Toyama Prefectural University

www.pu-toyama.ac.jp
Kosugi, Japan

Toyama Prefectural University is a public university at Imizu, Toyama, Japan. The predecessor of the school was founded in 1962, and it was chartered as a university in 1990. Wikipedia.

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Patent
Toyama Prefectural University | Date: 2017-02-22

The objective of the present invention is to provide a (R)-hydroxynitrile lyase which is more stable than a hydroxynitrile lyase derived from a plant, a gene which encodes the hydroxynitrile lyase and by which heterologous expression is possible, and a method for producing the hydroxynitrile lyase. The (R)-hydroxynitrile lyase according to the present invention is characterized in having the specific amino acid sequence such as the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 3.


The present invention provides a method for expressing, as a soluble protein or an active-form mutant enzyme, an enzyme that cannot be expressed as a soluble protein or an active-form enzyme in a heterologous expression system or that is obtained in a minute amount even when an active-form enzyme is expressed, the method including a technique for selecting an effective mutation site and a mutated amino acid. The present invention also provides a new active-form mutant enzyme obtained from this technique. The present invention pertains to a method for producing a soluble mutant protein or an active-form mutant enzyme and involves: specifying an insoluble protein or an inactive-form enzyme; specifying a hydrophilic amino acid that is present in a hydrophobic domain and/or a hydrophobic amino acid that is present in a hydrophilic domain of an -helix structure portion of the insoluble protein or the inactive-form enzyme and preparing a gene that codes for an amino acid sequence in which a substitution is made to the hydrophilic amino acid that is present in the hydrophobic domain and/or the hydrophobic amino acid that is present in the hydrophilic domain, or specifying an amino acid that is relatively less preserved in terms of sequence identity in an amino acid sequence of the inactive-form enzyme, and preparing a gene that codes for an amino acid sequence in which this amino acid is substituted with an amino acid that is more preserved than the amino acid; obtaining proteins by expressing the gene in a heterologous expression system; and selecting, from the obtained proteins, a soluble mutant protein or an active-form mutant enzyme.


Patent
Toyama Prefectural University | Date: 2015-03-03

The objective of the present invention is to provide a (R)-hydroxynitrile lyase which is more stable than a hydroxynitrile lyase derived from a plant, a gene which encodes the hydroxynitrile lyase and by which heterologous expression is possible, and a method for producing the hydroxynitrile lyase. The (R)-hydroxynitrile lyase according to the present invention is characterized in having the specific amino acid sequence such as the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 3.


Sakaki T.,Toyama Prefectural University
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin | Year: 2012

Recent progress on the application of cytochrome P450 (P450) to bioconversion processes, biosensors, and bioremediation were reviewed. Because regio- and enantioselective hydroxylation makes chemical synthesis difficult, a bioconversion process using P450 would be quite attractive. One of the most successful industrial applications of P450 may be the bioconversion process for pravastatin formation using a Streptomyces carbophilus CYP105A3. Unfortunately, practical application of P450s in the bioconversion process is limited because of their low stability, low activity and co-factor dependency. However, directed evolution is expected to generate useful P450 biocatalysts for a wide range of substrates. Shunt pathways of CYP152A1, CYP152A2, and CYP152B1 are notably promising for practical application, because these P450s require neither reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD(P)H) nor electron donor proteins, and efficiently catalyze using hydrogen peroxide. A P450 biosensor using biochip technology is expected to become a tool for rapidly determining drugs and endogenous substances in plasma at a low cost. Bioremediation of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by the CYP1 family appears to be possible by using suicidal, genetically engineered microorganisms. The P450 superfamily has tremendous potential for practical applications in various fields. © 2012 The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan.


Kamakura M.,Toyama Prefectural University
Nature | Year: 2011

The honeybee (Apis mellifera) forms two female castes: the queen and the worker. This dimorphism depends not on genetic differences, but on ingestion of royal jelly, although the mechanism through which royal jelly regulates caste differentiation has long remained unknown. Here I show that a 57-kDa protein in royal jelly, previously designated as royalactin, induces the differentiation of honeybee larvae into queens. Royalactin increased body size and ovary development and shortened developmental time in honeybees. Surprisingly, it also showed similar effects in the fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster). Mechanistic studies revealed that royalactin activated p70 S6 kinase, which was responsible for the increase of body size, increased the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase, which was involved in the decreased developmental time, and increased the titre of juvenile hormone, an essential hormone for ovary development. Knockdown of epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) expression in the fat body of honeybees and fruitflies resulted in a defect of all phenotypes induced by royalactin, showing that Egfr mediates these actions. These findings indicate that a specific factor in royal jelly, royalactin, drives queen development through an Egfr-mediated signalling pathway. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Dadashipour M.,Toyama Prefectural University | Asano Y.,Toyama Prefectural University
ACS Catalysis | Year: 2011

Hydroxynitrile lyases are valuable enzymes for asymmetric synthesis of cyanohydrins. These hydroxyl and nitrile-containing compounds are being used in production of very useful pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and other biologically active compounds using chemical or chemoenzymatic follow-up reactions in industry. Although a huge amount of information exists on the reaction parameters of these enzymes, including stability to pH and organic solvents, yield, reaction time, and valuable data on the enantiopurity of their products, cyanohydrins, there is a lack of update on the biochemistry, discovery, and engineering of the HNLs. Therefore, in the Introduction, we will have a look into these enzymes, cyanohydrins, and aldoxime-nitrile pathways. A brief view of functional groups and several examples of cyanohydrin-based chemicals and pharmaceuticals will also be described. Then we will present characteristics of many S- and R-selective HNLs with comparative tables for several enzymatic properties under biochemistry section. The methods of screening and discovery of these enzymes both from nature and a library of mutants will be described as well as their potential in the synthesis of chemicals. Cloning and expression of new HNLs will also be described under the discovery section. A pool of successful applications of protein engineering methods and the subsequent improvement in the properties of mutant HNLs will be reviewed in detail afterward. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Ikushiro S.,Toyama Prefectural University
Drug Metabolism Reviews | Year: 2010

UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) comprise a large gene superfamily that can be classified, based on the degree of amino-acid similarity between isoforms, into several gene families. Among these gene families, the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase family 1 (UGT1) gene is a unique gene complex organized to generate enzymes that share a common carboxyl terminal portion and are unique in the variable amino terminal region. Each variable exon I is preceded by a regulatory 5'-region and, in response to a specific signal, transcription processing splices mRNA from each unique exon 1 to the four common exons ( 2, 3, 4, and 5) to provide a template for synthesis of the individual isoforms. A novel clue to elucidate the gene structure of mammalian UGT1 was cDNA cloning of rat UGT1A6 from the hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rat by Professor Takashi Iyanagi Ph.D. The elucidation of the structure of the rat UGT1 gene complex has led to a greater understanding of the genetic basis of Crigler-Najjar and Gilbert's syndromes. Now, examination of the UGT1 gene structure in hyperbilirubinemic patients has revealed more than 100 different genetic defects in Crigler-Najjar syndromes and one genetic alternation that accounts for the majority of Gilbert's syndrome cases. This review of a chapter in UGT history will focus on the extensive research of Iyanagi and coworkers with the rat UGT1 gene complex and advancing to the study of the human gene. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.


Fuhshuku K.-I.,Toyama Prefectural University | Asano Y.,Toyama Prefectural University
Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Both enantiomers of β-nitro alcohols are versatile chiral building blocks. However, their synthesis using enzymes as catalysts has received little attention, with the exception of (S)-β-nitro alcohols produced in a reaction catalyzed by an S-selective hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) from Hevea brasiliensis (HbHNL). An R-selective HNL containing an α/β-hydrolase fold from the noncyanogenic plant Arabidopsis thaliana (AtHNL) accepts nitromethane (MeNO 2) as a donor in a reaction with aromatic aldehydes to yield (R)-β-nitro alcohols (Henry reaction; nitro aldol reaction). This reaction proceeded in an aqueous-organic biphasic system. The organic solvent giving the highest enantioselectivity was n-butyl acetate (AcOBu) with an optimum aqueous phase content of 50% (v/v). This is the first example of the R-HNL-catalyzed synthesis of (R)-β-nitro alcohols. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Hirahara T.,Toyama Prefectural University
Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics | Year: 2013

The effect of listener's voluntary movement on the horizontal sound localization was investigated using a binaural recording/reproduction system with TeleHead, a steerable dummy head. Stimuli were static binaural signals recorded with a still dummy-head in head-still condition, dynamic binaural signals recorded with a dummy-head that followed precise or modified listener's head rotation, dynamic binaural signals produced by steering-wheel rotation with listener's hands in head-still condition, and dynamic binaural signals produced by an experimenter in head-still condition. For the static binaural signals, some were localized within the head and the front-back errors often occurred. For the dynamic binaural signals, none of them was localized within the head, and the front-back confusions seldom occurred. Sound images of the dynamic binaural stimuli produced by head rotation were localized out-of head, while those produced by the steering-wheel rotation or by an experimenter were moving around the listener's head. Listeners could judge the orientation of each stimulus more correctly with dynamic binaural signals produced by listener's head or steering-wheel rotation than with static binaural signals and with dynamic binaural signals produced by an experimenter. Results suggest that the dynamic binaural signal associated with listener's voluntary movement plays a crucial role in sound localization. © 2013 Acoustical Society of America.


News Article | November 9, 2015
Site: cen.acs.org

Stinky millipedes that swarm into houses at night in Japan may hold the key to speedy synthesis of important chiral molecules useful for making pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and other chemical products. A team of researchers led by Yasuhisa Asano at Toyama Prefectural University, in Japan, found that Chamberlinius hualienensis, a millipede originally from Taiwan that invaded Japan in the 1980s, produces an enzyme called hydroxynitrile lyase that is much faster at producing enantiometrically . . .

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