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The Toyota Group is a group of companies that have supplier, vendor and investment relationships with Toyota Industries Corporation and Toyota Motor Corporation. It is similar to a keiretsu in that no particular entity has outright control over the entire group, although unlike most keiretsu it does not contain a major bank. Wikipedia.

« Siemens sets new performance and efficiency world record at Düsseldorf power plant | Main | Report: $12.1T must be invested in new renewable power generation over next 25 years to limit climate change » Toyota Motor Corporation and its subsidiary Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd. (Daihatsu) have reached an agreement whereby Daihatsu will become a wholly-owned subsidiary of Toyota by way of a share exchange (expected to be completed in August 2016). Under the agreement, 0.26 shares of common stock of Toyota will be allotted and delivered for each share of common stock of Daihatsu. Toyota currently owns 51.2% of the small-car specialist. Under a new joint strategy, Toyota and Daihatsu intend to combine their bases of operations in addition to sharing their respective areas of proficiency and technical expertise. This, the two companies said, will leverage the advantages of both brands, allowing the development of attractive products that are competitive on a global basis. The Daihatsu brand, said Toyota President Akio Toyoda, will have a position equal to that of Toyota and Lexus. Although Toyota and Daihatsu will compete and maintain separate management styles that capitalize on their respective capabilities, bringing the two together under a shared strategy will enable them together to overcome otherwise prohibitive obstacles in the future, including resource-intensive undertakings such as the development of next-generation technologies and entry into business areas with growth potential. Implementing the Toyota New Global Architecture has once again made us aware of the difficulties involved in manufacturing small cars. At the same time, the importance of small cars is increasing as we face ever-greater environmental issues the world over, and as emerging markets continue their inevitable growth. There are many things we have chosen to focus on as a company: in certain regions like North America, our strength lies in the mid-sized sedan segment and above. More generally, we have a good track record in our development of technologies―particularly environmental technologies. However, I have frequently worried that we haven’t managed to make our presence felt in the small car segment. Unless we gain the know-how necessary to better develop small cars, we may deprive ourselves of the chance to make crucial breakthroughs. We at Toyota are fixated on the need to be able to cover all of our own bases; you might say we are obsessed with self-sufficiency. So, on one hand, while we have a long and credible history of producing small vehicles ourselves, on the other hand, our desire to go it alone has prevented us from achieving our full potential in terms of global competitiveness. Naturally, this decision was a difficult one to make. In the end, the only reason we could make such a monumental decision was because we are talking about entrusting part of that obsession to none other than Daihatsu. Toyota and Daihatsu, which has been in business for 109 years, first began collaborating in 1967. Small cars. The differentiation between Toyota’s and Daihatsu’s brands will continue, and the product lineups of both will be optimized in accordance with customer preferences, with Daihatsu taking the lead in developing products offered within the small car lineups of both brands. At the same time, Daihatsu will continue to focus on developing vehicles aimed specifically at customers in the areas in which the brand already has a strong presence, while also honing its expertise and processes related to product planning and technological development for minivehicles. Technology. Both companies will share development and deployment strategies for new technologies from the initial conceptual stages. Toyota’s focus will remain on technologies related to the environment, safety, user experience, and comfort, while Daihatsu will continue to leverage its aptitude for turning technologies into packages for vehicles, as well as developing cost- and fuel-efficient technologies. Daihatsu will also contribute to the development of next-generation technologies from the perspective of cost-efficiency and miniaturization. The company’s specialized car manufacturing expertise will be shared within the Toyota Group, which will contribute to further enhancing the cost competitiveness of larger vehicles. Operations. Both companies will utilize each other’s bases of operations in emerging markets. Daihatsu will take the lead in enhancing efficiency and adaptability in development, procurement, and production processes. Within Japan, Toyota’s sales expertise and infrastructure will be utilized by both companies to improve Daihatsu’s branding and profitability.

Chen S.,Worcester Polytechnic Institute | Vuyyuru R.,Toyota USA | Altintas O.,Toyota Group | Wyglinski A.M.,Worcester Polytechnic Institute
IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference, VNC | Year: 2011

In this paper, we propose a novel architecture for optimizing the overall performance of vehicular dynamic spectrum access (VDSA) networks. Due to the high level of mobility for vehicles operating under highway conditions, coupled with spatially variant spectrum allocation across a large geographical region, we envision that future vehicular communications will employ a form of dynamic spectrum access (DSA) in order to facilitate wireless transmissions between vehicles and with roadside infrastructure. In particular, the VDSA concept will be enabled by a combination of software-defined radio (SDR) technology, spectral occupancy databases, and machine learning techniques for enabling network automation. A vehicular networking scenario is substantially different relative to a generic mobile scenario with respect to the high level of mobility involved, the predictable trajectories of the vehicular traffic, and the overall scale of the network range. Consequently, the proposed architecture is designed to enable VDSA in a more flexible wireless spectrum environment by leveraging the cognitive radio concept and existing wireless spectrum databases actively being developed while simultaneously being compatible with current spectrum regulations. Regarding practical issues for vehicular communications, vehicle mobility is taken into account in order to ensure primary user protection, databases and channel priority schemes are used in order to record temporal and spatial channel heterogeneity, and vehicle path prediction techniques are employed in order to enhance channel access in this operating environment. Specifically, we show the advantages of employing the proposed learning architecture via a case study where reinforcement learning is used in order to achieve intelligent channel selection within a realistic VDSA environment. Moreover, performance enhancements in terms of channel switching times, interference, and throughput are shown via computer simulations. © 2011 IEEE.

Rocke S.,Worcester Polytechnic Institute | Chen S.,Worcester Polytechnic Institute | Vuyyuru R.,Toyota USA | Altintas O.,Toyota Group | Wyglinski A.M.,Worcester Polytechnic Institute
IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference, VNC | Year: 2012

In this paper, we propose a channel selection algorithm for vehicular dynamic spectrum access (VDSA) networks employing instance-based learning methods. Due to the high mobility and spatially variant spectrum availability across large geographical regions associated with this transmission environment, we propose using VDSA methods for non-safety applications such as traffic efficiency and local information dissemination. Additionally, we propose a distance-based multidimensional indexing approach to enable learning of a vehicle communications environment. Our results suggest that the multidimensional approach can improve the channel selection and channel switching performance, especially in either unknown environments or when limited learning information is available due to circumstances such as reduced storage requirements. © 2012 IEEE.

Chen S.,Worcester Polytechnic Institute | Wyglinski A.M.,Worcester Polytechnic Institute | Vuyyuru R.,Toyota USA | Altintas O.,Toyota Group
2010 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference, VNC 2010 | Year: 2010

In this paper, we present a feasibility analysis for performing vehicular dynamic spectrum access across vacant television spectral channels via a queueing theory approach that is primarily based on a multi-server, multi-priority, preemptive queue. Queueing theory has been extensively employed in the open literature to model wireless multiple access architectures as well as analyze network performance in both wired and wireless communication frameworks. On the other hand, to the best of the authors' knowledge, there does not exist a queueing theory approach designed to analyze dynamic spectrum access networks on a system level, including the specific case of vehicular dynamic spectrum access (VDSA). Leveraging previously reported quantitative measurements obtained from a wireless spectrum measurement campaign conducted along a major interstate highway (I-90) located in Massachusetts, we modeled vacant TV channels as a multi-server queueing system in which available servers represent vacant channels. The servers become unavailable in a time/location-varying fashion such that they represent spatially occupied TV channels. Both M/M/m and M/G/m models are employed to evaluate the probability that a vehicle finds all channels busy, as well as to derive the expected waiting times and the expected number of channel switches. We also consider cases where there are multiple priority classes of service requests such as a channel request by a first-responder vehicle. © 2010 IEEE.

Inage K.,University of Electro - Communications | Lee S.,University of Electro - Communications | Fujii T.,University of Electro - Communications | Altintas O.,Toyota Group
IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference, VNC | Year: 2011

In vehicular cognitive networks, a vehicle (secondary user) communicates with other vehicles or with the roadside units by borrowing licensed but unused frequency bands, a.k.a. white spaces, which are originally allocated to primary users. While doing so, secondary users make sure that the rights of the incumbent users are protected. In comparison to the cases with stationary secondary users, the probability that a primary user appears in the currently borrowed channel is much higher due to high mobility of vehicles. In order to avoid harmful interference to the primary users, a vehicle is required to vacate the currently borrowed channel and switch to another unused one. This vertical handover poses significant disruption to the ongoing communication due to the overhead induced by the channel handshaking. In this paper, we present a novel approach to reduce the number of vertical handovers. Specifically, we first introduce the White Space Vector (WSV) scheme which enables a simpler representation of the complex geographical white space information stored in spectrum usage databases. This new representation allows us to trim down the amount of data downloaded from the database required for adequately avoiding interference to the primary users. Furthermore, we present a new channel selection method leveraging the white space vector representation. We evaluate the number of vertical handovers from the point of view of accuracy and overhead, and show that WSV method can reduce the number of vertical handovers while also reducing the amount of data downloaded from the spectrum database without significant loss in accuracy. © 2011 IEEE.

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