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Toyama-shi, Japan

Uehara Y.,Kyushu University | Kume A.,Kyushu University | Chiwa M.,Kyushu University | Honoki H.,Toyama Science Museum | And 2 more authors.
Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research | Year: 2015

To estimate the impact of atmospheric deposition on alpine ecosystems, we evaluated the interactions between atmospheric deposition and the Pinus pumila canopy close to the summit of Mount Tateyama, central Japan. We analyzed the chemical characteristics of rain, fog, and throughfall under the canopy in the summertime for 5 years. The concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and sulfate in precipitation at the summit (2839 m a.s.l.) were lower than at the base (13 m a.s.l.), but the total amounts deposited tended to be larger, because the precipitation was greater at the summit and highly concentrated fog water was deposited on the pine canopy. Large fluctuations in the quality and quantity of deposition were due to interannual variations in the meteorological conditions. About 80% of NO3 - -N and NH4 +-N (0.40 and 0.47 kg ha-1 month-1) from rain and fog were retained in the P. pumila canopy, and contributions from fog were twice those from rain. Considerable amounts of K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ ions (0.97, 0.13, and 0.13 kg ha-1 month-1) were leached out from the canopy to the soil as throughfall. The leaching did not increase with rainfall, but increased as the duration of the fog and dew increase. © 2015 Regents of the University of Colorado. Source


Fujita M.,Toyama Science Museum | Lee Y.-N.,Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources | Azuma Y.,Fukui Prefectural Dinosaur Museum
Palaios | Year: 2012

Two unusual, well-preserved, tridactyl trackways associated with sinuous grooves from the Lower Cretaceous Yanguoxia tracksite (Yongjing County, Gansu Province, China) are described and the behavior they present is discussed. The sinuous grooves are protracted and simple, with high percent interruption metric values and a low sinuosity. They are located between left and right pes tracks that have three separated, rounded distal digit impressions but lack plantar impressions. The presence of fine details such as delicate, double-sided, branching mud wrinkles in the grooves, coupled with backward drag marks at the rear of the tracks, indicate that the tracks and grooves are true tracks. We interpret the sinuous grooves as tail traces, and suggest that the tracks were made by a tridactyl dinosaur, probably by an ornithopod. It is hypothesized that the trackmakers made these trackways while partially submerged, propelled by toe-only steps, and leaving a subaqueously emplaced trail. © 2012 SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology). Source


Sugai H.,Kyoto University | Hattori T.,Japan National Astronomical Observatory | Kawai A.,Kyoto University | Ozaki S.,Japan National Astronomical Observatory | And 9 more authors.
Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific | Year: 2010

In order to investigate physical conditions of ionized gas in galaxies, as well as its kinematics, we have developed the Kyoto tridimensional spectrograph II. It is a multimode optical instrument, including integral field spectrograph (IFS) and Fabry-Perot imager modes. We have designed it compact so that we can mount it on 2 m class telescopes as well as on the 8.2 m Subaru telescope. Special care was taken to obtain high-quality calibrations in the IFS mode. In order to remove the chromatic aberration of micropupil images produced by a lenslet array, we have introduced a corrector lens system behind the lenslet array. The internal calibration system simulates the telescope optics so that the system provides micropupil images identical to those produced by the telescope. The rigidness of the instrument provides the positional stability of micropupil images. We have succeeded in test observations of all the modes on Subaru and the University of Hawaii 88 in (UH88) telescopes and have verified the performance of the instrument. This includes the instrument efficiencies as well as the effective sky background subtraction and the minimization of crosstalk effects in the IFS mode. In the IFS mode a spatial resolution of 0.4 was obtained in good seeing conditions. Each of 37×37 lenslets subtends 0.1 in Subaru's case. This samples the image size well. A wider field of view is emphasized in the case of UH88. © 2009. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific. AU rights reserved. Source


Watanabe K.,Toyama Prefectural University | Honoki H.,Toyama Science Museum | Endo F.,Toyama Prefectural University | Murakami T.,Toyama Prefectural University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering | Year: 2011

Measurements of ultrafine particles (UFPs) with diameters smaller than 100 nm were made with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer on the roadside of the Tateyama-Kurobe Alpine route on the western slope of Mt. Tateyama, Japan, in the summer and autumn of 2007 and 2008. The number concentrations of nanoparticles (NPs) with diameters smaller than 50 nm increased sharply in the morning. This increase agreed with that of the NO concentration, which is a good indicator of vehicle emissions. Although the peak concentration of NO was also detected in the late afternoon, the concentrations of NPs did not increase. The vehicle emission of UFPs may vary considerably with the driving conditions. The emission of NPs might have been accelerated under a high engine-load condition. The NP concentrations in October were much higher than those in August, although there were more buses in August than in October. The number size distribution in the morning was bimodal, with the first peak around 20-30 nm and the second one around 70-80 nm. The first peak became small during the daytime. The first peak disappeared, and a small second peak remained through midnight. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Watanabe K.,Toyama Prefectural University | Honoki H.,Toyama Science Museum | Iwama S.,Toyama Prefectural University | Iwatake K.,Toyama Prefectural University | And 6 more authors.
Erdkunde | Year: 2011

Measurements of the chemical composition of fog water at Murododaira (altitude, 2,450m), near the summit of Mt. Tateyama near the coast of the Japan Sea, were performed during the summers (late July and August) of 2004 and 2008 and the autumns (September and early October) of 2008 and 2009. Fog water was also sampled at Bijodaira (altitude, 977m) and Midagahara (altitude, 1,930m), on the western slope of Mt. Tateyama, in the autumn of 2009. Strong acidic fogs (pH <4) were observed during the summer and autumn. The mean ionic concentration at Murododaira in the summer of 2008 was higher than that in the autumn. The air mass at Murododaira was derived primarily from the polluted regions of Asia in the summer of 2008, and the trans-boundary air pollution might have contributed to fog water acidification. On the other hand, acidic fogs might have been produced mainly by pollutants from central and western Japan in 2004. The nonsea-salt sulfate (nssSO 4 2-) concentration was usually higher than the NO 3 - concentration at Murododaira, and the chemical characteristics are different from that of fog water near the industrial regions of Japan where NO x is the main air pollution. The average ratio of NO 3 -/nssSO 4 2- in fog water was relatively high in the summer of 2004. The mean NO 3 -/nssSO 4 2- ratio was significantly low during the autumn of 2008 when the air mass usually came from Asia. Relatively high concentrations of sea-salt components were detected at Murododaira during the autumn of 2009. The acidity of fog water was higher at Murododaira than at Bijodaira and Midagahara. The deposition flux of acidic species by fog water seemed to be higher at Murododaira than at the lower sites. Source

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