Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment TERA

Cincinnati, OH, United States

Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment TERA

Cincinnati, OH, United States
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Rhomberg L.R.,University of Cambridge | Goodman J.E.,University of Cambridge | Haber L.T.,Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment TERA | Dourson M.,Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment TERA | And 6 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Toxicology | Year: 2011

The nature of the exposure-response relationship has a profound influence on risk analyses. Several arguments have been proffered as to why all exposure-response relationships for both cancer and noncarcinogenic endpoints should be assumed to be linear at low doses. We focused on three arguments that have been put forth for noncarcinogens. First, the general "additivity-to- background" argument proposes that if an agent enhances an already existing disease-causing process, then even small exposures increase disease incidence in a linear manner. This only holds if it is related to a specific mode of action that has nonuniversal propertiesproperties that would not be expected for most noncancer effects. Second, the "heterogeneity in the population" argument states that variations in sensitivity among members of the target population tend to "flatten out and linearize" the exposure-response curve, but this actually only tends to broaden, not linearize, the dose-response relationship. Third, it has been argued that a review of epidemiological evidence shows linear or no-threshold effects at low exposures in humans, despite nonlinear exposure-response in the experimental dose range in animal testing for similar endpoints. It is more likely that this is attributable to exposure measurement error rather than a true nonthreshold association. Assuming that every chemical is toxic at high exposures and linear at low exposures does not comport to modern-day scientific knowledge of biology. There is no compelling evidence-based justification for a general low-exposure linearity; rather, case-specific mechanistic arguments are needed. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Sweeney L.M.,Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment TERA | Parker A.,Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment TERA | Haber L.T.,Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment TERA | Tran C.L.,Institute for Occupational Medicine IOM | Kuempel E.D.,National Institute for and Health NIOSH
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2013

A biomathematical model was previously developed to describe the long-term clearance and retention of particles in the lungs of coal miners. The model structure was evaluated and parameters were estimated in two data sets, one from the United States and one from the United Kingdom. The three-compartment model structure consists of deposition of inhaled particles in the alveolar region, competing processes of either clearance from the alveolar region or translocation to the lung interstitial region, and very slow, irreversible sequestration of interstitialized material in the lung-associated lymph nodes. Point estimates of model parameter values were estimated separately for the two data sets. In the current effort, Bayesian population analysis using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation was used to recalibrate the model while improving assessments of parameter variability and uncertainty. When model parameters were calibrated simultaneously to the two data sets, agreement between the derived parameters for the two groups was very good, and the central tendency values were similar to those derived from the deterministic approach. These findings are relevant to the proposed update of the ICRP human respiratory tract model with revisions to the alveolar-interstitial region based on this long-term particle clearance and retention model. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Sweeney L.M.,U.S. Air force | MacCalman L.,Institute of Occupational Medicine | Haber L.T.,Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment TERA | Kuempel E.D.,U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health | Tran C.L.,Institute of Occupational Medicine
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Biomathematical modeling quantitatively describes the disposition of metal nanoparticles in lungs and other organs of rats. In a preliminary model, adjustable parameters were calibrated to each of three data sets using a deterministic approach, with optimal values varying among the different data sets. In the current effort, Bayesian population analysis using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation was used to recalibrate the model while improving assessments of parameter variability and uncertainty. The previously-developed model structure and some physiological parameter values were modified to improve physiological realism. The data from one of the three previously-identified studies and from two other studies were used for model calibration. The data from the one study that adequately characterized mass balance were used to generate parameter distributions. When data from a second study of the same nanomaterial (iridium) were added, the level of agreement was still acceptable. Addition of another data set (for silver nanoparticles) led to substantially lower precision in parameter estimates and large discrepancies between the model predictions and experimental data for silver nanoparticles. Additional toxicokinetic data are needed to further evaluate the model structure and performance and to reduce uncertainty in the kinetic processes governing invivo disposition of metal nanoparticles. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Dourson M.L.,Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment TERA | Kohrman-Vincent M.J.,Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment TERA | Allen B.C.,Bruce Allen Consulting
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2010

The preplant fumigants, metam-sodium, metam-potassium, and dazomet undergo decomposition to the biocide methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) in moist soils. Since MITC vapor can migrate from its site of application, we developed an estimate of health protective concentrations for airborne exposures to MITC that prevents effects among bystanders near treated agricultural fields. Our findings show that, at concentrations of environmental relevance, MITC most likely acts via stimulation of the trigeminal nerve, which mediates sensory irritation in the eyes and nose. Several lines of evidence support the conclusion that sensory irritation of the eyes is the most sensitive effect relevant for health risk assessment arising from short-term MITC exposures. The outcome of a clinical study that included sensitive individuals and measured multiple ocular responses to irritation (e.g., perceived irritation, tearing, and blinking of the eyes) is consistent with this proposed mode of action, as are experimental animal data. Databases and studies by the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) show that, in accidental exposures, human eye irritation is consistently the most sensitive endpoint at low-modeled acute exposure and is often the most sensitive endpoint from acute exposures of unknown, but likely higher, concentrations. Based upon benchmark concentration lower limits from the clinical study and consideration of uncertainties, health protective concentrations of MITC were estimated as 0.2. ppm for 4. h of exposure and 0.8. ppm for 14-min of exposure. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Patterson J.,Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment TERA | Maier A.,Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment TERA | Kohrman-Vincent M.,Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment TERA | Dourson M.L.,Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment TERA
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2013

An expert peer consultation panel reviewed a report by the PAC Analysis Task Group, which hypothesized that systemic, developmental, and reproductive toxicity observed in repeated-dose dermal toxicity studies was related to polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) content. Peer consultations seek to solicit scientific and technical input from experts on the scientific basis and merits of the subject report. This peer consultation panel included nine scientists with expertise in petroleum chemistry, biostatistics, toxicology, risk assessment, structure activity, and reproductive and developmental toxicology. The panel evaluated the technical quality of the PAC report and provided recommendations for improving the statistical and biological approaches. The PAC report authors revised their methods and documentation, which are published elsewhere in this supplement. A review of the post peer consultation manuscripts confirmed that many of the key suggestions from expert panel members were considered and incorporated. In cases where the PAC report authors did not fully incorporate panel suggestions from the peer consultation, they have provided an explanation and support for their decision. This peer consultation demonstrates the value of formal engagement of peers in development of new scientific methods and approaches. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Nance P.,Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment TERA | Patterson J.,Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment TERA | Willis A.,Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment TERA | Foronda N.,New Zealand Ministry of the Government | Dourson M.,Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment TERA
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Human health risk to infants/toddlers and adults was evaluated based on two exposure scenarios from compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) breakage; first in a room with no ventilation and no clean-up, and second in a room with adequate ventilation and clean-up. Concentration data from multiple exposure scenarios tested in a study by Stahler et al. (2008) were compared to human toxicity benchmarks to calculate hazard quotients. For the no clean-up scenario, hazard quotients were generally less than 1, suggesting an unlikely health risk. When the room was ventilated and the broken CFL was cleaned-up, mercury concentrations were generally lower. A review of release scenarios, along with duration-adjusted toxicity benchmarks, indicated that few releases produced levels of concern, but some scenarios resulted in exceedance of risk targets and require further study. Uncertainties in this screening characterization include assumptions about room size, ventilation, age of lamp, the distribution of mercury in the room, and also the choice of the toxicity benchmarks used to develop the hazard quotients. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Andersen M.E.,Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences | Preston R.J.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Maier A.,Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment TERA | Willis A.M.,Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment TERA | Patterson J.,Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment TERA
Critical Reviews in Toxicology | Year: 2014

A public workshop, organized by a Steering Committee of scientists from government, industry, universities and research organizations, was held at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) in September, 2010. The workshop explored the dose-response implications of toxicant modes of action (MOA) mediated by nuclear receptors. The dominant paradigm in human health risk assessment has been linear extrapolation without a threshold for cancer, and estimation of sub-threshold doses for non-cancer and (in appropriate cases) cancer endpoints. However, recent publications question the application of dose-response modeling approaches with a threshold. The growing body of molecular toxicology information and computational toxicology tools has allowed for exploration of the presence or absence of sub-threshold doses for a number of receptor-mediated MOAs. The workshop explored the development of dose-response approaches for nuclear receptor-mediated liver cancer, within a MOA Human Relevance Framework (HRF). Case studies addressed activation of the AHR, the CAR and the PPARα. This article describes the workshop process, key issues discussed and conclusions. The value of an interactive workshop approach to apply current MOA/HRF frameworks was demonstrated. The results may help direct research on the MOA and dose-response of receptor-based toxicity, since there are commonalities for many receptors in the basic pathways involved for late steps in the MOA, and similar data gaps in early steps. Three additional papers in this series describe the results and conclusions for each case-study receptor regarding its MOA, relevance of the MOA to humans and the resulting dose-response implications. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Rider C.V.,National Health Research Institute | Dourson M.L.,Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment TERA | Hertzberg R.C.,Biomathematics Consulting | Mumtaz M.M.,Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry | And 2 more authors.
Toxicological Sciences | Year: 2012

The role of nonchemical stressors in modulating the human health risk associated with chemical exposures is an area of increasing attention. On 9 March 2011, a workshop titled "Approaches for Incorporating Nonchemical Stressors into Cumulative Risk Assessment" took place during the 50th Anniversary Annual Society of Toxicology Meeting in Washington D.C. Objectives of the workshop included describing the current state of the science from various perspectives (i.e., regulatory, exposure, modeling, and risk assessment) and presenting expert opinions on currently available methods for incorporating nonchemical stressors into cumulative risk assessments. Herein, distinct frameworks for characterizing exposure to, joint effects of, and risk associated with chemical and nonchemical stressors are discussed. Published by Oxford University Press 2012.

Reichard J.F.,University of Cincinnati | Haber L.T.,Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment TERA
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2016

The purpose of this work is to systematically consider the data relating to the mode of action (MOA) for the effects of industrially produced trans fatty acid (iTFA) on plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. The hypothesized MOA is composed of two key events: increased LDL production and decreased LDL clearance. A substantial database supports this MOA, although the key events are likely to be interdependent, rather than sequential. Both key events are functions of nonlinear biological processes including rate-limited clearance, receptor-mediated transcription, and both positive and negative feedback regulation. Each key event was evaluated based on weight-of-evidence analysis and for human relevance. We conclude that the data are inadequate for a detailed dose-response analysis in the context of the evolved Bradford Hill considerations; however, the weight of evidence is strong and the overall shape of the dose-response curves for markers of the key events and the key determinants of those relationships is well understood in many cases and is nonlinear. Feedback controls are responsible for maintaining homeostasis of cholesterol and triglyceride levels and underlie both of the key events, resulting in a less-than-linear or thresholded relationship between TFA and LDL-C. The inconsistencies and gaps in the database are discussed. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Dourson M.L.,Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment TERA | York R.G.,R G York & Associates LLC
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2016

The safety of food ingredients will be assessed in the 21st century by mixture of traditional methods, such as the “safe” dose concept, which is thought to be an accurate but imprecise estimation of dose below the population threshold for adverse effect, and contemporary methods, such as the Benchmark Dose (BMD), Chemical Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAF), physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models, and biologically-informed dose response modeling. New research on the horizon related to toxicology 21 may also improve these risk assessment methods, or suggest new ones. These traditional, contemporary and new methods and research will be briefly described. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

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