ExxonMobil and Toyota Central Research And Development Labs Inc. | Date: 2016-11-08
Catalyst compositions suitable for use in the exhaust gas recycle stream of an internal combustion engine are provided. Such catalyst compositions typically provide significant amounts of methane in addition to syngas. A reformer incorporating such a catalyst for use in an exhaust gas recycle portion of an internal combustion engine powertrain is described. A powertrain incorporating such a reformer, a method of increasing the octane rating of an exhaust gas recycle stream, and a method of operating an internal combustion engine using methane-assisted combustion are also described.
Niclass C.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc. |
Soga M.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc. |
Matsubara H.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc. |
Kato S.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc.
European Solid-State Circuits Conference | Year: 2011
This paper introduces a high-performance optical depth sensor in a 0.18μm CMOS technology. At the core of the sensor, macro pixels consisting of 6x2 single-photon detectors enable accurate and selective time-of-flight measurements by taking advantage of temporal and spatial correlations of photons. An array of 32 high-throughput time-to-digital converters allows for the digitization of time-of-flight data with a resolution of 208ps within a range of 853ns, thus resolving distances up to 128 meters. Quantitative characterization of the chip sensor is reported. Depth map data acquired in a real-world situation illustrates the effectiveness of the approach in a road traffic environment. © 2011 IEEE.
Tanaka T.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs Inc. |
Tajima I.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs Inc. |
Kato Y.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs Inc. |
Nishihara Y.,Okayama University |
Shinjoh H.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs Inc.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2011
A Ba-Ti composite oxide was formed on a NOx storage and reduction catalyst via impregnation of a Ba-Ti precursor solution composed of H2O2 added to a complex prepared using the citric acid method. The structure of the Ba-Ti composite in solution was analyzed by chemical composition analysis and FT-Raman and UV-vis spectroscopy. MM2 calculations were performed to propose its chemical structure. Both Ba and Ti together were found to form a composite molecule in the solution. Furthermore, TEM-EDX and XRD analyses of the Ba-Ti composite oxide on the catalyst prepared by impregnation with the Ba-Ti composite aqueous solution revealed that Ba and Ti in the catalyst were highly dispersed at the nm scale. The formation of the Ba-Ti composite oxide on the NSR catalyst enhanced sulfur desorption efficiency and led to high-performance NOX conversion as a NOX storage and reduction activity catalyst after desulfation treatment. It was assumed that the existence of nano-scaled Ba compounds combined with Ti was efficient for the inhibition of the sintering of barium sulfate and its facile decomposition. It was found that dispersion of Ba compounds for NOX storage materials using a Ba-Ti complex solution is an efficient way to improve the durability of NSR catalysts. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Ito K.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc. |
Ito K.,Tokyo University of Science |
Toshiyoshi H.,Tokyo University of Science |
Iizuka H.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc.
Optics Express | Year: 2016
Metal-insulator-metal metamaterial thermal emitters strongly radiate at multiple resonant wavelengths. The fundamental mode, whose wavelength is the longest among resonances, is generally utilized for selective emission. In this paper, we show that parasitic modes at shorter wavelengths are suppressed by newly employed densely-tiled resonators, and that the suppression enables quasi-monochromatic thermal emission. The second-order harmonics, which is excited at half the fundamental wavelength in conventional emitters, shifts toward shorter wavelength. The blue-shift reduces the amplitude of the second-order emission by taking a distance from the Wien wavelength. Other parasitic modes are eliminated by the small spacing between resonators. The densely-tiled resonators are fabricated, and the measured emission spectra agree well with numerical simulations. The methodology presented here for the suppression of parasitic modes adds flexibility to metamaterial thermal emitters. © 2016 Optical Society of America.
Yamada Y.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc. |
Nakamura T.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc. |
Yano K.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc.
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2016
A facile one-pot synthesis for the composite materials fabricated from conjugated polymer, poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV), and monodispersed mesoporous silica spheres (MMSS) is demonstrated. Composite materials having superior photoluminescence properties are easily obtained using ethylene glycol as a reaction solvent in which PPV monomers are effectively exchanged with cationic surfactants in MMSS and subsequently polymerized in the solution. The method can prevent serious reduction of photoluminescence properties which occurs inevitably during thermal treatment (200 °C) to polymerize PPV. In our method, the temperature of 100 °C is enough to obtain the fully polymerized PPV, which is confirmed in Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum. Reaction mechanism is verified through direct observation of its distinguishable color changes in the reaction solution and the measurement of surface electrical potential (ζ-potential). The obtained results strongly support that PPV chains are impregnated within mesopores in isolated condition, leading to high fluorescence quantum yield (nearly 80%). Compared to the conventional route, this method reduces multistep synthesis to one-step and eliminates high temperature and high vacuum process, leading to the facile eco-friendly procedure. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Suzuki T.M.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc. |
Kitahara G.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc. |
Arai T.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc. |
Matsuoka Y.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc. |
Morikawa T.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc.
Chemical Communications | Year: 2014
Vertically aligned titanium dioxide nanotube (TNT) arrays codoped with nitrogen and 3d transition metals were successfully fabricated using anodization and nitridation processes. The codoping of N and Fe yielded the highest visible-light-induced photoelectrochemical water oxidation due to bandgap narrowing of impurity levels by N and Fe. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.
Hasegawa K.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc. |
Ichikawa T.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc. |
Mizuno S.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc. |
Takeda Y.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc. |
And 4 more authors.
Optics Express | Year: 2015
We report energy transfer efficiency from Cr3+ to Nd3+ in Nd (1.0 at.%)/Cr (0.4 at.%) co-doped Y3Al5O12 (YAG) transparent ceramics in the laser oscillation states. The laser oscillation has performed using two pumping lasers operating at 808 nm and 561 nm; the former pumps Nd3+ directly to create the 1064 nm laser oscillation, whereas the latter assists the performance via Cr3+ absorption and sequential energy transfer to Nd3+. From the laser output power properties and laser mode analysis, the energy transfer efficiency was determined to be around 65%, which is close to that obtained from the spontaneous Nd3+ emission. © 2015 Optical Society of America.
Tanaka T.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc. |
Ando C.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc. |
Hamaguchi T.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc. |
Ikuta Y.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc.
Applied Catalysis A: General | Year: 2013
TiO2-modified Ag-alumina was studied as an NOX trapping material with the aim of improving the removal of NOX from lean-burn exhaust at low temperatures. This trapping material, in which both Ag and TiO2 were finely dispersed throughout the alumina support on a nanometre scale, effectively adsorbed NOX at temperatures as low as 150 C. The TiO2-modification of Ag-alumina improved the NO X trapping performance of the material by enhancing NO adsorption in the presence of other gases, including CO, hydrocarbons, CO2 and H2O. This modified material also exhibited less deterioration resulting from sulfur poisoning as compared to either conventional NO X storage and reduction (NSR) catalysts or unmodified Ag-alumina. TiO2 was shown to be dispersed throughout the alumina in an octahedral structure, and spectroscopic analyses along with DFT calculations demonstrated that this dispersion is effective at stabilizing Ag in the material. It was also determined that Ag supported on octahedral TiO2 formed active sites at which the redox reaction between Ag0 and Ag+ proceeded, and that NO was effectively oxidized and adsorbed as nitro and nitrite species on the active surface composed of the dispersed Ag and TiO2. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Oh S.-Y.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc. |
Imagawa H.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc. |
Itahara H.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc.
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2014
Various Si-based nanocomposites consisting of nanoflake-like Ca xSi2 particles and transition metal silicide (MSi y) particles were synthesized by a solid-state exfoliation reaction using layered CaSi2 and transition metal (M) chlorides (M: Ni, Fe or Mn). CaCl2 was found to form in all samples irrespective of the chloride used. Based on the shape and composition of the nanocomposites, it is thought that CaxSi2 particles were formed by extraction of Ca from the layered CaSi2. The molar ratio of CaSi2 and NiCl2 and the synthesis temperature were systematically varied to investigate their influence on the characteristics of the reaction products, e.g. crystalline phases, microstructure, anode capacity as lithium-ion batteries and electrical conductivity. Nanocomposites with various mixtures of Ca xSi2 particles (Li storage sites) and NiSiy particles (conducting media) were formed. The synthesized samples showed a wide range of electrical properties depending on the composition. For example, the samples exhibited an anode capacity and an electrical conductivity of 1020 mA h g-1 and 6 × 10-8 S cm-1, or 479 mA h g-1 and 2 × 10-5 S cm-1, respectively. Because of its simplicity, the solid-state exfoliation reaction using layered CaSi2 and MCl2 provides a facile and scalable method to synthesize Si-based nanocomposite anode materials for lithium ion batteries. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.
Niclass C.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs Inc. |
Soga M.,Toyota Central Research and Development Labs Inc.
Technical Digest - International Electron Devices Meeting, IEDM | Year: 2010
A CMOS single-photon detector, including a highly miniaturized active recharge circuit, achieving the highest counting rate yet reported for an afterpulsing-free Geiger-mode photodiode is introduced. Thanks to its low-noise and 6-ns dead time figure, a dynamic-range of 116dB for steady-state photon counting in a single acquisition time of 20ms was achieved. ©2010 IEEE.