West Long Branch, United States
West Long Branch, United States

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Zeidler-Erdely P.C.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch | Zeidler-Erdely P.C.,U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health | Battelli L.A.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch | Salmen-Muniz R.,Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues | Year: 2011

Stainless steel welding produces fumes that contain carcinogenic metals. Therefore, welders may be at risk for the development of lung cancer, but animal data are inadequate in this regard. Our main objective was to examine lung tumor production and histopathological alterations in lung-tumor-susceptible (A/J) and -resistant C57BL/6J (B6) mice exposed to manual metal arc-stainless steel (MMA-SS) welding fume. Male mice were exposed to vehicle or MMA-SS welding fume (20 mg/kg) by pharyngeal aspiration once per month for 4 mo. At 78 wk postexposure, gross tumor counts and histopathological changes were assessed and metal analysis was done on extrapulmonary tissue (aorta, heart, kidney, and liver). At 78 wk postexposure, gross lung tumor multiplicity and incidence were unremarkable in mice exposed to MMA-SS welding fume. Histopathology revealed that only the exposed A/J mice contained minimal amounts of MMA-SS welding fume in the lung and statistically increased lymphoid infiltrates and alveolar macrophages. A significant increase in tumor multiplicity in the A/J strain was observed at 78 wk. Metal analysis of extrapulmonary tissue showed that only the MMA-SS-exposed A/J mice had elevated levels of Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn in kidney and Cr in liver. In conclusion, this study further supports that MMA-SS welding fume does not produce a significant tumorigenic response in an animal model, but may induce a chronic lung immune response. In addition, long-term extrapulmonary tissue alterations in metals in the susceptible A/J mouse suggest that the adverse effects of this fume might be cumulative. © Taylor & Francis Group.


Yucesoy B.,Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch | Talzhanov Y.,University of Pittsburgh | Johnson V.J.,BRT Burleson Research Technologies | Wilson N.W.,University of Nevada, Reno | And 7 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2013

The influence of genetic variability within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region on variations in immune responses to childhood vaccination was investigated. The study group consisted of 135 healthy infants who had been immunized with hepatitis B (HBV), 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate (PCV7), and diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines according to standard childhood immunization schedules. Genotype analysis was performed on genomic DNA using Illumina Goldengate MHC panels (Mapping and Exon Centric). At the 1 year post vaccination check-up total, isotypic, and antigen-specific serum antibody levels were measured using multiplex immunoassays. A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within MHC Class I and II genes were found to be associated with variations in the vaccine specific antibody responses and serum levels of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM) and IgG isotypes (IgG1, IgG4) (all at p< 0.001). Linkage disequilibrium patterns and functional annotations showed that significant SNPs were strongly correlated with other functional regulatory SNPs. These SNPs were found to regulate the expression of a group of genes involved in antigen processing and presentation including HLA-A, HLA-C, HLA-G, HLA-H, HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB1, HLA-DRB5, HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DOB, and TAP-2. The results suggest that genetic variations within particular MHC genes can influence immune response to common childhood vaccinations, which in turn may influence vaccine efficacy. © 2013.


PubMed | Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch
Type: Journal Article | Journal: FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology | Year: 2010

Welding generates complex metal aerosols, inhalation of which is linked to adverse health effects among welders. An important health concern of welding fume (WF) exposure is neurological dysfunction akin to Parkinsons disease (PD), thought to be mediated by manganese (Mn) in the fumes. Also, there is a proposition that welding might accelerate the onset of PD. Our recent findings link the presence of Mn in the WF with dopaminergic neurotoxicity seen in rats exposed to manual metal arc-hard surfacing (MMA-HS) or gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS) fumes. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms further, we investigated the association of PD-linked (Park) genes and mitochondrial function in causing dopaminergic abnormality. Repeated instillations of the two fumes at doses that mimic 1 to 5 yr of worker exposure resulted in selective brain accumulation of Mn. This accumulation caused impairment of mitochondrial function and loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein, indicative of dopaminergic injury. A fascinating finding was the altered expression of Parkin (Park2), Uchl1 (Park5), and Dj1 (Park7) proteins in dopaminergic brain areas. A similar regimen of manganese chloride (MnCl(2)) also caused extensive loss of striatal TH, mitochondrial electron transport components, and Park proteins. As mutations in PARK genes have been linked to early-onset PD in humans, and because welding is implicated as a risk factor for parkinsonism, PARK genes might play a critical role in WF-mediated dopaminergic dysfunction. Whether these molecular alterations culminate in neurobehavioral and neuropathological deficits reminiscent of PD remains to be ascertained.


PubMed | Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Vaccine | Year: 2013

The influence of genetic variability within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region on variations in immune responses to childhood vaccination was investigated. The study group consisted of 135 healthy infants who had been immunized with hepatitis B (HBV), 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate (PCV7), and diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines according to standard childhood immunization schedules. Genotype analysis was performed on genomic DNA using Illumina Goldengate MHC panels (Mapping and Exon Centric). At the 1 year post vaccination check-up total, isotypic, and antigen-specific serum antibody levels were measured using multiplex immunoassays. A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within MHC Class I and II genes were found to be associated with variations in the vaccine specific antibody responses and serum levels of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM) and IgG isotypes (IgG1, IgG4) (all at p<0.001). Linkage disequilibrium patterns and functional annotations showed that significant SNPs were strongly correlated with other functional regulatory SNPs. These SNPs were found to regulate the expression of a group of genes involved in antigen processing and presentation including HLA-A, HLA-C, HLA-G, HLA-H, HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB1, HLA-DRB5, HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DOB, and TAP-2. The results suggest that genetic variations within particular MHC genes can influence immune response to common childhood vaccinations, which in turn may influence vaccine efficacy.

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