PubMed | Toyohashi Sozo University, Aichi Prefectural Hospital and Rehabilitation Center for Disabled Children, Yachiyo Hospital and Suzukake Health Care Hospital
Type: | Journal: Research in developmental disabilities | Year: 2016
Although individuals with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (BSCP) exhibit several deficits in anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) while standing, effects of severity of motor disability on their APAs are unclear.To determine whether individuals with BSCP exhibit severity-dependent deficits in APAs.Seven individuals with level II BSCP (BSCP-II group) and seven with level III BSCP (BSCP-III group) according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System and seven healthy controls lifted a load under two different load conditions.Anticipatory activities of the erector spinae (ES), medial hamstring (MH), and gastrocnemius (GCM) were smaller in the two BSCP groups than in the control group. Although the anticipatory GCM activity was similar between the BSCP groups, the ES and MH activities were larger in the BSCP-II group than in the BSCP-III group. In the BSCP-II group, an increase in anticipatory activity with an increase in load was observed in the MH, but not in the GCM. In the BSCP-III group, load-related modulation was not found in the MH or GCM.The present findings suggest that in individuals with BSCP with severe motor disability, APA deficits extend to more proximal parts of the body.
Tomita H.,Toyohashi Sozo University
Disability and rehabilitation | Year: 2010
PURPOSE: We investigated body alignment and muscle activity at quiet standing and anteroposterior stability limits in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (SDCP). METHOD: Body alignment and electromyographic (EMG) activity of ventral and dorsal lower limb muscles at three different standing positions were compared between seven children with SDCP (SDCP(group)) and seven controls [typically developing (TD(group))]. We also compared these measurements in a child with SDCP before and after a 3-week training in which the child leant forward and maintained the forward-leaning posture with the help of a physiotherapist who manually held her lower limbs fixed in position. RESULTS: In TD(group), EMG activity of the dorsal muscles increased at the extreme forward-leaning position, whereas that of the ventral muscles increased at the extreme backward-leaning position. In SDCP(group), such direction-specific increases were observed in lower leg muscles but not in thigh muscles. As a result of training, direction-specific activity in the dorsal muscles improved, and crouch posture was also improved. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that children with SDCP have difficulty modulating muscle activity while standing and that the quadriceps plays a critical role in maintaining couch posture. In addition, crouch posture may be improved by the training which focuses on control of the dorsal muscles.
Miyoshi T.,Toyohashi Sozo University |
Nakayasu H.,Konan University |
Ueno Y.,Konan University |
Patterson P.,Texas Tech University
Computers and Industrial Engineering | Year: 2012
The evacuation behavior of passengers was formulated as an autonomous agent and multi-agent model (AAMAS) evolving over a two-dimensional grid cell that represents aircraft cabins and passengers. In this model, the autonomous agents are initially placed in seat squares and move toward an emergency exit after an aircraft accident occurs. The autonomous agent mimics the behavior of passengers in the cabin, who must not only view their surroundings to collect the useful information but also select a route to an emergency exit. As the situation evolves, the agents feel the mental stress or strong fear or anxiety; thereby reacting unfavorably in the situation that they panic at. This abnormal evacuation behavior of panic agents generates time delays in the evacuation flow towards the exits. Therefore, such panic and its effect on evacuation behavior should be considered as an important factor in evacuation simulations. In this paper, it is supposed that the level of panic depends on three factors: remaining time, frequency of waiting and the difficulty of finding an exit. The dependencies of these factors on the time needed to complete an evacuation and the number of the panic agents in the aircraft were determined by the simulation. Considering the simulation results and situations of the actual aircraft accident "Garuda Indonesia Airways Accident", it was possible to develop aircraft evacuation scenarios that considered passenger emotions. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tomita H.,Toyohashi Sozo University |
Fukaya Y.,Aichi Prefectural Hospital and Rehabilitation |
Ueda T.,Toyohashi Sozo University |
Honma S.,Toyohashi Sozo University |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Neurophysiology | Year: 2011
We examined whether individuals with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (SDCP) have the ability to utilize lower leg muscles in anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) associated with voluntary arm movement while standing, as well as the ability to modulate APAs with changes in the degree of postural perturbation caused by arm movement. Seven individuals with spastic diplegia (SDCP group, 12-22 yr of age) and seven age- and sex-matched individuals without disability (control group) participated in this study. Participants flexed both shoulders and lifted a load under two different load conditions, during which electromyographic activities of focal and postural muscles were recorded. Although the timing of anticipatory activation of the erector spinae and medial hamstring (MH) muscles was similar in the two participant groups, that of the gastrocnemius (GcM) muscle was significantly later in the SDCP group than in the control group. An increase in anticipatory postural muscle activity with an increase in load was observed in MH and GcM in the control group but not in GcM in the SDCP group. The degree of modulation in MH was significantly smaller in the SDCP group than in the control group. An additional experiment confirmed that these differences in APAs between the two participant groups were unlikely to be attributable to their differences in initial standing posture before load lift. The present findings suggest that lower leg muscles play a minor role in APAs in individuals with spastic diplegia. In addition, it is likely that these individuals have difficulty modulating anticipatory postural muscle activity with changes in the degree of postural perturbation. © 2011 the American Physiological Society.
Nagai K.,Toyohashi Sozo University
[Nihon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health | Year: 2011
Due to the increased population of elderly people requiring care and assisted living care, as well as changes in the social structure, the number of males playing a role in home care has therefore been increasing each year. The purpose of this study was to clarify characteristics related to subjective mental and physical health of male family caregivers based on a comparison with male non-caregivers. The subjects comprised 52 male family caregivers (caregiver group) who provide care for those requiring at-home care at level 3 or above, or who provided care for people with dementia in cases at a level below 3, with an average age and standard deviation of 69.3 +/- 10.9 years old. The comparison group comprised 52 people who underwent regular health checkups in K city, whose gender and ages, by 10-year age group, were matched to the subjects on a 1:1 basis, and whose average age and standard deviation were 69.2 +/- 11.1 years old. The research was conducted over ther period from December 2005 to April 2007. The survey was conducted with a self-answering format, and subjects were asked questions about such matters as lifestyle, QOL, psychosocial stress and coping with stress. The average age of people requiring care was 75.7 +/- 9.5 years old, and it became apparent that elderly caregivers generally provide care for other elderly people. In a health-related QOL (SF-8), care-giver group were significantly low in "General Health" and "Bodily Pain" in the physical health domain. In the mental health domain, "Mental Health" and mental health summary score of the care-giver group were significantly low. Regarding lifestyle, it was apparent that the care-giver group had significantly fewer sleeping hours than the control group and the PSQI score was also lower. Coping scores were significantly low for the caregiver group regarding 2 items, "Evasive Thinking" and "Recreation", and this indicated a tendency toward not adopting an evasive type of coping. It became clear that male caregivers have low subjective health and experience problems about sleep and stress. In addition, they tended not to take coping of evasion type and a need of comprehensive support was suggested.
Chan N.L.A.,Imperial College London |
Young T.B.,Imperial College London |
Brindley H.E.,Imperial College London |
Ekins-Daukes N.J.,Imperial College London |
And 3 more authors.
Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications | Year: 2013
III-V concentrator photovoltaic systems attain high efficiency through the use of series connected multi-junction solar cells. As these solar cells absorb over distinct bands over the solar spectrum, they have a more complex response to real illumination conditions than conventional silicon solar cells. Estimates for annual energy yield made assuming fixed reference spectra can vary by up to 15% depending on the assumptions made. Using a detailed computer simulation, the behaviour of a 20-cell InGaP/In0.01GaAs/Ge multi-junction concentrator system was simulated in 5-min intervals over an entire year, accounting for changes in direct normal irradiance, humidity, temperature and aerosol optical depth. The simulation was compared with concentrator system monitoring data taken over the same period and excellent agreement (within 2%) in the annual energy yield was obtained. Air mass, aerosol optical depth and precipitable water have been identified as atmospheric parameters with the largest impact on system efficiency. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The behaviour of a 20-cell InGaP/In0.01GaAs/Ge multi-junction concentrator system was simulated in 5-min intervals over an entire year with agreement within 2% between measured and modelled annual energy yields. Air mass, aerosol optical depth and precipitable water have been identified as the atmospheric parameters with the largest impact on system efficiency. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Morishima N.,Toyohashi Municipal Hospital |
Yagi R.,Toyohashi Municipal Hospital |
Shimizu K.,Toyohashi Sozo University |
Ota S.,Nagoya University
Auris Nasus Larynx | Year: 2013
Objective: This study evaluated the prognostic factors of synkinesis following Bell's palsy and Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Methods: A total of 345 patients consisting of 309 cases of Bell's palsy and 36 cases of Ramsay Hunt syndrome were enrolled in our study. The following 13 factors were considered as candidate prognostic factors for the presence of synkinesis at 6 months from onset: age, sex, diagnosis, diabetes mellitus, initial onset or recurrence, electroneurography (ENoG), number of days from onset to first visit to our hospital, the lowest Yanagihara grading system score, the change in Yanagihara score after 1 month, otalgia, hearing loss, vertigo and taste disturbances. These factors were analyzed by logistic regression. Results: Logistic regression analysis clarified the lowest Yanagihara score, the change in Yanagihara score after 1 month, and the ENoG value for a prognosis of synkinesis. The most predictive prognostic factor was the lowest Yanagihara score, and the adjusted odds ratio in the multivariate model was 11.415. As for other prognostic factors, the adjusted odds ratios ranged from 7.017 (ENoG value) to 8.310 (the change in Yanagihara score after 1 month). These findings were therefore considered as high risk factors for synkinesis. Conclusion: It is possible to predict synkinesis following Bell's palsy and Ramsay Hunt syndrome on the basis of clinical symptoms. The lowest Yanagihara score, and the change in Yanagihara score after 1 month, together with the ENoG value at the onset, were found to be especially important factors for predicting synkinesis following Bell's palsy and Ramsay Hunt syndrome. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Tomita H.,Toyohashi Sozo University |
Fukaya Y.,Aichi Prefectural Hospital and Rehabilitation Center for Disabled Children |
Honma S.,Toyohashi Sozo University |
Ueda T.,Toyohashi Sozo University |
And 2 more authors.
Neuroscience Letters | Year: 2010
Compared to automatic postural responses to external perturbation, little is known about anticipatory postural adjustments in individuals with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. In this study, we examined whether anticipatory activation of postural muscles would be observed before voluntary arm movement while standing in individuals with spastic diplegia. Seven individuals with spastic diplegia (SDCPgroup, 12-22 years) and 7 age- and gender-matched individuals without disability (Controlgroup) participated in this study. Participants performed bilateral arm flexion at maximum speed at their own timing while standing, during which electromyographic (EMG) activities of focal and postural muscles were recorded. In both groups, the erector spinae (ES) and medial hamstring (MH) muscles were activated in advance of the anterior deltoid muscle (AD), which is a focal muscle of arm flexion. Although start times of ES and MH with respect to AD were similar in the 2 groups, increases in EMG amplitudes of ES and MH in the anticipatory range from -150ms to +50ms, with respect to burst onset of AD, were significantly smaller in the SDCPgroup than in the Controlgroup. These findings suggest that individuals with spastic diplegia have the ability to anticipate the effects of disturbance of posture and equilibrium caused by arm movement and to activate postural muscles in advance of focal muscles. However, it is likely that the anticipatory increase in postural muscle activity is insufficient in individuals with spastic diplegia. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
PubMed | Juntendo University, University of Tsukuba, Toyo Koso Kagaku Co., Hirosaki Gakuin University and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The journal of physiological sciences : JPS | Year: 2016
Extended periods of skeletal muscle disuse results in muscle atrophy and weakness. Currently, no therapeutic treatment is available for the prevention of this problem. Nonetheless, growing evidence suggests that prevention of disuse-induced oxidative stress in inactive muscle fibers can delay inactivity-induced muscle wasting. Therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with the antioxidant astaxanthin would protect against disuse muscle atrophy, in part, by prevention of myonuclear apoptosis. Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were divided into control (CT, n=9), hindlimb unloading (HU, n=9), and hindlimb unloading with astaxanthin (HU+AX, n=9) groups. Following 2weeks of dietary supplementation, rats in the HU and HU+AX groups were exposed to unloading for 7days. Seven-day unloading resulted in reduced soleus muscle weight and myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA) by~30 and~47%, respectively. Nonetheless, relative muscle weights and CSA of the soleus muscle in the HU+AX group were significantly greater than those of the HU group. Moreover, astaxanthin prevented disuse-induced increase in the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive nuclei. We conclude that astaxanthin supplementation prior to and during hindlimb unloading attenuates soleus muscle atrophy, in part, by suppressing myonuclear apoptosis.
PubMed | Toyohashi Sozo University, Aichi Prefectural Hospital and Rehabilitation Center for Disabled Children, National Center for Geriatrics & Gerontology and Kanazawa University
Type: | Journal: BMC geriatrics | Year: 2016
Physical exercises are widely used in community programs, but not all older adults are willing to participate. Information and communication technology may solve this problem by allowing older people to participate in fitness programs at home. Use of remote instruction will facilitate physical exercise classes without requiring that participants gather at one place. The aim of this study was to examine use of a sit-to-stand task in evaluating motor function using conventional video communication in a telemetry system to enable real-time monitoring, and evaluation in physical performance of older adults at home.The participants were 59 older individuals and 81 university students. Three physical exercise batteries were used: arm curl, figure-of-eight walk test, and functional reach. The knee extension maximum angular velocity (KEMAV) and the iliac elevation maximum velocity (IEMV) during standing up from a chair and the heel rise frequency were used in the motion-capture measurements. The results were assessed using multi-group structural equation modeling (SEM) for the young and older groups.Young participants consistently performed better than their older counterparts on all items. Analyses with multi-group SEM based on correlations between items yielded a good model-fit for the data. Among all path diagrams for IEMV and KEMAV in the older and young groups, paths from muscular strength to skillfulness showed significant effects. The path from the IEMV to muscular strength was also significant in the older group.Multi-group SEM suggested that video-based measurements of IEMV during sit-to-stand motion can estimate muscular strength, which suggests that remote monitoring of physical performance can support wellness of community-dwelling older adults.