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Macgregor J.T.,Toxicology Consulting Services | Dertinger S.D.,Litron Laboratories, Ltd.
Mutagenesis | Year: 2014

Determination of the mode of action of carcinogenic agents is an important factor in risk assessment and regulatory practice. To assess the ability of the erythrocyte-based Pig-a mutation assay to discriminate between genotoxic and non-genotoxic modes of action, the mutagenic response of Sprague Dawley rats exposed to methyl carbamate (MC) or ethyl carbamate (EC) was investigated. EC, a potent carcinogen, is believed to induce DNA damage through the formation of a DNA-reactive epoxide group, whereas the closely structurally related compound, MC, cannot form this epoxide and its weaker carcinogenic activity is thought to be secondary to inflammation and promotion of cell proliferation. The frequency of Pig-a mutant phenotype cells was monitored before, during, and after 28 consecutive days of oral gavage exposure to either MC (doses ranging from 125 to 500mg/kg/day) or EC (250mg/kg/day). Significant increases in the frequency of mutant reticulocytes were observed from Days 15 through 43, with a peak mean frequency of 19.9×10-6 on Day 29 (i.e. 24.9-fold increase relative to mean vehicle control across all four sampling times). As expected, mutant erythrocyte responses lagged behind mutant reticulocyte responses, with a maximal mean frequency of 8.2×10-6 on Day 43 (i.e. 16.4-fold increase). No mutagenic effects were observed with MC. A second indicator of in vivo genotoxicity, peripheral blood micronucleated reticulocytes, was also studied. This endpoint was responsive to EC (3.3-fold mean increase), but not to MC. These results support the hypothesis that genotoxicity contributes to the carcinogenicity of EC but not of MC, and illustrates the value of the Pig-a assay for discriminating between genotoxic and non-genotoxic modes of action. © 2015 © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

Labash C.,Litron Laboratories, Ltd. | Avlasevich S.L.,Litron Laboratories, Ltd. | Carlson K.,Litron Laboratories, Ltd. | Torous D.K.,Litron Laboratories, Ltd. | And 4 more authors.
Mutagenesis | Year: 2014

Validation of the Pig-a gene mutation assay has been based mainly on studies in male rodents. To determine if the mutagen-induced responses of the X-linked Pig-a gene differ in females compared to males, 7- or 14-week old male and female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU). In the study with the 7-week old rats, exposure was to 0, 1, 5 or 25mg ENU/kg/day for three consecutive days (study Days 1-3). Pig-a mutant phenotype reticulocyte (RETCD59-) and mutant phenotype erythrocyte (RBCCD59-) frequencies were determined on study Days -4, 15, 29 and 46 using immunomagnetic separation in conjunction with flow cytometric analysis (In Vivo MutaFlow®). Additionally, blood samples collected on Day 4 were analysed for micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) frequency (In Vivo MicroFlow®). The percentage of reticulocytes (%RET) was markedly higher in the 7-week old males compared to females through Day 15 (2.39-fold higher on Day -4). At 25mg/kg/day, ENU reduced Day 4 RET frequencies in both sexes, and the two highest dose levels resulted in elevated MN-RET frequencies, with no sex or treatment × sex interaction. The two highest dose levels significantly elevated the frequencies of mean RETCD59- and RBCCD59- in both sexes from Day 15 onward. RETCD59- and RBCCD59- frequencies were somewhat lower for females compared to males at the highest dose level studied, and differences in RETCD59- resulted in a statistically significant interaction effect of treatment × sex. In the study with 14-week old rats, treatment was for 3 days with 0 or 25mg ENU/kg/day. RET frequencies differed to a lesser degree between the sexes, and in this case there was no evidence of a treatment × sex interaction. These results suggest that the slightly higher response in younger males than in the younger females may be related to differences in erythropoiesis function at that age. In conclusion, while some quantitative differences were noted, there were no qualitative differences in how males and females responded to a prototypical mutagen, and support the contention that both sexes are equally acceptable for Pig-a gene mutation studies. © 2015 © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

Dertinger S.D.,Litron Laboratories, Ltd. | Phonethepswath S.,Litron Laboratories, Ltd. | Weller P.,Litron Laboratories, Ltd. | Avlasevich S.,Litron Laboratories, Ltd. | And 8 more authors.
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis | Year: 2011

An international collaborative trial was established to systematically investigate the merits and limitations of a rat in vivo Pig-a gene mutation assay. The product of this gene is essential for anchoring CD59 to the plasma membrane, and mutations in this gene are identified by flow cytometric quantification of circulating erythrocytes without cell surface CD59 expression. Initial interlaboratory data from rats treated with several potent mutagens have been informative, but the time required for those flow cytometric analyses (∼20 min per sample) limited the number of cells that could be interrogated for the mutant phenotype. Thus, it was desirable to establish a new higher throughput scoring approach before expanding the trial to include weak mutagens or nongenotoxicants. An immunomagnetic column separation method that dramatically increases analysis rates was therefore developed (Dertinger et al. [2011]: Mutat Res 721:163-170). To evaluate this new method for use in the international collaborative trial, studies were conducted to determine the mutagenic response of male Sprague Dawley rats treated for 3 or 28 consecutive days with several doses of 1,3-propane sultone (1,3-PS). Pig-a mutant frequencies were measured over a period of several weeks and were supplemented with another indicator of genetic toxicity, peripheral blood micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) counts. 1,3-PS was found to increase Pig-a mutation and MN-RET frequencies in both 3- and 28-day study designs. While the greatest induction of MN-RETs was observed in the 3-day study, the highest Pig-a responses were found with 28-days of treatment. Pig-a measurements were acquired in approximately one-third the time required in the original method, while the number of erythrocyte and reticulocyte equivalents analyzed per sample were increased by factors of 100 and 10, respectively. The data strongly support the value of using the immunomagnetic separation technique for enumerating Pig-a mutation frequencies. These results also demonstrate that the ongoing international trial will benefit from the inclusion of studies that are based on both acute and protracted repeat dosing schedules in conjunction with the acquisition of longitudinal data, at least until more data have been accumulated. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Gollapudi B.B.,Dow Chemical Company | Johnson G.E.,University of Swansea | Hernandez L.G.,National Health Research Institute | Pottenger L.H.,Dow Chemical Company | And 11 more authors.
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis | Year: 2013

Genetic toxicology studies are required for the safety assessment of chemicals. Data from these studies have historically been interpreted in a qualitative, dichotomous "yes" or "no" manner without analysis of dose-response relationships. This article is based upon the work of an international multi-sector group that examined how quantitative dose-response relationships for in vitro and in vivo genetic toxicology data might be used to improve human risk assessment. The group examined three quantitative approaches for analyzing dose-response curves and deriving point-of-departure (POD) metrics (i.e., the no-observed-genotoxic-effect-level (NOGEL), the threshold effect level (Td), and the benchmark dose (BMD)), using data for the induction of micronuclei and gene mutations by methyl methanesulfonate or ethyl methanesulfonate in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that the POD descriptors obtained using the different approaches are within the same order of magnitude, with more variability observed for the in vivo assays. The different approaches were found to be complementary as each has advantages and limitations. The results further indicate that the lower confidence limit of a benchmark response rate of 10% (BMDL10) could be considered a satisfactory POD when analyzing genotoxicity data using the BMD approach. The models described permit the identification of POD values that could be combined with mode of action analysis to determine whether exposure(s) below a particular level constitutes a significant human risk. Subsequent analyses will expand the number of substances and endpoints investigated, and continue to evaluate the utility of quantitative approaches for analysis of genetic toxicity dose-response data. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Starr T.B.,NC Associates | MacGregor J.A.,Toxicology Consulting Services
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2014

The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is currently conducting a toxicological review of vanadium pentoxide (V2O5). As part of that effort, the Agency will need to address the fact that while a National Toxicology Program (NTP) chronic inhalation bioassay of V2O5 produced clear evidence of treatment-related lung tumors in both male and female B6C3F1 mice, neither of these responses were dose-related across the groups exposed to 1, 2, and 4mg/m3. While lung tumor incidence was significantly elevated in all three exposed groups relative to that in the control groups, it was essentially flat across them. Herein we report results from computing poly-3-adjusted Cochran-Armitage trend test statistics with and without inclusion of the lung tumor incidence data from control group mice. These results confirm the absence of any significant dose-related effect on mouse lung tumor incidence in the study groups exposed to V2O5. We also considered two estimates of area under the vanadium lung burden versus time curve as plausible alternative dose metrics to the V2O5 chamber concentration. However, these alternative dose metrics were so highly correlated with the V2O5 chamber concentration (r=0.998) that nothing is to be gained from their use in place of the V2O5 chamber concentration in attempts to perform dose-response modeling of the tumor incidence or unit cancer risk computations. At the present time, there is no scientific basis to support linear (or nonlinear) extrapolations of estimated cancer risks to V2O5 exposure levels below 1mg/m3. Additional tumor data at multiple V2O5 concentrations lower than 1mg/m3 are required to support such extrapolations. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

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