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Toyama-shi, Japan

Arita M.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Iwai M.,Toyama Institute of Health | Wakita T.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Shimizu H.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2011

In the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, laboratory diagnosis plays a critical role by isolating and identifying poliovirus (PV) from the stool samples from acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases. In recent years, reestablishment of PV circulation in countries where PV was previously eliminated has occurred because of decreased herd immunity, possibly due to poor vaccination coverage. To monitor the vulnerability of countries to PV circulation, surveillance of neutralizing-antibody titers against PV in susceptible populations is essential in the end game of the polio eradication program. In this study, we have developed a PV neutralization test with type 1, 2, and 3 PV pseudoviruses to determine the neutralizing-antibody titer against PV in human serum samples. With this test, the neutralizing-antibody titer against PV could be determined within 2 days by automated interpretation of luciferase signals without using infectious PV strains. We validated the pseudovirus PV neutralization test with 131 human serum samples collected from a wide range of age groups (ages 1 to >60 years) by comparison with a conventional neutralization test. We found good correlation in the neutralizing-antibody titers determined by these tests. These results suggest that a pseudovirus PV neutralization test would serve as a safe and simple procedure for the measurement of the neutralizing-antibody titer against PV. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source


The mechanism of change in the enantiomer migration order (EMO) of tartarate on ligand exchange CE with Cu(II)- and Ni(II)-D-quinic acid systems was investigated thoroughly by circular dichroism (CD) spectropolarimetry. The 13C NMR spectra of solutions containing D-quinate (pH 5.0) with Cu(II) or Ni(II) revealed the coordination of carboxylate and hydroxyl groups on D-quinate. The D-quinic acid concentration dependence of the CD spectra at a fixed Cu(II) concentration at pH 5.0 indicates that the 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 Cu(II)-D-quinate complexes were formed with an increase in the concentration of D-quinic acid. The CD spectral behavior revealed that D-tartarate is selectively coordinated to the 1:1 complex to give the 1:1:1 Cu(II)-D-quinate-D-tartarate ternary complex while L-tartarate is selectively bound to the 1:2 and 1:3 complexes to form the 1:2:1 ternary complex. In the Ni(II)-D-quinic acid system, it became apparent that the 1:2 Ni(II)-D-quinate complex is mainly formed in the wide range of D-quinic acid concentration at pH 5.0 and D-tartarate is selectively coordinated to the 1:2 complex to form the 1:2:1 ternary complex. The change in EMO of tartarate on ligand exchange CE was explainable by the change in coordination selectivity for D- and L-tartarates in the Cu(II)- and Ni(II)-D-quinic acid systems depending on the compositions of the complexes formed in BGE. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Ueno T.,Nippi Research Institute of Biomatrix | Kaneko K.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Sata T.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Sata T.,Toyama Institute of Health | And 4 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2012

A coiled-coil microtubule-bundling protein, p180, was originally identified as one of the ribosome receptor candidates on the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is highly expressed in secretory tissues. Recently, we reported that p180 plays crucial roles in upregulating collagen biosynthesis, mainly by facilitating ribosome association on the ER. Here, we provide evidence that p180 is required to form translationally active polysome/translocon complexes on the ER. Assembly of highly-developed polysomes on the ER was severely perturbed upon loss of p180. p180 associates with polysome/translocon complexes through multiple contact sites: it was coimmunoprecipitated with the translocon complex independently of ribosomes, while it can also bind to ribosomal large subunit specifically. The responsible domain of p180 for membrane polysome assembly was identified in the C-terminal coiled-coil region. The degree of ribosome occupation of collagen and fibronectin mRNAs was regulated in response to increased traffic demands. This effect appears to be exerted in a manner specific for a specified set of mRNAs. Collectively, our data suggest that p180 is required to form translationally active polysome/translocon complexes on the ER membrane, and plays a pivotal role in highly efficient biosynthesis on the ER membrane through facilitating polysome formation in professional secretory cells. © 2011 The Author(s). Source


Takanashi J.-I.,Kameda Medical Center | Taneichi H.,University of Toyama | Misaki T.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Yahata Y.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | And 6 more authors.
Neurology | Year: 2014

Objective: To elucidate the clinical and radiologic features and analyze factors associated with neurologic outcomes of encephalopathy secondary to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O111. Methods: We reviewed medical records and neuroimaging in 22 patients with neurologic symptoms among 86 with STEC O111 infection. Results: Twenty-one (6 males and 15 females, 10 children and 11 adults) of the 22 patients were diagnosed with encephalopathy. All patients with encephalopathy also presented with hemolyticuremic syndrome. Five patients died, from day 1 to 6 months (days 1-5 in 4 patients), due to progressive encephalopathy with severe cerebral edema observed in neuroimaging (4 patients). Fifteen of the 16 surviving patients clinically recovered completely. Statistical analysis revealed differences between patients with poor (n = 6) and good (n = 15) outcomes in the interval from hemolytic-uremic syndrome presentation to encephalopathy, creatinine levels, and the methylprednisolone administration ratio. Conclusion: We note a high incidence of encephalopathy in the Toyama STEC O111 outbreak. All fatal cases resulted from progressive encephalopathy. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy represents a possible therapeutic choice. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that methylprednisolone pulse therapy increases the probability of a good outcome for patients with encephalopathy associated with STEC O111. Source


Kodama S.,Toyama Institute of Health | Taga A.,Kinki University | Aizawa S.-I.,University of Toyama | Kemmei T.,Toyama Institute of Health | And 3 more authors.
Electrophoresis | Year: 2012

Lipoic acid, an antioxidant, naturally occurs as the (R)-enantiomer, while synthetic lipoic acid is racemic. It is thus of interest to know the (R)-enantiomer content of lipoic acid supplements. Here, we used capillary electrophoresis to directly enantioseparate lipoic acid in dietary supplements by using a sulfonated capillary with an effective voltage of +18 kV and direct detection at 200 nm. Factors affecting migration time and resolution of lipoic acid were investigated. The optimum background electrolyte was found to be 100 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 8 mM trimethyl-β-cyclodextrin as a chiral selector at 20°C. Under the proposed conditions, direct chiral resolution of lipoic acid in dietary supplements was conducted successfully. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

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