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Nishi-Tokyo-shi, Japan

Engen A.,Colorado State University | Maeda J.,Colorado State University | Wozniak D.E.,Colorado State University | Brents C.A.,Colorado State University | And 5 more authors.
Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis | Year: 2015

The flavonoids quercetin, and its natural glycosides isoquercetin and rutin, are phytochemicals commonly consumed in plant-derived foods. Semi-synthetic water-soluble isoquercetin and rutin glycosides, maltooligosyl isoquercetin, monoglucosyl rutin and maltooligosyl rutin were developed by synthetic glycosylation to overcome solubility challenges for improved incorporation in food and medicinal applications. Quercetin and its natural glycosides are known to induce genetic instability and decrease cell proliferation. Using a system of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, this study examined the differences in cytotoxic and genotoxic responses induced by natural and synthetic flavonoids. Bioactivity evaluations using poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) ELISA showed that the synthetic flavonoids were less effective in inhibiting PARP than the natural flavonoids, where PARP inhibitory effects decreased with glycosylation of flavonoids. In the genotoxic studies, treatments with flavonoids at a concentration range of 0.2. μM-1. mM induced significant frequencies of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronuclei in CHO cells compared to spontaneous occurrences. The synthetic flavonoids monoglucosyl rutin and maltooligosyl rutin induced less genotoxic effects than the natural flavonoids. However, maltooligosyl isoquercetin induced similar responses as isoquercetin and rutin. The growth inhibition studies showed glycosylation dependent cytotoxicity in natural flavonoids. The quercetin aglycone exhibited the highest toxicity out of all the flavonoids studied. Differences in growth inhibition were not observed between the synthetic flavonoids, maltooligosyl isoquercetin and monoglucosyl rutin, and natural isoquercetin and rutin, respectively. Maltooligosyl rutin induced less cytotoxicity than rutin and monoglucosyl rutin. Our in vitro studies demonstrated that the synthetic flavonoids generally induced less genotoxic responses than their natural counterparts. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Haskins A.H.,Colorado State University | Su C.,Colorado State University | Engen A.,Colorado State University | Salinas V.A.,Colorado State University | And 5 more authors.
Data in Brief | Year: 2016

The flavonoids quercetin, and its natural glycosides isoquercetin and rutin, are phytochemicals commonly consumed in plant-derived foods and used as a food beverage additive. Semi-synthetic maltooligosyl isoquercetin, monoglucosyl rutin and maltooligosyl rutin were developed by synthetic glycosylation to improve their water solubility for food and other applications. Using a system of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, this study examined the differences in cytotoxic responses induced by short and continuous exposure of natural and synthetic flavonoids. By assessing cell viability after short term exposure and clonogenicity with continuous exposure under various flavonoids, quercetin aglycone is confirmed to be the most cytotoxic flavonoids, and heavily glucosylated maltooligosyl rutin was the least cytotoxic. The other heavily glucosylated maltooligosyl isoquercetin showed intermediate cytotoxicity and similar toxicity as isoquercetin. © 2015 The Authors. Source

Su C.,Colorado State University | Allum A.J.,Colorado State University | Aizawa Y.,Toyo Sugar Refining Co. | Kato T.A.,Colorado State University
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2016

Glyceryl glucoside (GG, α-d-glucosyglycerol) is a natural glycerol derivative found in alcoholic drinks. Recently GG has been used as an alternative for glycerol in cosmetic products. However, the safety of using GG is still unclear. Currently, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and glycerol are wildly used in cryopreservation. Despite GG being a derivative of glycerol, the ability of GG in cryopreservation is still unknown. By using a system of Chinese Hamster Ovary cells (CHO), A549 cells and AG1522 cells, the study examined the cryoprotective effects of DMSO, glycerol and GG. Cytotoxic and genotoxic responses induced by the three chemicals were also investigated with CHO to determine the safety of GG for cosmetic products. Our data suggests that GG has great cryopresearvation ability in the concentration of 30%-40% (v/v).For cytotoxic studies, DMSO showed the highest cytotoxicity above 3% (v/v) in cell doubling time delay among three chemicals. For the acute cytotoxicity with trypan blue dye exclusion assay, GG showed stronger cell killing effect within 24 h above 4% (v/v). For the continuous cytotoxicity with colony formation assay for 7 days, DMSO showed significantly reduced clonogenic ability above 2%.In genotoxicity studies, CHO treated with glycerol at 2% concentration induced three times higher frequencies of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) than background levels. GG did not induce significant amounts of SCE compared to background. Micronuclei formation was equally observed in the 2% and above concentrations of glycerol and GG.Our data showed that GG has significant effects on cryopreservation compared to DMSO. Glycerol and GG have similar cytotoxicity effects to CHO, but glycerol induced genotoxic responses in the same concentration. Therefore, we conclude that GG may be a safer alternative compound to glycerol in cosmetic products and safer alternative to DMSO in cryopreservation. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source

Sunada S.,University of Tokyo | Fujisawa H.,University of Tokyo | Cartwright I.M.,Colorado State University | Maeda J.,Colorado State University | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Medicine Reports | Year: 2014

In the present study, the role of monoglucosyl-rutin as a potential radioprotector was investigated using mammalian cell culture models. Cell survival and DNA damage were assessed using colony formation, sister chromatid exchange and γH2AX assays. It was demonstrated that monoglucosyl-rutin was able to increase cell survival when exposed to ionizing radiation, possibly by decreasing the amount of base damage experienced by the cell. However, the present study also demonstrated that, despite monoglucosyl-rutin exhibiting radioprotective effects at low doses, high doses of monoglucosyl-rutin led to a decrease in plating efficiency and an increased doubling time. This effect may be due to double-strand breaks caused by high concentrations of monoglucosyl-rutin. Source

Maeda J.,Colorado State University | Roybal E.J.,Colorado State University | Brents C.A.,Colorado State University | Uesaka M.,University of Tokyo | And 2 more authors.
Oncology Reports | Year: 2014

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have been proven to represent superior clinical agents targeting DNA repair mechanisms in cancer therapy. We investigated PARP inhibitory effects of the natural and synthetic flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, monoglucosyl rutin and maltooligosyl rutin) and tested the synthetic lethality in BRCA2 mutated cells. In vitro ELISA assay suggested that the flavonoids have inhibitory effects on PARP activity, but glucosyl modifications reduced the inhibitory effect. Cytotoxicity tests of Chinese hamster cells defective in BRCA2 gene (V-C8) and its parental V79 cells showed BRCA2-dependent synthetic lethality when treated with the flavonoids. BRCA2 mutated cells were three times more sensitive to the flavonoids than the wild-type and gene complemented cells. Reduced toxicity was observed in a glucosyl modification-dependent manner. The present study provides support for the clinical use of new treatment drugs, and is the beginning of the potential application of flavonoids in cancer prevention and the periodic consumption of appropriate flavonoids to reduce cancer risk in individuals carrying a mutant allele of the BRCA2 gene. Source

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