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Charlottesville, VA, United States

Stump D.G.,WIL Research Laboratories LLC | Beck M.J.,WIL Research Laboratories LLC | Radovsky A.,WIL Research Laboratories LLC | Garman R.H.,Consultants in Veterinary Pathology Inc. | And 10 more authors.
Toxicological Sciences | Year: 2010

This study was conducted to determine the potential of bisphenol A (BPA) to induce functional and/or morphological effects to the nervous system of F1 offspring from dietary exposure during gestation and lactation according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines for the study of developmental neurotoxicity. BPA was offered to female Sprague-Dawley Crl:CD(SD) rats (24 per dose group) and their litters at dietary concentrations of 0 (control), 0.15, 1.5, 75, 750, and 2250 ppm daily from gestation day 0 through lactation day 21. F1 offspring were evaluated using the following tests: detailed clinical observations (postnatal days [PNDs] 4, 11, 21, 35, 45, and 60), auditory startle (PNDs 20 and 60), motor activity (PNDs 13, 17, 21, and 61), learning and memory using the Biel water maze (PNDs 22 and 62), and brain and nervous system neuropathology and brain morphometry (PNDs 21 and 72). For F1 offspring, there were no treatment-related neurobehavioral effects, nor was there evidence of neuropathology or effects on brain morphometry. Based on maternal and offspring body weight reductions, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for systemic toxicity was 75 ppm (5.85 and 13.1 mg/kg/day during gestation and lactation, respectively), with no treatment-related effects at lower doses or nonmonotonic dose responses observed for any parameter. There was no evidence that BPA is a developmental neurotoxicant in rats, and the NOAEL for developmental neurotoxicity was 2250 ppm, the highest dose tested (164 and 410 mg/kg/day during gestation and lactation, respectively). © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. Source


Draganov D.I.,WIL Research | Markham D.A.,Dow Chemical Company | Beyer D.,Bayer AG | Waechter J.M.,Dow Chemical Company | And 6 more authors.
Toxicology | Year: 2015

Orally administered bisphenol A (BPA) undergoes efficient first-pass metabolism to produce the inactive conjugates BPA-glucuronide (BPA-G) and BPA-sulfate (BPA-S). This study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of BPA, BPA-G and BPA-S in neonatal mice following the administration of a single oral or subcutaneous (SC) dose. This study consisted of 3 phases: (1) mass-balance phase in which effective dose delivery procedures for oral or SC administration of 3H-BPA to postnatal day three (PND3) mice were developed; (2) pharmacokinetic phase during which systemic exposure to total 3H-BPA-derived radioactivity in female PND3 mice was established; and (3) metabolite profiling phase in which 50 female PND3 pups received either a single oral or SC dose of 3H-BPA. Blood was collected from 5 pups/route/time-point at various times post-dosing, the blood plasma samples were pooled by group, and time-point and samples were profiled by HPLC with fraction collection. Fractions were analyzed for total radioactivity and data used to reconstruct radiochromatograms and to integrate individual peaks. The identity of the BPA, BPA-G, and BPA-S peaks was confirmed using authentic standards and LC-MS/MS analysis. The result of this study revealed that female PND3 mice have the capacity to metabolize BPA to BPA-G, BPA-S and other metabolites after both routes of administration. Systemic exposure to free BPA is route-dependent as the plasma concentrations were lower following oral administration compared to SC injection. © 2015 Z. Source

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