Ikushiro S.,Toyama Prefectural University
Drug Metabolism Reviews | Year: 2010
UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) comprise a large gene superfamily that can be classified, based on the degree of amino-acid similarity between isoforms, into several gene families. Among these gene families, the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase family 1 (UGT1) gene is a unique gene complex organized to generate enzymes that share a common carboxyl terminal portion and are unique in the variable amino terminal region. Each variable exon I is preceded by a regulatory 5'-region and, in response to a specific signal, transcription processing splices mRNA from each unique exon 1 to the four common exons ( 2, 3, 4, and 5) to provide a template for synthesis of the individual isoforms. A novel clue to elucidate the gene structure of mammalian UGT1 was cDNA cloning of rat UGT1A6 from the hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rat by Professor Takashi Iyanagi Ph.D. The elucidation of the structure of the rat UGT1 gene complex has led to a greater understanding of the genetic basis of Crigler-Najjar and Gilbert's syndromes. Now, examination of the UGT1 gene structure in hyperbilirubinemic patients has revealed more than 100 different genetic defects in Crigler-Najjar syndromes and one genetic alternation that accounts for the majority of Gilbert's syndrome cases. This review of a chapter in UGT history will focus on the extensive research of Iyanagi and coworkers with the rat UGT1 gene complex and advancing to the study of the human gene. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.
Nishida H.,Toyama Prefectural University
Recent Advances in DNA and Gene Sequences | Year: 2014
Both guanine-cytosine content and nucleosome occupancy are higher in exons than in introns. In this study, the association between the frequencies of the dinucleotide sequences and the nucleosome occupancy of the exons and introns of the genes of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulans, and Aspergillus oryzae was studied. The frequency of the dinucleotide sequences AA (TT), AT, and TA in the introns was more than that in the exons. In addition, the frequency of these sequences in the regions of the exons with low nucleosome occupancy was more than that in the regions with high nucleosome occupancy. On the other hand, the frequency of CC (GG), CG, and GC in the exons and in the regions of the exons with high nucleosome occupancy was higher than that in the introns and in the regions of low nucleosome occupancy, respectively. Interestingly, the frequency of the dinucleotide sequence AC (GT) was similar in the exons and introns of A. fumigatus. In A. nidulans, the frequency of AG (CT) and CA (TG) was similar in the regions of the exons with high and low nucleosome occupancy. In A. oryzae, the frequency of AG (CT) and GA (TC) was similar in the regions of the exons with high and low nucleosome occupancy. This study showed the conserved and varied dinucleotide sequences among the three species of Aspergillus. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.
Sue M.,Tokyo University of Agriculture |
Nakamura C.,Tokyo University of Agriculture |
Nomura T.,Toyama Prefectural University
Plant Physiology | Year: 2011
Benzoxazinones (Bxs) are major defensive secondary metabolites in wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), and maize (Zea mays). Here, we identified full sets of homeologous and paralogous genes encoding Bx glucosyltransferase (GT) and Bxglucoside glucosidase (Glu) in hexaploid wheat (2n = 6x = 42; AABBDD). Four GT loci (TaGTa-TaGTd) were mapped on chromosomes 7A, 7B (two loci), and 7D, whereas four glu1 loci (Taglu1a-Taglu1d) were on chromosomes 2A, 2B (two loci), and 2D. Transcript levels differed greatly among the four loci; B-genome loci of both TaGT and Taglu1 genes were preferentially transcribed. Catalytic properties of the enzyme encoded by each homeolog/paralog also differed despite high levels of identity among amino acid sequences. The predominant contribution of the B genome to GT and Glu reactions was revealed, as observed previously for the five Bx biosynthetic genes, TaBx1 to TaBx5, which are separately located on homeologous groups 4 and 5 chromosomes. In rye, where the ScBx1 to ScBx5 genes are dispersed to chromosomes 7R and 5R, ScGT and Scglu were located separately on chromosomes 4R and 2R, respectively. The dispersal of Bx-pathway loci to four distinct chromosomes in hexaploid wheat and rye suggests that the clustering of Bx-pathway genes, as found in maize, is not essential for coordinated transcription. On the other hand, barley (Hordeum vulgare) was found to lack the orthologous GTand glu loci like the Bx1 to Bx5 loci despite its close phylogenetic relationship with wheat and rye. These results contribute to our understanding of the evolutionary processes that the Bx-pathway loci have undergone in grasses. © 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.
Nishida T.Y.,Toyama Prefectural University
Theoretical Computer Science | Year: 2012
In this paper we introduce an algorithm which solves the membership problem of Petri net controlled grammars without λ-rules and cyclic rules. We define a conditional tree which is a modified derivation tree of a context-free grammar with information about control by a Petri net. It is shown that a conditional tree is cancelled to a derivation tree without conditions if and only if there is a derivation under the control of the Petri net from the start symbol to a word which is the yielding of the conditional tree. Then the Earley's algorithm is extended to make a conditional tree in addition to parse a word. Thus the word is generated by a given Petri net controlled grammar if and only if the resulting conditional tree is cancelled to a tree of no condition. The time complexity of the algorithm is nondeterministic polynomial of the length of an input word. Therefore the class of languages generated by Petri net controlled grammars without λ-rules and cyclic rules is included in the class of context-sensitive languages. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hirahara T.,Toyama Prefectural University
Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics | Year: 2013
The effect of listener's voluntary movement on the horizontal sound localization was investigated using a binaural recording/reproduction system with TeleHead, a steerable dummy head. Stimuli were static binaural signals recorded with a still dummy-head in head-still condition, dynamic binaural signals recorded with a dummy-head that followed precise or modified listener's head rotation, dynamic binaural signals produced by steering-wheel rotation with listener's hands in head-still condition, and dynamic binaural signals produced by an experimenter in head-still condition. For the static binaural signals, some were localized within the head and the front-back errors often occurred. For the dynamic binaural signals, none of them was localized within the head, and the front-back confusions seldom occurred. Sound images of the dynamic binaural stimuli produced by head rotation were localized out-of head, while those produced by the steering-wheel rotation or by an experimenter were moving around the listener's head. Listeners could judge the orientation of each stimulus more correctly with dynamic binaural signals produced by listener's head or steering-wheel rotation than with static binaural signals and with dynamic binaural signals produced by an experimenter. Results suggest that the dynamic binaural signal associated with listener's voluntary movement plays a crucial role in sound localization. © 2013 Acoustical Society of America.