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Cincinnati, OH, United States

Maier A.,University of Cincinnati | Ovesen J.L.,University of Cincinnati | Allen C.L.,University of Cincinnati | York R.G.,RG York and Associates LLC | And 4 more authors.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Ethanol-based topical antiseptic hand rubs, commonly referred to as alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHS), are routinely used as the standard of care to reduce the presence of viable bacteria on the skin and are an important element of infection control procedures in the healthcare industry. There are no reported indications of safety concerns associated with the use of these products in the workplace. However, the prevalence of such alcohol-based products in healthcare facilities and safety questions raised by the U.S. FDA led us to assess the potential for developmental toxicity under relevant product-use scenarios. Estimates from a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling approach suggest that occupational use of alcohol-based topical antiseptics in the healthcare industry can generate low, detectable concentrations of ethanol in blood. This unintended systemic dose probably reflects contributions from both dermal absorption and inhalation of volatilized product. The resulting internal dose is low, even under hypothetical, worst case intensive use assumptions. A significant margin of exposure (MOE) exists compared to demonstrated effect levels for developmental toxicity under worst case use scenarios, and the MOE is even more significant for typical anticipated occupational use patterns. The estimated internal doses of ethanol from topical application of alcohol-based hand sanitizers are also in the range of those associated with consumption of non-alcoholic beverages (i.e., non-alcoholic beer, flavored water, and orange juice), which are considered safe for consumers. Additionally, the estimated internal doses associated with expected exposure scenarios are below or in the range of the expected internal doses associated with the current occupational exposure limit for ethanol set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. These results support the conclusion that there is no significant risk of developmental or reproductive toxicity from repeated occupational exposures and high frequency use of ABHSs or surgical scrubs. Overall, the data support the conclusion that alcohol-based hand sanitizer products are safe for their intended use in hand hygiene as a critical infection prevention strategy in healthcare settings. © 2015 The Authors. Source

Chambers A.,University of Ottawa | Krewski D.,University of Ottawa | Birkett N.,University of Ottawa | Plunkett L.,Integrated Biostrategies LLC | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part B: Critical Reviews | Year: 2010

There is a need to define exposure-response curves for both Cu excess and deficiency to assist in determining the acceptable range of oral intake. A comprehensive database has been developed where different health outcomes from elevated and deficient Cu intakes were assigned ordinal severity scores to create common measures of response. A generalized linear model for ordinal data was used to estimate the probability of response associated with dose, duration and severity. The model can account for differences in animal species, the exposure medium (drinking water and feed), age, sex, and solubility. Using this model, an optimal intake level of 2.6 mg Cu/d was determined. This value is higher than the current U.S. recommended dietary intake (RDI; 0.9 mg/d) that protects against toxicity from Cu deficiency. It is also lower than the current tolerable upper intake level (UL; 10 mg/d) that protects against toxicity from Cu excess. Compared to traditional risk assessment approaches, categorical regression can provide risk managers with more information, including a range of intake levels associated with different levels of severity and probability of response. To weigh the relative harms of deficiency and excess, it is important that the results be interpreted along with the available information on the nature of the responses that were assigned to each severity score. Source

Douron M.,Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues | Year: 2010

The existing risk assessment and management model is a general framework that can incorporate the assessment of numerous types of chemicals, such as essential elements. The general nature of the framework, however, often precludes precise statements of risk and only gives assurances of accuracy by way of a judicious use of conservative assumptions. A mode-of-action framework may provide approaches that are both more precise and accurate, and that may be used for characterizing both risk and benefit of essential elements, but such a framework needs to address the differing severity of adverse effects. Current dose-response data gaps often hinder the evaluation of the risk and benefit of several essential elements; however, new modeling methods, such as categorical regression, need to be further explored. Finally, the essentiality of certain elements provides evidence that two thresholds likely exist in an individual for adverse effect, one at low doses for undernutrition, and another at high doses for toxicity, for the element of concern. This evidence may aid in the estimation of such thresholds in populations. Source

Lentz T.J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Dotson G.S.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Williams P.R.D.,E Risk science LLP | Maier A.,University of Cincinnati | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene | Year: 2015

Occupational exposure limits have traditionally focused on preventing morbidity and mortality arising from inhalation exposures to individual chemical stressors in the workplace. While central to occupational risk assessment, occupational exposure limits have limited application as a refined disease prevention tool because they do not account for all of the complexities of the work and non-occupational environments and are based on varying health endpoints. To be of greater utility, occupational exposure limits and other risk management tools could integrate broader consideration of risks from multiple exposure pathways and routes (aggregate risk) as well as the combined risk from exposure to both chemical and non-chemical stressors, within and beyond the workplace, including the possibility that such exposures may cause interactions or modify the toxic effects observed (cumulative risk). Although still at a rudimentary stage in many cases, a variety of methods and tools have been developed or are being used in allied risk assessment fields to incorporate such considerations in the risk assessment process. These approaches, which are collectively referred to as cumulative risk assessment, have potential to be adapted or modified for occupational scenarios and provide a tangible path forward for occupational risk assessment. Accounting for complex exposures in the workplace and the broader risks faced by the individual also requires a more complete consideration of the composite effects of occupational and non-occupational risk factors to fully assess and manage worker health problems. Barriers to integrating these different factors remain, but new and ongoing community-based and worker health-related initiatives may provide mechanisms for identifying and integrating risk from aggregate exposures and cumulative risks from all relevant sources, be they occupational or non-occupational. © 2015 This article not subject to U.S. law. Source

Banda M.,US Toxicology | McKim K.L.,US Toxicology | Haber L.T.,Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment | Haber L.T.,University of Cincinnati | And 3 more authors.
Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis | Year: 2015

This study investigated whether Kras mutation is an early event in the development of lung tumors induced by inhalation of particulate vanadium pentoxide (VP) aerosols. A National Toxicology Program tumor bioassay of inhaled particulate VP aerosols established that VP-induced alveolar/bronchiolar carcinomas of the B6C3F1 mouse lung carried Kras mutations at a higher frequency than observed in spontaneous mouse lung tumors. Therefore, this study sought to: (1) characterize any Kras mutational response with respect to VP exposure concentration, and (2) investigate the possibility that amplification of preexisting Kras mutation is an early event in VP-induced mouse lung tumorigenesis. Male Big Blue B6C3F1 mice (6 mice/group) were exposed to aerosolized particulate VP by inhalation, 6h/day, 5 days/week for 4 or 8 weeks, using VP exposure concentrations of 0, 0.1, and 1mg/m3. The levels of two different Kras codon 12 mutations [GGT→GAT (G12D) and GGT→GTT (G12V)] were measured in lung DNAs by Allele-specific Competitive Blocker PCR (ACB-PCR). For both exposure concentrations (0.1 and 1.0mg/m3) and both time points (4 and 8 weeks), the mutant fractions observed in VP-exposed mice were not significantly different from the concurrent controls. Given that 8 weeks of inhalation of a tumorigenic concentration of particulate aerosols of VP did not result in a significant change in levels of lung Kras mutation, the data do not support either a direct genotoxic effect of VP on Kras or early amplification of preexisting mutation as being involved in the genesis of VP-induced mouse lung tumors under the exposure conditions used. Rather, the data suggest that accumulation of Kras mutation occurs later with chronic VP exposure and is likely not an early event in VP-induced mouse lung carcinogenesis. © 2015. Source

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