Toxicology Consultant

United Kingdom

Toxicology Consultant

United Kingdom
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Vatakuti S.,University of Groningen | Schoonen W.G.E.J.,Toxicology Consultant | Elferink M.L.G.,University of Groningen | Groothuis G.M.M.,University of Groningen | Olinga P.,University of Groningen
Toxicology in Vitro | Year: 2015

In rat in vivo, both paracetamol (APAP) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induce liver necrosis, but long-term treatment with CCl4, in contrast to paracetamol, causes liver fibrosis. The aim of this study was to perform transcriptomic analysis to compare the early changes in mRNA expression profiles induced by APAP and CCl4 in the rat precision-cut liver slice model (PCLS) and to identify early markers that could predict fibrosis-inducing potential.Microarray data of rat PCLS exposed to APAP andCCl4was generated using a toxic dose based on decrease in ATP levels. Toxicity pathway analysis using a custom made fibrosis-related gene list showed fibrosis as one of the predominant toxic endpoints in CCl4-treated, but not in APAP-treated PCLS. Moreover, genes which have a role in fibrosis such as alpha-B crystallin, jun proto-oncogene, mitogen-activated protein kinase 6, serpin peptidase inhibitor and also the transcription factor Kruppel-like-factor-6 were up-regulated by CCl4, but not by APAP. Predicted activation or inhibition of several upstream regulators due to CCl4 is in accordance with their role in fibrosis.In conclusion, transcriptomic analysis of PCLS successfully identified the fibrotic potential of CCl4 as opposed to APAP. The application of PCLS as an ex vivo model to identify early biomarkers to predict the fibrogenic potential of toxic compounds should be further explored. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Haussmann H.-J.,Toxicology Consultant | Fariss M.W.,Altria Client Services Inc.
Critical Reviews in Toxicology | Year: 2016

The effects of long-term use of nicotine per se on cancer risk, in the absence of tobacco extract or smoke, are not clearly understood. This review evaluates the strength of published scientific evidence, in both epidemiological and animal studies, for the potential carcinogenic effects of nicotine per se; that is to act as a complete carcinogen or as a modulator of carcinogenesis. For human studies, there appears to be inadequate evidence for an association between nicotine exposure and the presence of or lack of a carcinogenic effect due to the limited information available. In animal studies, limited evidence suggests an association between long-term nicotine exposure and a lack of a complete carcinogenic effect. Conclusive studies using current bioassay guidelines, however, are missing. In studies using chemical/physical carcinogens or transgenic models, there appears to be inadequate evidence for an association between nicotine exposure and the presence of or lack of a modulating (stimulating) effect on carcinogenesis. This is primarily due to the large number of conflicting studies. In contrast, a majority of studies provides sufficient evidence for an association between nicotine exposure and enhanced carcinogenesis of cancer cells inoculated in mice. This modulating effect was especially prominent in immunocompromized mice. Overall, taking the human and animal studies into consideration, there appears to be inadequate evidence to conclude that nicotine per se does or does not cause or modulate carcinogenesis in humans. This conclusion is in agreement with the recent US Surgeon General’s 2014 report on the health consequences of nicotine exposure. © 2016 Altria Client Services LLC. Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Roemer E.,Philip Morris International Management S.A. | Schorp M.K.,Philip Morris Products S.A. | Piade J.-J.,Philip Morris International Management S.A. | Seeman J.I.,SaddlePoint Frontiers | Haussmann H.-J.,Toxicology Consultant
Critical Reviews in Toxicology | Year: 2012

Sugars, such as sucrose or invert sugar, have been used as tobacco ingredients in American-blend cigarettes to replenish the sugars lost during curing of the Burley component of the blended tobacco in order to maintain a balanced flavor. Chemical-analytical studies of the mainstream smoke of research cigarettes with various sugar application levels revealed that most of the smoke constituents determined did not show any sugar-related changes in yields (per mg nicotine), while ten constituents were found to either increase (formaldehyde, acrolein, 2-butanone, isoprene, benzene, toluene, benzo[k]fluoranthene) or decrease (4-aminobiphenyl, N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosonornicotine) in a statistically significant manner with increasing sugar application levels. Such constituent yields were modeled into constituent uptake distributions using simulations of nicotine uptake distributions generated on the basis of published nicotine biomonitoring data, which were multiplied by the constituent/nicotine ratios determined in the current analysis. These simulations revealed extensive overlaps for the constituent uptake distributions with and without sugar application. Moreover, the differences in smoke composition did not lead to relevant changes in the activity in in vitro or in vivo assays. The potential impact of using sugars as tobacco ingredients was further assessed in an indirect manner by comparing published data from markets with predominantly American-blend or Virginia-type (no added sugars) cigarettes. No relevant difference was found between these markets for smoking prevalence, intensity, some markers of dependence, nicotine uptake, or mortality from smoking-related lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In conclusion, thorough examination of the data available suggests that the use of sugars as ingredients in cigarette tobacco does not increase the inherent risk and harm of cigarette smoking. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Brusick D.,Toxicology Consultant | Aardema M.,Marilyn Aardema Consulting LLC | Kier L.,Private Consultant | Kirkland D.,Kirkland Consulting | Williams G.,New York Medical College
Critical Reviews in Toxicology | Year: 2016

In 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) published a monograph concluding there was strong evidence for genotoxicity of glyphosate and glyphosate formulations and moderate evidence for genotoxicity of the metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). These conclusions contradicted earlier extensive reviews supporting the lack of genotoxicity of glyphosate and glyphosate formulations. The IARC Monograph concluded there was strong evidence of induction of oxidative stress by glyphosate, glyphosate formulations, and AMPA. The Expert Panel reviewed the genotoxicity and oxidative stress data considered in the IARC Monograph, together with other available data not considered by IARC. The Expert Panel defined and used a weight of evidence (WoE) approach that included ranking of studies and endpoints by the strength of their linkage to events associated with carcinogenic mechanisms. Importantly, the Expert Panel concluded that there was sufficient information available from a very large number of regulatory genotoxicity studies that should have been considered by IARC. The WoE approach, the inclusion of all relevant regulatory studies, and some differences in interpretation of individual studies led to significantly different conclusions by the Expert Panel compared with the IARC Monograph. The Expert Panel concluded that glyphosate, glyphosate formulations, and AMPA do not pose a genotoxic hazard and the data do not support the IARC Monograph genotoxicity evaluation. With respect to carcinogenicity classification and mechanism, the Expert Panel concluded that evidence relating to an oxidative stress mechanism of carcinogenicity was largely unconvincing and that the data profiles were not consistent with the characteristics of genotoxic carcinogens. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Oldham M.J.,Altria Client Services Inc. | Haussmann H.-J.,Toxicology Consultant | Gomm W.,GommConsult | Rimmer L.T.,Altria Client Services Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2012

A tiered approach for testing ingredients in a cigarette matrix was developed and includes chemical-analytical testing and a standard battery of biological toxicity assays. These assays were adapted for comparative evaluation of mainstream smoke from experimental cigarettes with or without ingredients at various inclusion levels. This adaptation to test cigarette mainstream smoke may impact assay response. Since it is difficult to a priori determine discriminatory power, it was evaluated using a large experimental dataset from a multi-year program of cigarette ingredient testing performed at two separate laboratories. A statistical method, minimum detectable difference (MDD), was used as a measure of assay discriminatory power. MDD of cigarette smoke constituents ranged from 6% to 29% of the average. Salmonella mutagenicity and cytotoxicity test MDDs ranged from 20% to 81% and 18% to 49%, respectively. Body weight gain in 90-day nose-only inhalation studies yielded an MDD of 30-40%. Histopathological findings with severity scores between 0.5 and 1.5 had the lowest MDDs of 23% and higher. In general, discriminatory power decreased with increasing biological complexity and toxicological relevance of the assay. Beyond statistical analysis, however, a weight-of-the-evidence analysis by experienced researchers is required for toxicological assessment of a cigarette ingredient. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Amacher D.E.,Toxicology Consultant
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism and Toxicology | Year: 2016

Introduction: If a drug is found to be an inducer of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes via activation of nuclear receptors such as pregnane X receptor (PXR) or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), it is likely that drug transporters regulated through these same receptors will be induced as well. This review highlights what is currently known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate transporter expression and where the research is directed. Areas covered: This review is focused on publications that describe the role of activated hepatic nuclear receptors in the subsequent regulation of drug uptake and/or efflux transporters following exposure to xenobiotics. Expert opinion: Many of the published studies on the role of nuclear receptors in the regulation of drug transporters involve non-human test animals. But due to species response differences, these associations are not always applicable to humans. For this reason, some relevant human in vitro models have been developed, such as primary or cryopreserved human hepatocytes, human liver slices, or HepG2 or HuH7 cell lines transiently or stably transfected with PXR expression and reporter constructs as well as in vivo models such as PXR-humanized mice. These human-relevant test systems will continue to be developed and applied for the testing of investigational drugs. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Landsiedel R.,BASF | Ma-Hock L.,BASF | Haussmann H.-J.,Toxicology Consultant | van Ravenzwaay B.,BASF | And 2 more authors.
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology | Year: 2012

While technical and medical potential offered by nanotechnologies increase, the safety assessment of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) needs to follow this pace. Inhalation is a major route of occupational and environmental exposure, and is most relevant for most of the respective safety assessment studies. Control and generation of aerosol from the test materials for this route of administration are technically demanding, and not surprisingly, there are relatively few NMs tested in toxicokinetic, short-term, and subchronic inhalation studies. These studies were in part adapted to the peculiarities of inhaled NMs, but few were also conducted according to organization for economic co-operation and development (OECD) test guidelines. Inhalation studies on the potential to develop chronic diseases, or studies to check the potential analogy to cardiovascular diseases associated with adverse health effects from ambient air pollution, are largely missing. On the way forward, appropriate inhalation studies need to be performed on a number of NMs to assess their hazards and to provide a sound database for correlation and validation of alternative in vitro methods. Moreover, these studies can potentially aid in the grouping of different NMs based on their biokinetics or biological effects. For carcinogenic and cardiovascular effects, research studies are needed to verify-or disprove-the relevance and the mechanisms by which NMs contribute to these effects. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Butenhoff J.L.,3M | Kennedy G.L.,DuPont Company | Jung R.,Toxicology Consultant | Chang S.-C.,3M
Toxicology Reports | Year: 2014

Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) is a fully fluorinated eight-carbon fatty acid analog with exceptional stability toward degradation that has been used as an industrial surfactant and has been detected in environmental and biological matrices. Exposures to PFOA in the workplace and in the environment have continuously stimulated investigations into its potential human health hazards. In this article, the results of fifteen unpublished genotoxicity assays conducted with perfluorooctanoate (as either the linear or linear/branched ammonium salt (APFO) or the linear/branched sodium salt) are reported and include: seven mutation assays (three in vitro reverse mutation assays with histidine auxotrophic strains of Salmonella typhimurium, two in vitro reverse mutation assays with the tryptophan auxotrophic Escherichia coli WP2uvr strain, one in vitro mitotic recombination (gene conversion) assay with Saccharomyces cerevisiae D4, and an in vitro Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) HGPRT forward mutation assay); seven studies to assess potential for chromosomal damage (three in vitro CHO chromosomal aberration studies, an in vitro human whole blood lymphocyte chromosomal aberration study, and three in vivo mouse micronucleus assays); and an in vitro C3H 10T1/2 cell transformation assay. Although PFOA has not been demonstrated to be metabolized, all in vitro assays were conducted both in the presence and in the absence of a mammalian hepatic microsomal activation system. These assays were originally described in twelve contract laboratory reports which have been available via the United States Environmental Protection Agency public docket (Administrative Record 226) for over a decade; however, the details of these assays have not been published previously in the open scientific literature. With the exception of limited positive findings at high and cytotoxic concentrations in some assay trials which reflected the likely consequence of cytotoxic disruption of normal cellular processes and not a specific genotoxic effect, the results of the studies presented in this paper and other published results clearly demonstrate the absence of direct mutagenic or genotoxic risk associated with PFOA. This finding is consistent with the physical/chemical characteristics of PFOA and is supported by other published genotoxicity studies. © 2014 he Authors.

Croom E.,Toxicology Consultant
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science | Year: 2012

Xenobiotics have been defined as chemicals to which an organism is exposed that are extrinsic to the normal metabolism of that organism. Without metabolism, many xenobiotics would reach toxic concentrations. Most metabolic activity inside the cell requires energy, cofactors, and enzymes in order to occur. Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes can be divided into phase I, phase II, and transporter enzymes. Lipophilic xenobiotics are often first metabolized by phase I enzymes, which function to make xenobiotics more polar and provide sites for conjugation reactions. Phase II enzymes are conjugating enzymes and can directly interact with xenobiotics but more commonly interact with metabolites produced by phase I enzymes. Through both passive and active transport, these more polar metabolites are eliminated. Most xenobiotics are cleared through multiple enzymes and pathways. The relationship between chemical concentrations, enzyme affinity and quantity, and cofactor availability often determine which metabolic reactions dominate in a given individual. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Context The silencing or activation of cancer-associated genes by epigenetic mechanisms can ultimately lead to the clonal expansion of cancer cells. Objective The aim of this review is to summarize all relevant epigenetic biomarkers that have been proposed to date for the diagnosis of some prevalent human cancers. Methods A Medline search for the terms epigenetic biomarkers, human cancers, DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs was performed. Results One hundred fifty-seven relevant publications were found and reviewed. Conclusion To date, a significant number of potential epigenetic cancer biomarkers of human cancer have been investigated, and some have advanced to clinical implementation. © 2016 Taylor & Francis

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