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Katy, TX, United States

Kerger B.D.,Cardno ChemRisk LLC | James R.C.,ToxStrategies | Galbraith D.A.,Cardno ChemRisk LLC
Frontiers in Genetics | Year: 2014

The diagnosis of mesothelioma is not always straightforward, despite known immunohistochemical markers and other diagnostic techniques. One reason for the difficulty is that extrapleural tumors resembling mesothelioma may have several possible etiologies, especially in cases with no meaningful history of amphibole asbestos exposure. When the diagnosis of mesothelioma is based on histologic features alone, primary mesotheliomas may resemble various primary or metastatic cancers that have directly invaded the serosal membranes. Some of these metastatic malignancies, particularly carcinomas and sarcomas of the pleura, pericardium and peritoneum, may undergo desmoplastic reaction in the pleura, thereby mimicking mesothelioma, rather than the primary tumor. Encasement of the lung by direct spread or metastasis, termed pseudomesotheliomatous spread, occurs with several other primary cancer types, including certain late-stage tumors from genetic cancer syndromes exhibiting chromosomal instability. Although immunohistochemical staining patterns differentiate most carcinomas, lymphomas, and mestastatic sarcomas from mesotheliomas, specific genetic markers in tumor or somatic tissues have been recently identified that may also distinguish these tumor types from asbestos-related mesothelioma. A registry for genetic screening of mesothelioma cases would help lead to improvements in diagnostic criteria, prognostic accuracy and treatment efficacy, as well as improved estimates of primary mesothelioma incidence and of background rates of cancers unrelated to asbestos that might be otherwise mistaken for mesothelioma. This information would also help better define the dose-response relationships for mesothelioma and asbestos exposure, as well as other risk factors for mesothelioma and other mesenchymal or advanced metastatic tumors that may be indistinguishable by histology and staining characteristics. © 2014 Kerger, James and Galbraith. Source

Urban J.D.,ToxStrategies | Budinsky R.A.,Dow Chemical Company | Rowlands J.C.,Dow Chemical Company
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics | Year: 2011

Species' variation(s) in gene homologues can result in differences among species in their quantitative and qualitative susceptibility and responsiveness to environmental contaminants. In the case of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs), it has been hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes associated with aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-regulated pathways may result in greater susceptibility to DLC toxicity. A key step in the activation of AHR involves heterodimerization with the AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT) protein before binding to its DNA response element. The objective of this study was to identify SNPs in the human ARNT gene that could potentially affect the sensitivity of AHRdependent gene transcription. Results from DNA sequencing of 101 human samples demonstrated the presence of five unique SNPs at the ARNT locus, including three non-synonymous SNPs, of which two were novel: V304M and T462A. The genetic frequencies of the non-synonymous SNPs were very low (≤0.02), and the novel SNPs occurred in the Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) functional domain. In silico analysis indicated that V304M was the only SNP identified in the current population with the potential to significantly alter ARNT protein function. Our findings indicated a very limited occurrence of SNPs with predicted functional consequence in key domains of human ARNT. © 2011 by the Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics (JSSX). Source

Urban J.D.,ToxStrategies | Budinsky R.A.,Dow Chemical Company | Craig Rowlands J.,Dow Chemical Company
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics | Year: 2012

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes coding for proteins that maintain the cytosolic aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) complex may affect individual susceptibility to dioxin-like compound (DLC)-induced toxicity. The cytosolic 90 kDa heat shock proteins (HSP90s) are ubiquitous chaperone proteins that bind to and stabilize numerous client proteins, including non-ligand-bound AHR. The objective of this study was to characterize SNPs in the human cytosolic HSP90 genes (HSP90AA1 and HSP90AB1). DNA sequencing of 101 human samples detected eight and seven unique SNPs at the HSP90AA1 and HSP90AB1 loci, respectively. For HSP90AA1, two non-synonymous (L71M and E554D) and one rare early termination (Q107X) SNP were observed. One SNP (E554D) was a rare novel polymorphism located in the middle substrate binding region. All SNPs detected in the HSP90AB1 gene were synonymous. With the exception of Q107X, in silico analyses predicted all HSP90 SNPs would have very low to medium risk of affecting the regulation of alternative splicing in gene transcription or protein function. Overall, a very limited presence of SNPs with predicted functional consequence in key domains of the human HSP90 proteins was observed in this study. © 2012 by the Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics (JSSX). Source

Driscoll S.K.,Exponent, Inc. | Mcardle M.E.,Exponent, Inc. | Plumlee M.H.,Exponent, Inc. | Proctor D.,ToxStrategies
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2010

Pore water was collected from in situ passive samplers in Hackensack River sediments adjacent to a chromite ore processing residue site in Kearny, New Jersey. Although the sediments at this site contained more than 3,000 mg/kg of total chromium (Cr) and shallow groundwater adjacent to the shore contained more than 1,000 μg/L of hexavalent Cr [Cr(VI)], concentrations of dissolved total Cr and Cr(VI) in pore water (PW) samples were less than ambient water quality criteria for Cr(VI) (50 μg/L). Concentrations of dissolved total Cr in pore water ranged from <2.0 to 5.3 μg/L, while Cr(VI) was not detected (<10 μg/L). These findings are consistent with previous studies, which demonstrated limited bioavailability and toxicity of Cr in sediment at this site and others with similar conditions. © 2009 SETAC. Source

Rowlands C.J.,Dow Chemical Company | Staskal D.F.,ToxStrategies | Gollapudi B.,Dow Chemical Company | Budinsky R.,Dow Chemical Company
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: The effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related dioxin-like chemicals are mediated through binding-dependent activation of the cytosolic aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). The human AHR is a low-affinity receptor relative to most rodents, but some reports suggest that there may be individuals with polymorphic high-affinity receptors, thereby possibly increasing the sensitivity to dioxins in such people. METHODS: Although no polymorphisms have been reported in the ligand binding region of the AHR in the over 100 reported sequences, we sequenced 108 additional human AHR genes in an effort to further identify single single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the open reading frames of the AHR locus. The DNA was sequenced from six ethnic populations that included Japanese, Chinese, European/Caucasian, African-American, South East Asian, and Hispanic. RESULTS: Six exonic SNPs were identified; four had been described as previously reported and two seem to be novel. Four of the SNPs identified lead to amino acid changes in the AHR protein and two of the SNPs lead to synonymous substitutions. An additional four SNPs have been reported elsewhere that were not identified in the current analysis. With these new sequences, more than 200 human AHR gene sequences have been analyzed for SNPs. CONCLUSION: The results indicate a very limited presence of polymorphisms in the core ligand binding region of the human AHR. Other regions, such as the transactivation domain, seem to be slightly more polymorphic in the human population and the impact on functionality should be further examined. © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc. Source

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