Tozzi Renewable Energy SpA

Mezzano, Italy

Tozzi Renewable Energy SpA

Mezzano, Italy
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Ledesma-Garcia J.,CIDETEQ | Escalante-Garcia I.L.,CIDETEQ | Chapman T.W.,CIDETEQ | Arriaga L.G.,CIDETEQ | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry | Year: 2010

Dendrimer-encapsulated Pt nanoparticles (G4OHPt) were prepared by chemical reduction at room temperature. The G4OHPt, with average diameters of ca. 2.7 nm, were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Electrocatalytic behavior for oxygen reduction reaction was investigated using a rotating disk electrode configuration in an acidic medium, with and without the presence of methanol (0.01, 0.1, and 1 M). Kinetic studies showed that electrodes based on Pt nanoparticles encapsulated inside the dendrimer display a higher selectivity for ORR in the presence of methanol than electrodes based on commercial Pt black catalysts. Also, the dendritic polymer confers a protective effect on the Pt in the presence of methanol, which allows its use as a cathode in a direct methanol fuel cell operating at different temperatures. Good performance was obtained at 90 °C and 2 bar of pressure with a low platinum loading on the electrode surface. © Springer-Verlag 2009.


Siracusano S.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Di Blasi A.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Baglio V.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Brunaccini G.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2011

An optimization study of components and assembling characteristics for a proton exchange membrane (PEM) short stack electrolyzer (3 cells of 100 cm 2 geometrical area) was carried out. The electrochemical properties were investigated by polarization, impedance spectroscopy and chrono-potentiometric measurements. A decrease of the ohmic contact resistance between the bipolar plates and the electrode backing layer was obtained by using an appropriate thickness for the gas diffusion layers/current collectors as well as by an optimization of stack compression. The amount of H2 produced was ∼90 l h-1 at 60 A (600 mA cm-2) and 75 °C under 300 W of applied electrical power. No significant leakage or gas recombination was observed. The stack electrical efficiency was 75% and 88%, at 60 A and 75 °C, with respect to the low and high heating value of hydrogen, respectively. © 2010, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Siracusano S.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Baglio V.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Stassi A.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Ornelas R.,Tozzi Renewable Energy SpA | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2011

IrO2 electrocatalysts were prepared and electrochemically characterized for the oxygen evolution reaction in a Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) electrolyzer. By using a sulfite complex-based preparation procedure, an amorphous iridium oxide precursor was obtained at 80 °C, which was, successively, calcined at different temperatures: 350 °C, 400 °C and 450 °C. A physico-chemical characterization was carried out by X Ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and X-ray-photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The various IrO2 catalysts were sprayed onto a Nafion 115 membrane with a loading of 2.5 mg cm-2 to form the anode. A Pt/C catalyst (Pt loading 0.5 mg cm-2) was used as cathode. The best electrochemical performance was obtained for the cell based on the IrO2 calcined at 350 °C. The maximum current density at high potentials (1.8 V) was about 1.75 A cm-2. Accelerated time-tests at 2 A cm-2 demonstrated a suitable stability of the IrO2 calcined at 350 °C; however, the intrinsic stability appeared to increase with the calcination temperature. The sample calcined at 400 °C could represent a good compromise between performance and intrinsic stability. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights.


Siracusano S.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Baglio V.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Di Blasi A.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Briguglio N.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2010

A nanosized IrO2 anode electrocatalyst was prepared by a sulfite-complex route for application in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolyzer. The physico-chemical properties of the IrO2 catalyst were studied by termogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical activity of this catalyst for oxygen evolution was investigated in a single cell PEM electrolyzer consisting of a Pt/C cathode and a Nafion® membrane. A current density of 1.26 A cm-2 was obtained at 1.8 V and a stable behavior during steady-state operation at 80 °C was recorded. The Tafel plots for the overall electrochemical process indicated a slope of about 80 mV dec -1 in a temperature range from 25 °C to 80 °C. The kinetic and ohmic activation energies for the electrochemical process were 70.46 kJ mol-1 and 13.45 kJ mol-1, respectively. A short stack (3 cells of 100 cm2 geometrical area) PEM electrolyzer was investigated by linear voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy and chrono-amperometric measurements. The amount of H2 produced was 80 l h-1 at 60 A under 330 W of applied electrical power. The stack electrical efficiency at 60 A and 75 °C was 70% and 81% with respect to the low and high heating value of hydrogen, respectively. © 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Cruz J.C.,CIDETEQ | Baglio V.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Siracusano S.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Antonucci V.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Electrochemical Science | Year: 2011

RuO 2 electrocatalysts were synthesized and characterized for the oxygen evolution reaction in a Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) electrolyzer. The catalysts were prepared by a colloidal preparation procedure and thermal treatment at different temperatures from 200 to 350 °C. The material characterization was carried out by XRD, TG-DSC and TEM analyses. The RuO 2 catalysts were sprayed onto a Nafion 115 membrane with a loading of 3 mg cm -2. A Pt catalyst was used at the cathode compartment with a loading of 0.6 mg cm -2. The electrochemical activity of MEAs was investigated in a single SPE cell and in a conventional three-electrode half-cell by using linear voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry. The maximum current density at high potential (1.8 V) was obtained for RuO 2 calcined at 300°C for 1 h. The chronoamperometric measurements shown that the most stable catalyst was the RuO 2 calcined at 300°C for 3 h. © 2011 by ESG.


Cruz J.C.,CIDETEQ | Baglio V.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Siracusano S.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Ornelas R.,Tozzi Renewable Energy SpA | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2012

A new generation of highly efficient and non-polluting energy conversion and storage systems is vital to meeting the challenges of global warming and the finite reality of fossil fuels. In this work, nanosized Pt/IrO2 electrocatalysts are synthesized and investigated for the oxygen evolution and reduction reactions in unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). The catalysts are prepared by decorating Pt nanoparticles (2-10 nm) onto the surface of a nanophase IrO2 (7 nm) support using an ultrasonic polyol method. The synthesis procedure allows deposition of metallic Pt nanoparticles on Ir-oxide without causing any occurrence of metallic Ir. The latter is significantly less active for oxygen evolution than the corresponding oxide. This process represents an important progress with respect to the state of the art in this field being the oxygen electrocatalyst generally obtained by mechanical mixing of Pt and IrO2. The nanosized Pt/IrO2 (50:50 wt.%) is sprayed onto a Nafion 115 membrane and used as dual function oxygen electrode, whereas 30 wt.% Pt/C is used as dual function hydrogen electrode in the URFC. Electrochemical activity of the membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) is investigated in a single cell at room temperature and atmospheric pressure both under electrolysis and fuel cell mode to assess the perspectives of the URFC to operate as energy storage device in conjunction with renewable power sources. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights.


Siracusano S.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Baglio V.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Briguglio N.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Brunaccini G.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2012

The electrochemical properties of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) stack electrolyzer (9 cells of 100 cm 2 geometrical area) were investigated at different temperatures. An amount of H 2 of ∼270 l h -1 was produced at 60 A (600 mA cm -2) and 70 °C under 876 W of applied electrical power. The corresponding specific energy consumed in the process was 3.24 Wh·l -1H 2. The Faradic and electrical efficiencies were determined. Overall stack efficiencies of 73% and 85%, at 60 A and 70 °C, with respect to the low and high heating value of hydrogen, respectively, were obtained. These results confirmed the successful scale-up of a previous lab-scale device. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Cruz J.C.,CIDETEQ | Baglio V.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Siracusano S.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Ornelas R.,Tozzi Renewable Energy SpA | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Nanoparticle Research | Year: 2011

Nanosized IrO2 electrocatalysts (d ∼ 7-9 nm) with specific surface area up to 100 m2 g-1 were synthesized and characterized for the oxygen evolution reaction in a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) electrolyzer. The catalysts were prepared by a colloidal method in aqueous solution and a subsequent thermal treatment. An iridium hydroxide hydrate precursor was obtained at ∼100°C, which was, successively, calcined at different temperatures from 200 to 500°C. The physico-chemical characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). IrO2 catalysts were sprayed onto a Nafion 115 membrane up to a loading of 3 mg cm-2. A Pt catalyst was used at the cathode compartment with a loading of 0.6 mg cm-2. The electrochemical activity for water electrolysis of the membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) was investigated in a single cell SPE electrolyzer by steady-state polarization curves, impedance spectroscopy and chrono-amperometric measurements. A maximum current density of 1.3 A cm-2 was obtained at 1.8 V and 80°C for the IrO2 catalyst calcined at 400°C for 1 h. A stable performance was recorded in single cell for this anode catalyst at 80°C. The suitable catalytic activity and stability of the most performing catalyst were interpreted in terms of proper combination between nanostructure and suitable morphology. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Chavez-Ramirez A.U.,CIDETEQ | Vallejo-Becerra V.,Centro Universitario Cerro Of Las Campanas | Cruz J.C.,Technological Institute of Chetumal | Ornelas R.,Tozzi Renewable Energy SpA | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2013

World fossil fuel reserve is expected to be exhausted in coming few decades. Therefore, the decentralization of energy production requires the design and integration of different energy sources and conversion technologies to meet the power demand for single remote housing applications in a sustainable way under various weather conditions. This work focuses on the integration of photovoltaic (PV) system, micro-wind turbine (WT), Polymeric Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEM-FC) stack and PEM water electrolyzer (PEM-WE), for a sustained power generation system (2.5 kW). The main contribution of this work is the hybridization of alternate energy sources with the hydrogen conversion systems using mid-term and short-term storage models based in artificial intelligence techniques built from experimental data (measurements obtained from the site of interest), this models allow to obtain better accuracy in performance prediction (PVMSE = 8.4%, PEM-FCMSE = 2.4%, PEM-WEMSE = 1.96%, GSRMSE = 7.9%, WTMSE = 14%) with a practical design and dynamic under intelligent control strategies to build an autonomous system. Copyright © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Cruz J.C.,CIDETEQ | Rivas S.,Research Center en Energia | Beltran D.,CIDETEQ | Meas Y.,CIDETEQ | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2012

An IrO2 catalyst was prepared using a colloidal method followed by a thermal treatment. The catalyst was later mixed with Pt-Black and supported on the Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO), synthesized through the same colloidal method. ATO was investigated as a possible catalyst support in an electrode of a regenerative fuel cell (URFC), where Pt-IrO2 was used as the catalyst for the oxygen evolution and reduction reactions. The morphology and composition of the ATO support was investigated through transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (including Rietveld Refinement), BET analysis, and X-ray fluorescence. An ATO support was obtained with a highly homogeneous distribution and crystal sizes, measuring approximately 4-6 nm. The Pt-IrO 2/ATO material was deposited on a Nafion 115 membrane with 0.5 mg cm-2 of catalyst loading. Pt/Vulcan XC-72 (30 wt. %, E-TEK) was used as the catalyst in the H2 compartment with a Pt loading of 0.4 mg cm-2. The electrochemical activity of the Pt-IrO2/ATO for oxygen evolution/reduction in the URFC system was investigated by AC-impedance spectroscopy, linear voltammetry, and chronoamperometry techniques. The maximum mass current activity was 1118 A g-1 at 1.8 V in proton-exchange membrane water electrolyser mode (PEMWE) and 565 A g-1 at 0.3 V in proton-exchange membrane fuel cell mode (PEMFC), both at 80 °C. The value of the round-trip energy efficiency was approximately 48% at 50 A g-1. Highlights: Pt-IrO2 catalyst was prepared using a colloidal method and supported on Sb-doped SnO2 ATO. ATO was investigated as possible catalyst support in electrodes of regenerative fuel cells. The electrochemical activity of Pt-IrO2/ATO for O2 evolution/reduction was investigated. The maximum mass current activity was 1118 Ag-1 at 1.8 V in WE mode and 565 Ag-1 at 0.3 V in FC mode. The value for round-trip energy efficiency was approximately 48% at 50 A g-1. © 2012 Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC.

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