Kansas City, MO, United States
Kansas City, MO, United States

Time filter

Source Type

PubMed | Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children, Royal Childrens Hospital, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Mount Sinai School of Medicine and 20 more.
Type: | Journal: Nature communications | Year: 2015

Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) are polygenic diseases affecting 7-10% of the population in the Western Hemisphere with few effective therapies. Here, we quantify the heritability of paediatric AIDs (pAIDs), including JIA, SLE, CEL, T1D, UC, CD, PS, SPA and CVID, attributable to common genomic variations (SNP-h(2)). SNP-h(2) estimates are most significant for T1D (0.863s.e. 0.07) and JIA (0.727s.e. 0.037), more modest for UC (0.386s.e. 0.04) and CD (0.4540.025), largely consistent with population estimates and are generally greater than that previously reported by adult GWAS. On pairwise analysis, we observed that the diseases UC-CD (0.69s.e. 0.07) and JIA-CVID (0.343s.e. 0.13) are the most strongly correlated. Variations across the MHC strongly contribute to SNP-h(2) in T1D and JIA, but does not significantly contribute to the pairwise rG. Together, our results partition contributions of shared versus disease-specific genomic variations to pAID heritability, identifying pAIDs with unexpected risk sharing, while recapitulating known associations between autoimmune diseases previously reported in adult cohorts.


PubMed | Toxicology and Therapeutic Innovation, University of Kansas Medical Center and Childrens Mercy Kansas City
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical and translational science | Year: 2016

Variability in response to methotrexate (MTX) in the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) remains unpredictable and poorly understood. Based on previous studies implicating an interaction between nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) expression and MTX therapy in inflammatory arthritis, we hypothesized that increased NAMPT expression would be associated with reduced therapeutic response to MTX in patients with JIA. A significant association was found between increased plasma concentrations of NAMPT and reduced therapeutic response in patients with JIA treated with MTX. Inhibition of NAMPT in cell culture by either siRNA-based gene silencing or pharmacological inhibition with FK-866 was found to result in a fourfold increase in the pharmacological activity of MTX. Collectively, these findings provide evidence that NAMPT inhibits the pharmacological activity of MTX and may represent a predictive biomarker of response, as well as a therapeutic target, in the treatment of JIA with MTX.


Wang G.S.,Aurora University | Wang G.S.,Denver Health Hospital | Levitan R.,University of Arizona | Wiegand T.J.,University of Rochester | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medical Toxicology | Year: 2015

Although there have been many developments related to specific strategies for treating patients after poisoning exposures, the mainstay of therapy remains symptomatic and supportive care. One of the most aggressive supportive modalities is extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Our goal was to describe the use of ECMO for toxicological exposures reported to the American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT) Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC). We performed a retrospective review of the ACMT ToxIC Registry from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2013. Inclusion criteria included patients aged 0 to 89 years, evaluated between January 2010 through December 2013, and received ECMO for toxicological exposure. There were 26,271 exposures (60 % female) reported to the ToxIC Registry, 10 (0.0004 %) received ECMO: 4 pediatric (< 12 years), 2 adolescent (12–18 years), and 4 adults (>18 years). Time of initiation of ECMO ranged from 4 h to 4 days, with duration from 15 h to 12 days. Exposures included carbon monoxide/smoke inhalation (2), bitter almonds, methanol, and several medications including antihistamines (2), antipsychotic/antidepressant (2), cardiovascular drugs (2), analgesics (2), sedative/hypnotics (2), and antidiabetics (2). Four ECMO patients received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during their hospital course, and the overall survival rate was 80 %. ECMO was rarely used for poisoning exposures in the ACMT ToxIC Registry. ECMO was utilized for a variety of ages and for pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical exposures. In most cases, ECMO was administered prior to cardiovascular failure, and survival rate was high. If available, ECMO may be a valid treatment modality. © 2015 American College of Medical Toxicology


PubMed | Toxicology and Therapeutic Innovation, University of Rochester, Aurora University, University of Arizona and Cincinnati Drug and Poison Information Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of medical toxicology : official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology | Year: 2016

Although there have been many developments related to specific strategies for treating patients after poisoning exposures, the mainstay of therapy remains symptomatic and supportive care. One of the most aggressive supportive modalities is extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Our goal was to describe the use of ECMO for toxicological exposures reported to the American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT) Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC). We performed a retrospective review of the ACMT ToxIC Registry from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2013. Inclusion criteria included patients aged 0 to 89years, evaluated between January 2010 through December 2013, and received ECMO for toxicological exposure. There were 26,271 exposures (60% female) reported to the ToxIC Registry, 10 (0.0004%) received ECMO: 4 pediatric (< 12years), 2 adolescent (12-18years), and 4 adults (>18years). Time of initiation of ECMO ranged from 4h to 4days, with duration from 15h to 12days. Exposures included carbon monoxide/smoke inhalation (2), bitter almonds, methanol, and several medications including antihistamines (2), antipsychotic/antidepressant (2), cardiovascular drugs (2), analgesics (2), sedative/hypnotics (2), and antidiabetics (2). Four ECMO patients received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during their hospital course, and the overall survival rate was 80%. ECMO was rarely used for poisoning exposures in the ACMT ToxIC Registry. ECMO was utilized for a variety of ages and for pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical exposures. In most cases, ECMO was administered prior to cardiovascular failure, and survival rate was high. If available, ECMO may be a valid treatment modality.


PubMed | University Utrecht, Children's Healthcare Of Atlanta, Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children, Toxicology and Therapeutic Innovation and 13 more.
Type: | Journal: Annals of the rheumatic diseases | Year: 2016

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous group of diseases, comprising seven categories. Genetic data could potentially be used to help redefine JIA categories and improve the current classification system. The human leucocyte antigen (HLA) region is strongly associated with JIA. Fine-mapping of the region was performed to look for similarities and differences in HLA associations between the JIA categories and define correspondences with adult inflammatory arthritides.Dense genotype data from the HLA region, from the Immunochip array for 5043 JIA cases and 14390 controls, were used to impute single-nucleotide polymorphisms, HLA classical alleles and amino acids. Bivariate analysis was performed to investigate genetic correlation between the JIA categories. Conditional analysis was used to identify additional effects within the region. Comparison of the findings with those in adult inflammatory arthritic diseases was performed.We identified category-specific associations and have demonstrated for the first time that rheumatoid factor (RF)-negative polyarticular JIA and oligoarticular JIA are genetically similar in their HLA associations. We also observe that each JIA category potentially has an adult counterpart. The RF-positive polyarthritis association at HLA-DRB1 amino acid at position 13 mirrors the association in adult seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Interestingly, the combined oligoarthritis and RF-negative polyarthritis dataset shares the same association with adult seronegative RA.The findings suggest the value of using genetic data in helping to classify the categories of this heterogeneous disease. Mapping JIA categories to adult counterparts could enable shared knowledge of disease pathogenesis and aetiology and facilitate transition from paediatric to adult services.


Gaedigk A.,Toxicology and Therapeutic Innovation | Gaedigk A.,University of Missouri - Kansas City | Riffel A.K.,Toxicology and Therapeutic Innovation | Leeder J.S.,Toxicology and Therapeutic Innovation | Leeder J.S.,University of Missouri - Kansas City
Journal of Molecular Diagnostics | Year: 2015

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6, a major contributor to the metabolism and bioactivation of many clinically used drugs, is encoded by a complex, highly polymorphic gene locus. To aid in the characterization of CYP2D6 allelic variation, we developed allele-specific long-range PCR (ASXL-PCR) to amplify only the allele of interest for further characterization by PCR. This development was achieved utilizing single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the upstream region of CYP2D6 and a universal CYP2D6-specific reverse primer. This approach was assessed and optimized on samples with known genotypes. The application of ASXL-PCR clarified a case with a complex genotype (CYP2D6∗2x2/∗4N+∗4) by amplifying the duplicated gene units separately for subsequent analysis. Furthermore, ASXL-PCR and subsequent sequence analysis also resolved genotype discord in a mother/daughter relationship by revealing the presence of the CYP2D6∗59 allelic variant in both individuals. Finally, we demonstrated that the 2939G>A single-nucleotide polymorphism present on CYP2D6∗59 interfered with the TaqMan genotype assay that detected 2850C>T, causing false genotype assignments. Assay interference was resolved using an alternative TaqMan genotype assay currently available as a custom-made assay. These examples demonstrate the utility of ASXL-PCR for improved CYP2D6 allele/haplotype characterization. This fast, easy-to-perform method is not limited to CYP2D6 but can be adapted to any gene locus for which polymorphic sites are known. © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology.


Hijaz N.M.,Hepatology and Nutrition | Friesen C.A.,Hepatology and Nutrition | Schurman J.V.,Hepatology and Nutrition | Pearce R.E.,Toxicology and Therapeutic Innovation | Abdel-Rahman S.M.,Toxicology and Therapeutic Innovation
Neurogastroenterology and Motility | Year: 2015

Background: Adult studies indicate a role for ghrelin in functional dyspepsia (FD) mediated through ghrelin's effect on gastric emptying (GE). This study examines the relationship between ghrelin, liquid GE, and pain in children with FD. Methods: Thirteen FD patients reporting symptoms consistent with post-prandial distress syndrome (PDS) and 17 healthy controls were enrolled. All participants received a liquid meal containing 13C-sodium acetate. Pain severity, liquid GE utilizing exhaled 13CO2 from the sodium acetate breath tests (ABT), plasma acyl ghrelin (AG), and des-acyl ghrelin concentrations were measured at specific intervals over 240 min following ingestion. Key Results: FD-PDS patients demonstrated lower mean baseline AG (14.8 ± 9.7 vs 27.2 ± 14.0 fmol/mL; p = 0.013), AG Cmax (24.6 ± 8.2 vs 40.5 ± 16.8 fmol/mL; p = 0.007), and AG flux (18.2 ± 7.8 vs 32.7 ± 17.3 fmol/mL; p = 0.015) than controls. The time to reach maximum exhaled 13CO2 concentration (T max) was longer in FD patients than controls (47.5 ± 18.5 vs 35.8 ± 11.8 min; p = 0.046). Significant relationships between ghrelin analyte ratios and ABT parameters were largely confined to control participants. Conclusions & Inferences: FD-PDS in children is associated with lower fasting and maximum AG concentrations, and dampened AG flux. These data suggest a possible role for altered ghrelin physiology in the pathogenesis of PDS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


PubMed | Toxicology and Therapeutic Innovation, Health Science University, University of Missouri - Kansas City, CompanionDxR Reference Laboratory Houston and Thermo Fisher Scientific
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in pharmacology | Year: 2016

TaqMan genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6 (*) 15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6 (*) 35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6 (*) 15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6 (*) 15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer and/or probe regions can impact the performance of PCR-based genotype assays, including TaqMan. Regardless of the test platform used, it is prudent to confirm rare allele calls by an independent method.


PubMed | Toxicology and Therapeutic Innovation and University of Missouri - Kansas City
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD | Year: 2015

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6, a major contributor to the metabolism and bioactivation of many clinically used drugs, is encoded by a complex, highly polymorphic gene locus. To aid in the characterization of CYP2D6 allelic variation, we developed allele-specific long-range PCR (ASXL-PCR) to amplify only the allele of interest for further characterization by PCR. This development was achieved utilizing single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the upstream region of CYP2D6 and a universal CYP2D6-specific reverse primer. This approach was assessed and optimized on samples with known genotypes. The application of ASXL-PCR clarified a case with a complex genotype (CYP2D6*2x2/*4N+*4) by amplifying the duplicated gene units separately for subsequent analysis. Furthermore, ASXL-PCR and subsequent sequence analysis also resolved genotype discord in a mother/daughter relationship by revealing the presence of the CYP2D6*59 allelic variant in both individuals. Finally, we demonstrated that the 2939G>A single-nucleotide polymorphism present on CYP2D6*59 interfered with the TaqMan genotype assay that detected 2850C>T, causing false genotype assignments. Assay interference was resolved using an alternative TaqMan genotype assay currently available as a custom-made assay. These examples demonstrate the utility of ASXL-PCR for improved CYP2D6 allele/haplotype characterization. This fast, easy-to-perform method is not limited to CYP2D6 but can be adapted to any gene locus for which polymorphic sites are known.


PubMed | Toxicology and Therapeutic Innovation, Biogen, University of Washington and Merck And Co.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics | Year: 2016

Protein expression of major hepatic uptake and efflux drug transporters in human pediatric (n = 69) and adult (n = 41) livers was quantified by liquid chromatography / tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). Transporter protein expression of OCT1, OATP1B3, P-gp, and MRP3 was age-dependent. Particularly, significant differences were observed in transporter expression (P < 0.05) between the following age groups: neonates vs. adults (OCT1, OATP1B3, P-gp), neonates or infants vs. adolescents and/or adults (OCT1, OATP1B3, and P-gp), infants vs. children (OATP1B3 and P-gp), and adolescents vs. adults (MRP3). OCT1 showed the largest increase, of almost 5-fold, in protein expression with age. Ontogenic expression of OATP1B1 was confounded by genotype and was revealed only in livers harboring SLCO1B1*1A/*1A. In livers >1 year, tissues harboring SLCO1B1*14/*1A showed 2.5-fold higher (P < 0.05) protein expression than SLCO1B1*15/*1A. Integration of these ontogeny data in physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models will be a crucial step in predicting hepatic drug disposition in children.

Loading Toxicology and Therapeutic Innovation collaborators
Loading Toxicology and Therapeutic Innovation collaborators