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Obican S.,George Washington University | Scialli A.R.,Toxicology Center
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics | Year: 2011

A consideration of teratogenic exposures includes not only an agent (chemical, radiation, biologic) but an exposure level and timing of exposure. There are criteria by which exposures are evaluated for a causal connection with an abnormal outcome. We here review some teratogenic exposures and discuss how they were initially described and confirmed. We have limited our discussion to some of the exposures for which a connection to structural malformations has been accepted in some quarters, and we indicate some exposures for which a causal association awaits confirmation. We recommend that counselors find a reliable and updatable source of information on exposures during pregnancy. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

Cheung N.K.M.,City University of Hong Kong | Cheung A.C.K.,City University of Hong Kong | Ye R.R.,City University of Hong Kong | Ge W.,City University of Hong Kong | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Fish Biology | Year: 2013

Gene expression of all known subtypes of oestrogen receptor (ER) and oestrogen-related receptor (ERR) in multiple organs and both sexes of the Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes was profiled and systematically analysed. As revealed by statistical analyses and low-dimensional projections, the expressions of ERRs proved to be organ and sex dependent, which is in contrast with the ubiquitous nature of ERs. Moreover, expressions of specific ERR isoforms (ERRγ1, ERRγ2) were strongly correlated with that of all ERs (ERα, ERβ1 and ERβ2), suggesting the existence of potential interactions. Findings of this study shed light on the co-regulatory role of particular ERRs in oestrogen-ERs signalling and highlight the potential importance of ERRs in determining organ and sex-specific oestrogen responses. Using O. latipes as an alternative vertebrate model, this study provides new directions that call for collective efforts from the scientific community to unravel the mechanistic action of ER-ERR cross-talks, and their intertwining functions, in a cell and sex-specific manner in vivo. © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles. Source

Lim Y.-P.,China Medical University at Taichung | Lim Y.-P.,Toxicology Center | Lin C.-L.,Data Management | Hung D.-Z.,China Medical University at Taichung | And 4 more authors.
Medicine (United States) | Year: 2015

Organophosphate (OP) poisoning is a critical cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We conducted a nationwide longitudinal cohort study to investigate the development of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) among patients admitted with OP intoxication.We identified patients with OP intoxication by using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database and enrolled 9223 patients who were hospitalized for OP intoxication between 2000 and 2011. OP intoxication was diagnosed based on a clinical assessment and serum acetylcholinesterase levels at the time of hospital admission. Each patient in the OP intoxication cohort was randomly frequency matched with 4 patients without OP intoxication based on their age, sex, and index year (36,892 patients as control cohort), and all patients were observed from the index date until the appearance of a DVT or a PTE event, or until December 31, 2011. We analyzed the risks of DVT and PTE by using Cox proportional hazards regression models that included the demographic variables of sex, age, and comorbidities (eg, hypertension, diabetes, cerebral vascular disease, heart failure, all cancer types, and lower leg fracture or surgery).The results revealed a significantly increased risk of developing DVT among patients with OP poisoning (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]=1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03-2.34) but not PTE (adjusted HR=1.44; 95% CI=0.83-2.52). Among the patients without comorbidities, the OP poisoning patients compared with controls had a higher adjusted HR of 2.12 (95% CI=1.21-3.71) for DVT.The results of this nationwide cohort study indicate that the risk of developing DVT is markedly higher in patients with OP intoxication compared with that of the general population. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Source

Madariaga Y.G.,Toxicology Center | Cardenas M.B.,Toxicology Center | Irsula M.T.,Toxicology Center | Alfonso O.C.,Toxicology Center | And 2 more authors.
Lab Animal | Year: 2015

Various animal models of hyperlipidemia are used in research. Four rodent hyperlipidemia experimental models are examined in this study: three chronic hyperlipidemia models based on dietary supplementation with lipid or sucrose for 3 months and one acute hyperlipidemia model based on administration of the nonionic surfactant poloxamer. Neither lipid supplementation nor sucrose supplementation in Wistar rats was effective for establishing hyperlipidemia. Combining both lipid and sucrose supplementation in BALB/c mice induced hypercholesterolemia, as reflected in a considerable increase in blood cholesterol concentration, but did not produce an increase in blood triglyceride concentration. Poloxamer administration in C57BL/J6 mice produced increases in blood cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. The authors conclude that supplementation of both lipid and sucrose in BALB/c mice was the most effective method for developing chronic hypercholesterolemia. © Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

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