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Toyota Industries Corporation TYO: 6201 is a Japanese machine maker. Originally a manufacturer of automatic looms, it is the company from which Toyota Motor Corporation developed. It is the world's largest manufacturer of forklift trucks measured by revenues. Wikipedia.

Nakano H.,TOYOTA CENTRAL R and D LABS. INC. | Nakano H.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Sugiyama Y.,Toyota Industries Corporation | Morishita T.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2014

The development of lightweight, long lasting Li-ion batteries is of great technological importance for hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, as well as for power grid applications. Here we report an alternative approach to the use of Li cations, based on the fabrication of BF4 anion rocking-chair-type secondary batteries. For the anode material, we report a Si-based compound, [Si10H8(OCH2CH 2NH(CH3)2)2](BF4) 2, which is capable of reacting with two BF4 anions per formula unit at a potential of 1.8 V, giving a reversible capacity of 80mA h g-1. This anion battery also showed superior performance under thermal abuse compared with Li-ion batteries. Furthermore, the anion battery is operable at -30 °C, a temperature at which Li-ion batteries are generally not operable because Li-ions are solvated by coordination with basic organic molecules around this temperature. © the Partner Organisations 2014. Source

Yang X.,Central South University | Okabe Y.,Toyota Industries Corporation | Miura H.,University of Electro - Communications | Sakai T.,University of Electro - Communications
Journal of Materials Science | Year: 2012

The isothermal annealing behaviour of magnesium (Mg) alloy AZ31 deformed by multi-directional forging (MDF) at ambient temperature is investigated at temperatures ranging from 443 to 518 K. With increasing pass strain (Δε) in MDF, the recrystallization time curve shifts to shorter times. The Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) exponent rises from 2.6 to 4.7, likely because microstructures with much higher density and finer twins evolve and are more homogeneously distributed at higher Δε. The activation energy and JMAK exponent for recrystallization are 120 kJ/mol and 2.6, and 58 kJ/mol and 4.7 at low- and high-temperature regions, respectively. The annealing process occurring after cold deformation is controlled by discontinuous recrystallization. In this research, this annealing process is discussed and compared with hot-deformed Mg alloy. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Yang X.,Central South University | Okabe Y.,University of Electro - Communications | Okabe Y.,Toyota Industries Corporation | Miura H.,University of Electro - Communications | Sakai T.,University of Electro - Communications
Materials Science and Engineering A | Year: 2012

The effect of prior strain on static recrystallization of hot-deformed magnesium alloy AZ31 was investigated at temperatures of 497, 503 and 513. K by optical and SEM/OIM metallographic observation. Ultrafine grains (UFGs) were evolved by grain fragmentation due to continuous dynamic recrystallization (cDRX) during hot deformation. Irrespective of the different microstructures developed at strains of 0.3 and 1.2, the kinetics of grain coarsening taking place during annealing are very similar, while the deformation texture scarcely changes even at longer times. The grain size changes at both the strains are categorized into three stages: i.e. an incubation for grain growth, a rapid and limited grain growth and then normal grain growth. It is concluded that the annealing process occurring in the regions of UFGs evolved is primarily controlled by grain growth accompanied with static recovery, that is continuous static recrystallization. © 2011. Source

Yang X.,Central South University | Okabe Y.,University of Electro - Communications | Okabe Y.,Toyota Industries Corporation | Miura H.,University of Electro - Communications | Sakai T.,University of Electro - Communications
Materials and Design | Year: 2012

The isothermal annealing behaviors of a magnesium alloy AZ31, deformed by multi-directional forging (MDF) at ambient temperature to cumulative strains ranging from 0.2 to 1.5, was investigated at 473. K. The deformed microstructure is characterized by several types of twins formed in various directions during MDF and their intersections with one another. The Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) plots of Xrex-t curves are approximated by a linear relationship with an exponent of 2.6 at early stages of annealing irrespective of prior strains, but always break at long times, leading to lower values of the exponent. The non-linear JMAK plots may result from the inhomogeneity of deformed microstructures. The annealing process is composed of new grain formation at the intersections and subsequent large-distance migration of their boundaries, that is discontinuous static recrystallization (dSRX). The annealing characteristics of the cold-deformed Mg alloy are discussed comparing with the contrastive ones of the hot-deformed alloy. © 2011. Source

Morita T.,Kyoto Institute of Technology | Uehigashi N.,Toyota Industries Corporation | Kagaya C.,Chubu University
Materials Transactions | Year: 2013

This study investigated the effect of hybrid surface treatment on the fatigue strength of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The hybrid surface treatment was composed of plasma nitriding and fine particle bombarding (FPB). Plasma nitriding generated a hardened layer with no marked growth of the microstructure of the substrate, and subsequent FPB eliminated a compound layer formed outermost through plasma nitriding. Tensile strength was maintained at the initial level, although ductility was somewhat reduced by fracture of the hardened layer. Plasma nitriding decreased the fatigue strength because the brittle compound layer fractured at relatively low stress amplitude and hastened the propagation of cracks. On the other hand, the effect of the hardened layer appeared through the elimination of the compound layer, so that hybrid surface treatment greatly improved the fatigue strength. Correspondingly, a crack initiation site was found beneath the hardened layer and suggested that the formed layer strongly suppressed crack initiation from the surface. © 2012 The Japan Institute of Metals. Source

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