/. About TPC Based in Plano, Texas, TPC is a partnership of community-based hospitals that work together as a single system to aggregate business volume and leverage economies of scale without sacrificing individual independence or local ownership. By working through a committed platform, TPC drives collaboration and innovation across a range of clinical, operational and economic areas enabling providers to maximize the financial and non-financial value they receive. TPC represents 11 health systems and approximately $1 billion in purchasing volume, and has achieved $180 million in savings since 2010. TPC exists for the sole purpose of helping healthcare organizations remain strong and independent. For more information, visit http://www.tpc1.com.


News Article | May 2, 2017
Site: www.cnet.com

We can now look at how many times golfer Jordan Spieth will try landing his ball on the iconic "Island Green" in virtual reality. Fans will be able to watch The Players Championship in VR as opening play tees up on May 11 using Intel's True VR technology. Golfing's best already face pressure on the 17th hole during the TPC at the Sawgrass golf course, and now three VR cameras are being added to one of the most famous (and challenging) holes in golf. The 17th hole is on a small isle and, well, balls have a tendency of landing and occasionally bouncing in the water. "This is going to give fans a totally new experience," Intel Sports Group managing director David Aufhauser told me during a brief call Monday. You can watch the action on Samsung Gear VR headsets through the PGA TOUR VR Live app. For those without a VR headset, there will be a 360-degree video stream on Twitter and Periscope as part of the social network's ongoing PGA Tour coverage. It will be the first time Twitter, which announced a slew of new livestreaming deals on Monday, is showing live 360 video during a major sporting event. Maybe fans will get to see a (rare) hole-in-one on the 17th, similar to what Will Wilcox did last year.


News Article | April 20, 2017
Site: news.europawire.eu

ABERDEEN, Scotland, 20-Apr-2017 — /EuropaWire/ — Wood Group has been awarded a new three year contract valued at $8 million to deliver process automation engineering services to TPC Group, a leading producer of value-added products derived from C4 hydrocarbons. Effective immediately, Wood Group will serve as TPC’s main automation contractor providing automation, technical, systems, process, software, fabrication and construction support to the company’s manufacturing facilities in Houston and Port Neches in Texas and a terminal in Lake Charles, Louisiana. Bob MacDonald, Wood Group’s Specialist Technical Solutions CEO, said: “This new contract with TPC to act as their main automation contractor reflects this client’s confidence in our ability to provide innovative technical solutions that will increase the productivity and efficiency of their operations. “Our commitment is to work in close collaboration with our client, leveraging our 20 years’ expertise and capabilities in automation engineering to proactively add value to the performance of their assets.” For media and press enquiries please contact press.office@woodgroup.com


Funds raised at the AT&T Byron Nelson, including the Supreme Lending Celebrity-Am, benefit Momentous Institute and its education and mental health programs designed to build and repair kids' social and emotional health. Since 1968, the tournament has raised more than $150 million for Momentous Institute, powered by the Salesmanship Club of Dallas, and transformed over 100,000 lives. "We are incredibly proud to partner with the AT&T Byron Nelson, and further its positive impact on the children of this area," said Scott Everett, president and founder of Supreme Lending, a Dallas-based nationwide mortgage lender. "The Salesmanship Club of Dallas and the great Byron Nelson had a vision of impacting the youth of our city via the Momentous Institute and its incredible programs. Supreme Lending is proud to call Dallas/Fort Worth home and to play a role in this incredible legacy started by our friends with the Red Pants and Mr. Nelson. Providing a brighter future for Dallas and its citizens, and for all of the communities we serve nationwide, is at the heart of everything we do." Rodriguez, who will be inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame on July 30, will play in the Celebrity-Am and will serve as Supreme Lending's ambassador for both the event.  As a kick off to AT&T Bryon Nelson week on Monday, May 15, Everett and Rodriguez will tour the Momentous Institute. "Pudge is one of the most popular athletes in our area's history and this will be a huge summer for him," said Everett. "He's a great role model for the kids at the Momentous Institute, and we are proud to have him hitting cleanup for us on this one, as we work to support young people in our community." "We are excited to partner with Supreme Lending and Pudge Rodriguez to promote the tournament and the lasting impact it has on children right here in North Texas," said Michelle Kinder, executive director of Momentous Institute. "Thanks to the community's generosity we can focus on changing the odds for kids by prioritizing social emotional health through our education, therapy, research and training." Celebrities expected to play in the Supreme Lending Celebrity-Am include current Dallas Cowboys offensive lineman Zack Martin and former Cowboys greats Miles Austin, Thomas "Hollywood" Henderson, Daryl "Moose" Johnston and Ed "Too Tall" Jones; former Dallas Maverick Michael Finley; former Dallas Stars Brenden Morrow and Marty Turco; Texas A&M head football coach Kevin Sumlin and Aggie coaching legend R.C. Slocum; along with several country music stars, including Wade Bowen and Jack Ingram. The 2017 AT&T Byron Nelson is May 15-21 at the TPC Four Seasons Resort and Club Dallas in Las Colinas. About Supreme Lending Established by founder Scott Everett in 1999, Supreme Lending is a full-service mortgage lender licensed in 50 states with branches throughout the U.S, adding more branches each month.  The growing company employs hundreds of employees and has been ranked among the "Best Places to Work" by multiple American City Business Journals for the past five years.  Supreme Lending has established relationships with all major investors, is a Fannie Mae seller/servicer, and offers a full range of mortgage programs, including conforming and non-conforming loans and FHA/VA loans. The corporate culture is based on a customer-comes-first approach, which helps homebuyers realize their dreams of homeownership. Supreme Lending has been recognized for five consecutive years as an Inc. 500/5000 company and in was named one of the Top 100 Mortgage Companies in America by Mortgage Executive Magazine for the past 4 years as well as a Top Mortgage Employer by National Mortgage Professional and a Top Retail and Overall Originator by Scotsman Guide. For further information, please visit www.SupremeLending.com, or call (888) 392-0250. EVERETT FINANCIAL, INC. D/B/A SUPREME LENDING NMLS ID #2129 (www.nmlsconsumeracces.org). About the AT&T Byron Nelson The AT&T Byron Nelson is hosted by the Salesmanship Club of Dallas and has been a premier PGA TOUR event for 49 years. The tournament has raised more than $150 million since its inception in 1968, making it the most financially successful charity event on the PGA TOUR. All proceeds benefit Momentous Institute, the nonprofit operated by the Salesmanship Club for over 95 years. The organization serves 6,000 kids and family members directly each year through mental health and education programs. The AT&T Byron Nelson is one of North Texas' biggest sports attractions and most anticipated social events of the spring. To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/supreme-lending-inks-three-year-partnership-with-att-byron-nelson-teams-up-with-texas-rangers-legend-to-support-kids-in-north-texas-300452339.html


News Article | May 8, 2017
Site: www.businesswire.com

NEW YORK--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Morgan Stanley (NYSE: MS) today announced the launch of The Eagles for Impact Challenge, a new program where for each eagle made throughout THE PLAYERS Championship, Morgan Stanley will donate to the Ronald McDonald Family Room at Wolfson Children’s Hospital in Jacksonville, Florida. For more than 40 years, Morgan Stanley has been committed to helping children get a healthy start to life and will be tracking eagles made this week at THE PLAYERS Stadium Course at TPC Sawgrass in Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida, to give back to the local community. Morgan Stanley will donate $5,000 for every eagle made, up to $250,000, as part of a grant to renovate, maintain and operate the Ronald McDonald Family Room, including a new garden. Opened in 1993, the Ronald McDonald Family Room offers a respite for families while their children receive care. Local Morgan Stanley employees will also volunteer to help support the families that use the room and provide maintenance as needed for the room and garden. “We’re proud to be back at THE PLAYERS celebrating great performances by giving back,” said Mandell Crawley, Chief Marketing Officer, Morgan Stanley. “Together with the PGA TOUR, we share a commitment to excellence, performance and giving back and are thrilled to support the Ronald McDonald Family Room this week. We believe capital creates change, and as we deliver on this mission for our clients, our employees are creating change in our communities.” As a Proud Partner of THE PLAYERS, Morgan Stanley will provide multiple opportunities to follow along as eagles are made, including: “THE PLAYERS Championship is committed to giving back to the Northeast Florida community, and we’re thrilled that Morgan Stanley has created and committed an additional avenue to generate funds for such a worthwhile and much-needed cause like the Ronald McDonald Family Room at Wolfson Children’s Hospital,” said Jared Rice, executive director of THE PLAYERS. “Our 2,000-plus volunteers, tournament staff and fans are proud to be associated with Eagles for Impact, knowing that thanks to their support of the tournament – and Morgan Stanley’s generosity – children and families in need are being helped in countless ways.” PGA TOUR superstar and Olympic gold-medalist Justin Rose is an enthusiastic supporter of the program. “My wife Kate and I have a real passion for children’s health, so I’m thrilled to partner with Morgan Stanley in support of this new and exciting Eagles for Impact Challenge. THE PLAYERS is one of the most prestigious championships we play, and the course rewards bold and aggressive shot-making. Making an eagle always feels good, but thanks to Morgan Stanley, this week it will feel even better.” THE PLAYERS will air May 11-14 on Golf Channel and NBC. Visit www.MorganStanley.com/EagleUp to learn more and follow along on social media using #EagleUp. Morgan Stanley (NYSE: MS) is a leading global financial services firm providing investment banking, securities, wealth management and investment management services. With offices in more than 42 countries, the Firm's employees serve clients worldwide including corporations, governments, institutions and individuals. For more information about Morgan Stanley, please visit www.morganstanley.com. THE PLAYERS Championship annually combines the best field in golf with the world-class venue that is THE PLAYERS Stadium Course at TPC Sawgrass. Morgan Stanley, PwC and Optum are the exclusive Proud Partners of THE PLAYERS. Proceeds from THE PLAYERS benefit Northeast Florida charities and have totaled more than $84 million since the event moved to Ponte Vedra Beach in 1977, including a record $8.5 million generated in 2016. In April 2011, THE PLAYERS announced a new charitable focus, committing to generate $50 million for youth-related charities over 10 years. For more on THE PLAYERS and the surrounding area, visit THEPLAYERSChampionship.com or floridashistoriccoast.com.


News Article | February 16, 2017
Site: globenewswire.com

HOUSTON, Feb. 16, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- TPC Group today announced the appointment of Bart de Jong as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (CFO) of the Company. In this role, Mr. de Jong will oversee the finance, accounting and investor relations functions, in addition to a renewed corporate development function. A photo accompanying this announcement is available at http://www.globenewswire.com/NewsRoom/AttachmentNg/fb6c1743-3e76-42b4-9c8a-520984f6be5b Mr. de Jong has been working with the Company for the past 10 months on a consulting basis, leading corporate development efforts, including the recent divestiture of our Baytown, Texas nonene and tetramer facility and manufacturing site along with the development of the Company’s current long range plan. Mr. de Jong began his career in auditing with KPMG, then held various accounting and internal audit positions at ExxonMobil. He spent the majority of his career with LyondellBasell and predecessor companies, with a wide range of experiences and responsibilities in strategic planning, finance, corporate development and human resources. During his time at LyondellBasell, Mr. de Jong served as President of a number of divisions, including inorganic chemicals and fuels, as well as leading LyondellBasell’s Americas businesses and operations. Early in his career, he also served as CFO of a startup technology company. “We are very pleased to have someone with the breadth and depth of experience Bart brings to TPC,” said Chairman and CEO, Ed Dineen. “In this broader function of CFO, Bart and his team will play a key role in delivering and accelerating the value creation and debt reduction identified in our long range plan. We are happy we have been able to make this and a series of other organizational moves to enhance value and alignment, while providing new employee development opportunities and lowering our SG&A costs.” “This is an exciting time to join TPC Group, and I’m proud to have the opportunity to help the organization with the execution of a sound long range plan,” said Mr. de Jong. Mr. de Jong has a master of science degree in economics from Erasmus University and is a Certified Public Accountant in The Netherlands. About TPC Group TPC Group is a leading producer of value-added products derived from petrochemical raw materials such as C4 hydrocarbons, and provider of critical infrastructure and logistics services along the Gulf Coast region. The Company sells its products into a wide range of performance, specialty and intermediate segments, including synthetic rubber, fuels, lubricant additives, plastics and surfactants. Headquartered in Houston, Texas, with an operating history of over 70 years, TPC Group has manufacturing facilities in the industrial corridor adjacent to the Houston Ship Channel and Port Neches, Texas, and operates a product terminal in Lake Charles, Louisiana.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: cerncourier.com

The DARWIN observatory proposed to be built at Gran Sasso in the mid-2020s promises to be the ultimate dark-matter detector, probing the WIMP paradigm to its limit. L’observatoire DARWIN, dont l’activité doit commencer dans les années 2020 au laboratoire de Gran Sasso, promet d’être idéalement placé pour se pencher sur la nature de la matière noire. Il utilisera un élément noble, le xénon, sous sa forme liquide, pour détecter des WIMP (soit des particules massives interagissant faiblement), et aura une sensibilité sans précédent de 2,5 × 10–49 cm2 pour une masse des WIMP de 40 GeV/c2. Cela permettra de tester le paradigme des WIMP jusque dans ses limites, ainsi que d’étudier d’autres questions fondamentales à propos des neutrinos et d’autres particules. Il est prévu que DARWIN, actuellement dans sa phase de conception et de R&D, réalise ses premières campagnes pour la physique à partir de 2024. Le groupement DARWIN s’agrandit, et comprend actuellement environ 150 scientifiques de 26 instituts, situés dans 11 pays. Dark matter is one of the greatest mysteries of our cosmos. More than 80 years after its postulation in modern form by the Swiss–American astronomer Fritz Zwicky, the existence of a new unseen form of matter in our universe is established beyond doubt. Dark matter is not just the gravitational glue that holds together galaxies, galaxy clusters and structures on the largest cosmological scales. Over the past few decades it has become clear that dark matter is also vital to explain the observed fluctuations in cosmic-microwave-background radiation and the growth of structures that began from these primordial density fluctuations in the early universe. Yet despite overwhelming evidence, its existence is inferred only indirectly via its gravitational pull on luminous matter. As of today, we lack the answer to the most fundamental questions: what is dark matter made of and what is its true nature? DARWIN, the ultimate dark-matter detector using the noble element xenon in liquid form, will be in a unique position to address these fundamental questions. Currently in the design and R&D phase, DARWIN will be constructed at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) in Italy and is scheduled to carry out its first physics runs from 2024. The DARWIN consortium is growing, and currently consists of about 150 scientists from 26 institutions in 11 countries. The particles described by the Standard Model of particle physics are unable to account for dark matter. Although neutrinos, the only elementary particles that do not interact with photons, would be ideal candidates, they are much too light and do not form the observed large-scale structures. Dark matter could, however, be made of new elementary particles that were born in the young and energetic universe. Such particles would carry no electric or colour charge, would be either stable or very long-lived and, similar to neutrinos, would interact only feebly (if at all) with known matter via new fundamental forces. Theories beyond the Standard Model predict a wealth of viable dark-matter candidates. The most popular class has the generic name of weakly interactive massive particles (WIMPs), while a different class is axions, or more generally axion-like particles (ALPs). Worldwide, more than a dozen experiments are preparing to observe low-energy nuclear recoils induced by galactic WIMPs in ultra-sensitive, low-background detectors. Since the predicted WIMP masses and scattering cross-sections are model-dependent and essentially unknown, searches must cover a vast parameter space. Among the most promising detectors are those based on liquefied noble-gas targets such as liquid xenon (LXe) or liquid argon (LAr) – a well-established technology that can be scaled up to tonne-scale target masses and take data over periods lasting several years. DARWIN, which will operate a multi-tonne liquid-xenon time projection chamber (TPC), follows in the footsteps of its predecessors XENON, ZEPLIN, LUX and PandaX. The technology employed by these experiments is very similar and, in addition, the entire XENON collaboration is now a part of the DARWIN collaboration. Since December 2016, an upgraded detector called XENON1T has been recording its first dark-matter data at LNGS using two tonnes of liquid xenon as the WIMP target (the total mass of xenon in the detector is 3.3 tonnes). It will probe WIMP–nucleon cross-sections down to as little as 1.6 × 10–47 cm2 at a mass of 50 GeV/c2 (for comparison, the scattering cross-section of low-energy 7Be solar neutrinos on electrons is about 6 × 10–45 cm2). A further planned upgrade called XENONnT with seven tonnes of LXe will increase the WIMP sensitivity by one order of magnitude. The goals of DARWIN are even more ambitious, promising an unprecedented sensitivity of 2.5 × 10–49 cm2 at a WIMP mass of 40 GeV/c2. Such a reach would allow us to explore the entire experimentally accessible parameter space for WIMPs, to the point where the WIMP signal becomes indistinguishable from background processes from coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering events. DARWIN will not only search for WIMP dark matter. Because of its ultra-low background level, it will be sensitive to additional, hypothetical particles that are expected to have non-vanishing couplings to electrons. These include solar axions, galactic ALPs and bosonic super-weakly interacting massive particles called superWIMPs, which have masses at the keV scale and are candidates for warm dark matter. It will also detect low-energy solar neutrinos produced by proton–proton fusion reactions in the Sun (so-called pp neutrinos) with high statistics, and therefore address one of the remaining observational challenges in the field of solar neutrinos: a precise comparison of the Sun’s neutrino and photon luminosities. Capable of providing a statistical precision of less than one per cent on this comparison with just five years of data, the high-statistics measurement of the pp-neutrino flux would provide a stringent test of the solar model, as well as neutrino properties, because non-standard neutrino interactions could modify the survival probability of electron neutrinos at these low energies. The DARWIN observatory will also observe coherent neutrino-nucleus interactions from 8B solar neutrinos and be sensitive to neutrinos of all flavours from core-collapse supernovae: it would see about 800 events, or 20 events/tonne, from a supernova with 27 solar masses at a distance of 10 kpc, for example. By looking at the time evolution of the event rate from a nearby supernova, DARWIN could possibly even distinguish between different supernova models. Finally, DARWIN would search for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 136Xe, which has a natural abundance of 8.9 per cent in xenon. The observation of this ultra-rare nuclear decay would directly prove that neutrinos are Majorana particles, and that lepton number is violated in nature (CERN Courier July/August 2016 p34). One common feature of these exciting questions in contemporary particle and astroparticle physics is the exceedingly low expected interaction rates in the detector, corresponding to less than one event per tonne of target material and year. In addition, these searches – with the exception of the 0νββ decay – require an energy threshold that is as low as possible (a few keV), while the 0νββ decay, superWIMP and axion searches will profit from the very good energy resolution of the detector. A multi-tonne liquid-xenon observatory such as DARWIN can address the combination of an ultra-low background level, a low-energy threshold and a good energy resolution within a single, large, monolithic detector. The current best sensitivity to WIMP searches for masses above 6 GeV/c2 is provided by detectors using LXe as a target, and the majority of existing (XENON1T, LUX, PandaX) and planned (LZ, XENONnT) LXe dark-matter detectors employ dual-phase TPCs (figure 1). These detectors maintain xenon at a constant temperature of about –100 °C and detect two distinct signals (the prompt scintillation light and the ionisation electrons) via arrays of photosensors operated in the liquid and vapour phase. The observation of both signals delivers information about the type of interaction and its energy, as well as the 3D position and timing of an event. WIMP collisions and coherent neutrino scatters will produce nuclear recoils, while pp neutrinos, axions, superWIMPs and double beta decays, along with the majority of background events, will cause electronic recoils. Fast neutrons from materials or induced through cosmic-ray muons will also give rise to nuclear recoils, but WIMPs and neutrinos will scatter only once in a given detector, while neutrons can scatter multiple times in large detectors such as DARWIN. Since the primary intent of DARWIN is to investigate dark-matter interactions, it is vital that background processes are understood. The observatory can exploit the full discovery potential of the liquefied xenon technique with a 40 tonne LXe TPC that allows all known sources of background to be considered. These stem from several sources: the residual radioactivity of detector-construction materials (γ radiation, neutrons); β decays of the anthropogenic 85Kr present in the atmosphere due to nuclear fuel reprocessing, weapons tests and accidents such as that at Fukushima nuclear plant in Japan; and the progenies of 222Rn in the LXe target. Two-neutrino double beta decays (2νββ) of 136Xe and interactions of low-energy solar neutrinos (pp, 7Be) are another source of background, as are higher-energy neutrino interactions with xenon nuclei in coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering. In the standard WIMP-scattering scenario, the leading interactions between a dark-matter particle and a nucleon are due to two subtly different processes: spin-dependent couplings and isospin-conserving, spin-independent couplings. Since LXe contains nuclei with and without spin, DARWIN can probe both types of interactions. Assuming an exposure of 200 tonnes × years (500 tonnes × years), a spin-independent WIMP sensitivity of 2.5 × 10–49 cm2 (1.5 × 10–49 cm2) can be reached at a WIMP mass of 40 GeV/c2. For spin-dependent WIMP–neutron couplings and WIMP masses up to about 1 TeV, the searches conducted by DARWIN will be complementary to those of the LHC and High-Luminosity LHC at a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. Natural xenon includes two isotopes with nonzero total nuclear angular momentum, 129Xe and 131Xe, at a combined abundance of about 50%. If the WIMP–nucleus interaction is indeed spin-dependent, DARWIN will also probe inelastic WIMP–nucleus scattering, where these two nuclei are excited into low-lying states at 40 keV and 80 keV, respectively, with subsequent prompt de-excitation. The discovery of such a signature would be a clear indication for an axial-vector coupling of WIMPs to nuclei. Should dark-matter particles be discovered by one of the running (XENON1T, DEAP-3600) or near-future (LZ, XENONnT) detectors, DARWIN would be able to reconstruct the mass and scattering cross-section from the measured nuclear recoil spectra. With an exposure of 200 tonnes × years, 152, 224 and 60 events would be observed for the three WIMP masses, respectively (figure 2). DARWIN may therefore be the ultimate liquid-xenon dark-matter detector, capable of probing the WIMP paradigm and thus detect or exclude WIMPs with masses above 6 GeV/c2, down to the extremely low cross-sections of 1.5 × 10–49 cm2. Should WIMPs not be observed in the DARWIN detector, the WIMP paradigm would be under very strong pressure. With its large, uniform target mass, low-energy threshold, and ultra-low background level, the observatory will also open up a unique opportunity for other rare event searches such as axions and other weakly interacting light particles. It will address open questions in neutrino physics, which is one of the most promising areas in which to search for physics beyond the Standard Model. At its lowest energies, the DARWIN detector will observe coherent neutrino-nucleus interactions from solar 8B neutrinos, thus precisely testing the standard-solar-model flux prediction, and may detect neutrinos from galactic supernovae. The DARWIN observatory was approved for an initial funding period, via ASPERA, in 2010. It is included in the European Roadmap for Astroparticle Physics and in various other programs, for example by the Swiss State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation and the Strategic Plan for Astroparticle Physics in the Netherlands. The current phase will culminate with a technical design report in 2019, followed by engineering studies in 2020 and 2021, with the construction at LNGS and first physics runs scheduled to start in 2022 and 2024, respectively. The experiment will operate for at least 10 years and may write a new chapter in the exciting story of dark matter.

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