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Chavez-Ramirez A.U.,CIDETEQ | Vallejo-Becerra V.,Centro Universitario Cerro Of Las Campanas | Cruz J.C.,Technological Institute of Chetumal | Ornelas R.,Tozzi Renewable Energy SpA | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2013

World fossil fuel reserve is expected to be exhausted in coming few decades. Therefore, the decentralization of energy production requires the design and integration of different energy sources and conversion technologies to meet the power demand for single remote housing applications in a sustainable way under various weather conditions. This work focuses on the integration of photovoltaic (PV) system, micro-wind turbine (WT), Polymeric Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEM-FC) stack and PEM water electrolyzer (PEM-WE), for a sustained power generation system (2.5 kW). The main contribution of this work is the hybridization of alternate energy sources with the hydrogen conversion systems using mid-term and short-term storage models based in artificial intelligence techniques built from experimental data (measurements obtained from the site of interest), this models allow to obtain better accuracy in performance prediction (PVMSE = 8.4%, PEM-FCMSE = 2.4%, PEM-WEMSE = 1.96%, GSRMSE = 7.9%, WTMSE = 14%) with a practical design and dynamic under intelligent control strategies to build an autonomous system. Copyright © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Siracusano S.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Baglio V.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Stassi A.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Ornelas R.,Tozzi Renewable Energy SpA | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2011

IrO2 electrocatalysts were prepared and electrochemically characterized for the oxygen evolution reaction in a Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) electrolyzer. By using a sulfite complex-based preparation procedure, an amorphous iridium oxide precursor was obtained at 80 °C, which was, successively, calcined at different temperatures: 350 °C, 400 °C and 450 °C. A physico-chemical characterization was carried out by X Ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and X-ray-photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The various IrO2 catalysts were sprayed onto a Nafion 115 membrane with a loading of 2.5 mg cm-2 to form the anode. A Pt/C catalyst (Pt loading 0.5 mg cm-2) was used as cathode. The best electrochemical performance was obtained for the cell based on the IrO2 calcined at 350 °C. The maximum current density at high potentials (1.8 V) was about 1.75 A cm-2. Accelerated time-tests at 2 A cm-2 demonstrated a suitable stability of the IrO2 calcined at 350 °C; however, the intrinsic stability appeared to increase with the calcination temperature. The sample calcined at 400 °C could represent a good compromise between performance and intrinsic stability. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights. Source


Cruz J.C.,CIDETEQ | Baglio V.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Siracusano S.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Antonucci V.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Electrochemical Science | Year: 2011

RuO 2 electrocatalysts were synthesized and characterized for the oxygen evolution reaction in a Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) electrolyzer. The catalysts were prepared by a colloidal preparation procedure and thermal treatment at different temperatures from 200 to 350 °C. The material characterization was carried out by XRD, TG-DSC and TEM analyses. The RuO 2 catalysts were sprayed onto a Nafion 115 membrane with a loading of 3 mg cm -2. A Pt catalyst was used at the cathode compartment with a loading of 0.6 mg cm -2. The electrochemical activity of MEAs was investigated in a single SPE cell and in a conventional three-electrode half-cell by using linear voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry. The maximum current density at high potential (1.8 V) was obtained for RuO 2 calcined at 300°C for 1 h. The chronoamperometric measurements shown that the most stable catalyst was the RuO 2 calcined at 300°C for 3 h. © 2011 by ESG. Source


Cruz J.C.,CIDETEQ | Baglio V.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Siracusano S.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Ornelas R.,Tozzi Renewable Energy SpA | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2012

A new generation of highly efficient and non-polluting energy conversion and storage systems is vital to meeting the challenges of global warming and the finite reality of fossil fuels. In this work, nanosized Pt/IrO2 electrocatalysts are synthesized and investigated for the oxygen evolution and reduction reactions in unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). The catalysts are prepared by decorating Pt nanoparticles (2-10 nm) onto the surface of a nanophase IrO2 (7 nm) support using an ultrasonic polyol method. The synthesis procedure allows deposition of metallic Pt nanoparticles on Ir-oxide without causing any occurrence of metallic Ir. The latter is significantly less active for oxygen evolution than the corresponding oxide. This process represents an important progress with respect to the state of the art in this field being the oxygen electrocatalyst generally obtained by mechanical mixing of Pt and IrO2. The nanosized Pt/IrO2 (50:50 wt.%) is sprayed onto a Nafion 115 membrane and used as dual function oxygen electrode, whereas 30 wt.% Pt/C is used as dual function hydrogen electrode in the URFC. Electrochemical activity of the membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) is investigated in a single cell at room temperature and atmospheric pressure both under electrolysis and fuel cell mode to assess the perspectives of the URFC to operate as energy storage device in conjunction with renewable power sources. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights. Source


Cruz J.C.,CIDETEQ | Baglio V.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Siracusano S.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Ornelas R.,Tozzi Renewable Energy SpA | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Nanoparticle Research | Year: 2011

Nanosized IrO2 electrocatalysts (d ∼ 7-9 nm) with specific surface area up to 100 m2 g-1 were synthesized and characterized for the oxygen evolution reaction in a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) electrolyzer. The catalysts were prepared by a colloidal method in aqueous solution and a subsequent thermal treatment. An iridium hydroxide hydrate precursor was obtained at ∼100°C, which was, successively, calcined at different temperatures from 200 to 500°C. The physico-chemical characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). IrO2 catalysts were sprayed onto a Nafion 115 membrane up to a loading of 3 mg cm-2. A Pt catalyst was used at the cathode compartment with a loading of 0.6 mg cm-2. The electrochemical activity for water electrolysis of the membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) was investigated in a single cell SPE electrolyzer by steady-state polarization curves, impedance spectroscopy and chrono-amperometric measurements. A maximum current density of 1.3 A cm-2 was obtained at 1.8 V and 80°C for the IrO2 catalyst calcined at 400°C for 1 h. A stable performance was recorded in single cell for this anode catalyst at 80°C. The suitable catalytic activity and stability of the most performing catalyst were interpreted in terms of proper combination between nanostructure and suitable morphology. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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