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Dertinger S.D.,Litron Laboratories, Ltd. | Phonethepswath S.,Litron Laboratories, Ltd. | Weller P.,Litron Laboratories, Ltd. | Avlasevich S.,Litron Laboratories, Ltd. | And 8 more authors.
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis | Year: 2011

An international collaborative trial was established to systematically investigate the merits and limitations of a rat in vivo Pig-a gene mutation assay. The product of this gene is essential for anchoring CD59 to the plasma membrane, and mutations in this gene are identified by flow cytometric quantification of circulating erythrocytes without cell surface CD59 expression. Initial interlaboratory data from rats treated with several potent mutagens have been informative, but the time required for those flow cytometric analyses (∼20 min per sample) limited the number of cells that could be interrogated for the mutant phenotype. Thus, it was desirable to establish a new higher throughput scoring approach before expanding the trial to include weak mutagens or nongenotoxicants. An immunomagnetic column separation method that dramatically increases analysis rates was therefore developed (Dertinger et al. [2011]: Mutat Res 721:163-170). To evaluate this new method for use in the international collaborative trial, studies were conducted to determine the mutagenic response of male Sprague Dawley rats treated for 3 or 28 consecutive days with several doses of 1,3-propane sultone (1,3-PS). Pig-a mutant frequencies were measured over a period of several weeks and were supplemented with another indicator of genetic toxicity, peripheral blood micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) counts. 1,3-PS was found to increase Pig-a mutation and MN-RET frequencies in both 3- and 28-day study designs. While the greatest induction of MN-RETs was observed in the 3-day study, the highest Pig-a responses were found with 28-days of treatment. Pig-a measurements were acquired in approximately one-third the time required in the original method, while the number of erythrocyte and reticulocyte equivalents analyzed per sample were increased by factors of 100 and 10, respectively. The data strongly support the value of using the immunomagnetic separation technique for enumerating Pig-a mutation frequencies. These results also demonstrate that the ongoing international trial will benefit from the inclusion of studies that are based on both acute and protracted repeat dosing schedules in conjunction with the acquisition of longitudinal data, at least until more data have been accumulated. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


Labash C.,Litron Laboratories, Ltd. | Avlasevich S.L.,Litron Laboratories, Ltd. | Carlson K.,Litron Laboratories, Ltd. | Torous D.K.,Litron Laboratories, Ltd. | And 4 more authors.
Mutagenesis | Year: 2014

Validation of the Pig-a gene mutation assay has been based mainly on studies in male rodents. To determine if the mutagen-induced responses of the X-linked Pig-a gene differ in females compared to males, 7- or 14-week old male and female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU). In the study with the 7-week old rats, exposure was to 0, 1, 5 or 25mg ENU/kg/day for three consecutive days (study Days 1-3). Pig-a mutant phenotype reticulocyte (RETCD59-) and mutant phenotype erythrocyte (RBCCD59-) frequencies were determined on study Days -4, 15, 29 and 46 using immunomagnetic separation in conjunction with flow cytometric analysis (In Vivo MutaFlow®). Additionally, blood samples collected on Day 4 were analysed for micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) frequency (In Vivo MicroFlow®). The percentage of reticulocytes (%RET) was markedly higher in the 7-week old males compared to females through Day 15 (2.39-fold higher on Day -4). At 25mg/kg/day, ENU reduced Day 4 RET frequencies in both sexes, and the two highest dose levels resulted in elevated MN-RET frequencies, with no sex or treatment × sex interaction. The two highest dose levels significantly elevated the frequencies of mean RETCD59- and RBCCD59- in both sexes from Day 15 onward. RETCD59- and RBCCD59- frequencies were somewhat lower for females compared to males at the highest dose level studied, and differences in RETCD59- resulted in a statistically significant interaction effect of treatment × sex. In the study with 14-week old rats, treatment was for 3 days with 0 or 25mg ENU/kg/day. RET frequencies differed to a lesser degree between the sexes, and in this case there was no evidence of a treatment × sex interaction. These results suggest that the slightly higher response in younger males than in the younger females may be related to differences in erythropoiesis function at that age. In conclusion, while some quantitative differences were noted, there were no qualitative differences in how males and females responded to a prototypical mutagen, and support the contention that both sexes are equally acceptable for Pig-a gene mutation studies. © 2015 © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.


Dertinger S.D.,Litron Laboratories, Ltd. | Phonethepswath S.,Litron Laboratories, Ltd. | Avlasevich S.L.,Litron Laboratories, Ltd. | Torous D.K.,Litron Laboratories, Ltd. | And 4 more authors.
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis | Year: 2014

To evaluate whether blood-based genotoxicity endpoints can provide temporal and dose-response data within the low-dose carcinogenic range that could contribute to carcinogenic mode of action (MoA) assessments, we evaluated the sensitivity of flow cytometry-based micronucleus and Pig-a gene mutation assays at and below tumorigenic dose rate 50 (TD50) levels. The incidence of micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RET) was used to evaluate chromosomal damage, and the frequency of CD59-negative reticulocytes (RETCD59-) and erythrocytes (RBCCD59-) served as phenotypic reporters of mutation at the X-linked Pig-a gene. Several leukemogenic agents with a presumed genotoxic MoA were studied. Specifically, male Sprague Dawley rats were treated via oral gavage for 28 days with chlorambucil, thiotepa, melphalan, and 1,3-propane sultone at doses corresponding to 0.33x, 1x, and 3x TD50, as well as at the maximum tolerated dose. Frequencies of MN-RET were determined at Days 4 and 29, and RETCD59- and RBCCD59- data were collected pretreatment as well as Days 15/16, 29, and 56/57. Dose-related increases were observed for each endpoint, and time to maximal effect was consistently: MN-RET


Heddle J.A.,York University | Fenech M.,CSIRO | Hayashi M.,Biosafety Research Center | MacGregor J.T.,Toxicology Consulting Services
Mutagenesis | Year: 2011

These are personal reflections on the development of methods to use micronuclei as a measure of genetic damage and their use in research and in toxicology by four people who have been intimately involved with this work, a personal rather than a comprehensive history. About 6000 papers have been published using such methods in many tissues in vivo or in cultured cells of many organisms from plants to humans, but the majority of the work has been on mammalian erythrocytes and human lymphocytes, the areas in which we have worked primarily. Although this is by no means a complete history, those working in the field may be interested in some of the personal events that lie behind the development and acceptance of methods that are now standard. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved.


Morita T.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences | MacGregor J.T.,Toxicology Consulting Services | Hayashi M.,Biosafety Research Center
Mutagenesis | Year: 2011

This report updates previous reviews that were conducted as part of the third and fourth International Workshops on Genetic Toxicology Testing of micronucleus (MN) assays in rodent tissues other than bone marrow. Tissues discussed here are liver, lung, skin, colon, spleen, testes and foetal/neonatal tissues with transplacental exposure. Previous reviews have been updated to include literature published after 2000. In addition to the previously described tissues, MN assays in bladder, buccal mucosal cells, stomach and vagina are also included. MN assays using tissues other than bone marrow are critical for risk assessments, for in situ evaluation and for studies of systemic genotoxic effects and modes of action. Protocols for the majority of assays in tissues other than bone marrow have not yet been well standardised and validated for regulatory application, and further development is needed to support regulatory studies. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved.


Dertinger S.D.,Litron Laboratories, Ltd. | Torous D.K.,Litron Laboratories, Ltd. | Hayashi M.,Biosafety Research Center | MacGregor J.T.,Toxicology Consulting Services
Mutagenesis | Year: 2011

The relative simplicity of the micronucleated erythrocyte endpoint has made it amenable to automated scoring approaches. Flow cytometry is one such scoring platform that has been employed successfully. This review describes the evolution and properties of flow cytometry-based scoring of micronucleated erythrocytes. The methodology has become widely applied to rodent blood specimens and the high throughput nature of the technology provides a number of advantages over manual microscopic scoring. For instance, the ability to efficiently survey many dose levels and many more cells per specimen relative to microscopy benefits studies that are designed to identify no observable effect levels or lowest observable effect levels. Furthermore, flow cytometry makes it practical to study species with low spontaneous reticulocyte (RET) counts and micronucleus (MN) frequencies, thereby facilitating integration of blood-based micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) frequency measurements into experiments conducted across species of toxicological interest. This capability enhances genotoxicity assessments that have historically been made in dedicated MN tests performed in one species. Importantly, the feasibility of using MN-RET frequencies in blood from humans as an index of genetic damage in bone marrow opens a critical area of application that had not been practical previously. We conclude with recommendations for additional work that is needed to more fully realise the potential of flow cytometric in vivo MN scoring. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved.


Starr T.B.,NC Associates | MacGregor J.A.,Toxicology Consulting Services
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2014

The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is currently conducting a toxicological review of vanadium pentoxide (V2O5). As part of that effort, the Agency will need to address the fact that while a National Toxicology Program (NTP) chronic inhalation bioassay of V2O5 produced clear evidence of treatment-related lung tumors in both male and female B6C3F1 mice, neither of these responses were dose-related across the groups exposed to 1, 2, and 4mg/m3. While lung tumor incidence was significantly elevated in all three exposed groups relative to that in the control groups, it was essentially flat across them. Herein we report results from computing poly-3-adjusted Cochran-Armitage trend test statistics with and without inclusion of the lung tumor incidence data from control group mice. These results confirm the absence of any significant dose-related effect on mouse lung tumor incidence in the study groups exposed to V2O5. We also considered two estimates of area under the vanadium lung burden versus time curve as plausible alternative dose metrics to the V2O5 chamber concentration. However, these alternative dose metrics were so highly correlated with the V2O5 chamber concentration (r=0.998) that nothing is to be gained from their use in place of the V2O5 chamber concentration in attempts to perform dose-response modeling of the tumor incidence or unit cancer risk computations. At the present time, there is no scientific basis to support linear (or nonlinear) extrapolations of estimated cancer risks to V2O5 exposure levels below 1mg/m3. Additional tumor data at multiple V2O5 concentrations lower than 1mg/m3 are required to support such extrapolations. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Rajendran N.,Illinois Institute of Technology | Seagrave J.C.,Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute | Plunkett L.M.,Integrative Biostrategies LLC | MacGregor J.A.,Toxicology Consulting Services
Inhalation Toxicology | Year: 2016

Vanadium compounds have become important in industrial processes, resulting in workplace exposure potential and are present in ambient air as a result of fossil fuel combustion. A series of acute nose-only inhalation toxicity studies was conducted in both rats and mice in order to obtain comparative data on the acute toxicity potential of compounds used commercially. V2O3, V2O4, and V2O5, which have different oxidation states (+3, +4, +5, respectively), were delivered as micronized powders; the highly water-soluble and hygroscopic VOSO4 (+4) could not be micronized and was instead delivered as a liquid aerosol from an aqueous solution. V2O5 was the most acutely toxic micronized powder in both species. Despite its lower overall percentage vanadium content, a liquid aerosol of VOSO4 was more toxic than the V2O5 particles in mice, but not in rats. These data suggest that an interaction of characteristics, i.e., bioavailability, solubility and oxidation state, as well as species sensitivity, likely affect the toxicity potential of vanadium compounds. Based on clinical observations and gross necropsy findings, the lung appeared to be the target organ for all compounds. The level of hazard posed will depend on the specific chemical form of the vanadium. Future work to define the inhalation toxicity potential of vanadium compounds of various oxidation states after repeated exposures will be important in understanding how the physico-chemical and biological characteristics of specific vanadium compounds interact to affect toxicity potential and the potential risks posed to human health. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


Benson J.M.,Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute | Gigliotti A.P.,Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute | March T.H.,Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute | Barr E.B.,Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues | Year: 2011

Chronic inhalation studies were conducted to compare the toxicity and potential carcinogenicity of evaporative emissions from unleaded gasoline (GVC) and gasoline containing the oxygenate methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE; GMVC). The test materials were manufactured to mimic vapors people would be exposed to during refueling at gas stations. Fifty F344 rats per gender per exposure level per test article were exposed 6 h/d, 5 d/wk for 104 wk in whole body chambers. Target total vapor concentrations were 0, 2, 10, or 20 g/m3 for the control, low-, mid-, and high-level exposures, respectively. Endpoints included survival, body weights, clinical observations, organs weights, and histopathology. GVC and GMVC exerted no marked effects on survival or clinical observations and few effects on organ weights. Terminal body weights were reduced in all mid-and high-level GVC groups and high-level GMVC groups. The major proliferative lesions attributable to gasoline exposure with or without MTBE were renal tubule adenomas and carcinomas in male rats. GMV exposure led to elevated testicular mesothelioma incidence and an increased trend for thyroid carcinomas in males. GVMC inhalation caused an increased trend for testicular tumors with exposure concentration. Mid-and high-level exposures of GVC and GMVC led to elevated incidences of nasal respiratory epithelial degeneration. Overall, in these chronic studies conducted under identical conditions, the health effects in F344 rats following 2 yr of GVC or GMVC exposure were comparable in the production of renal adenomas and carcinomas in male rats and similar in other endpoints. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Macgregor J.T.,Toxicology Consulting Services | Dertinger S.D.,Litron Laboratories, Ltd.
Mutagenesis | Year: 2014

Determination of the mode of action of carcinogenic agents is an important factor in risk assessment and regulatory practice. To assess the ability of the erythrocyte-based Pig-a mutation assay to discriminate between genotoxic and non-genotoxic modes of action, the mutagenic response of Sprague Dawley rats exposed to methyl carbamate (MC) or ethyl carbamate (EC) was investigated. EC, a potent carcinogen, is believed to induce DNA damage through the formation of a DNA-reactive epoxide group, whereas the closely structurally related compound, MC, cannot form this epoxide and its weaker carcinogenic activity is thought to be secondary to inflammation and promotion of cell proliferation. The frequency of Pig-a mutant phenotype cells was monitored before, during, and after 28 consecutive days of oral gavage exposure to either MC (doses ranging from 125 to 500mg/kg/day) or EC (250mg/kg/day). Significant increases in the frequency of mutant reticulocytes were observed from Days 15 through 43, with a peak mean frequency of 19.9×10-6 on Day 29 (i.e. 24.9-fold increase relative to mean vehicle control across all four sampling times). As expected, mutant erythrocyte responses lagged behind mutant reticulocyte responses, with a maximal mean frequency of 8.2×10-6 on Day 43 (i.e. 16.4-fold increase). No mutagenic effects were observed with MC. A second indicator of in vivo genotoxicity, peripheral blood micronucleated reticulocytes, was also studied. This endpoint was responsive to EC (3.3-fold mean increase), but not to MC. These results support the hypothesis that genotoxicity contributes to the carcinogenicity of EC but not of MC, and illustrates the value of the Pig-a assay for discriminating between genotoxic and non-genotoxic modes of action. © 2015 © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

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