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Moolgavkar S.H.,Exponent, Inc. | Chang E.T.,Exponent, Inc. | Chang E.T.,Stanford University | Luebeck G.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Risk Analysis | Year: 2015

To develop a quantitative exposure-response relationship between concentrations and durations of inhaled diesel engine exhaust (DEE) and increases in lung cancer risks, we examined the role of temporal factors in modifying the estimated effects of exposure to DEE on lung cancer mortality and characterized risk by mine type in the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS) cohort, which followed 12,315 workers through December 1997. We analyzed the data using parametric functions based on concepts of multistage carcinogenesis to directly estimate the hazard functions associated with estimated exposure to a surrogate marker of DEE, respirable elemental carbon (REC). The REC-associated risk of lung cancer mortality in DEMS is driven by increased risk in only one of four mine types (limestone), with statistically significant heterogeneity by mine type and no significant exposure-response relationship after removal of the limestone mine workers. Temporal factors, such as duration of exposure, play an important role in determining the risk of lung cancer mortality following exposure to REC, and the relative risk declines after exposure to REC stops. There is evidence of effect modification of risk by attained age. The modifying impact of temporal factors and effect modification by age should be addressed in any quantitative risk assessment (QRA) of DEE. Until there is a better understanding of why the risk appears to be confined to a single mine type, data from DEMS cannot reliably be used for QRA. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis. Source


Lam C.-W.,NASA | Lam C.-W.,Wyle | Lam C.-W.,University of Houston | Scully R.R.,NASA | And 16 more authors.
Inhalation Toxicology | Year: 2013

Humans will again set foot on the moon. The moon is covered by a layer of fine dust, which can pose a respiratory hazard. We investigated the pulmonary toxicity of lunar dust in rats exposed to 0, 2.1, 6.8, 20.8 and 60.6mg/m 3 of respirable-size lunar dust for 4weeks (6h/day, 5days/week); the aerosols in the nose-only exposure chambers were generated from a jet-mill ground preparation of a lunar soil collected during the Apollo 14 mission. After 4weeks of exposure to air or lunar dust, groups of five rats were euthanized 1 day, 1week, 4weeks or 13weeks after the last exposure for assessment of pulmonary toxicity. Biomarkers of toxicity assessed in bronchoalveolar fluids showed concentration-dependent changes; biomarkers that showed treatment effects were total cell and neutrophil counts, total protein concentrations and cellular enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, glutamyl transferase and aspartate transaminase). No statistically significant differences in these biomarkers were detected between rats exposed to air and those exposed to the two low concentrations of lunar dust. Dose-dependent histopathology, including inflammation, septal thickening, fibrosis and granulomas, in the lung was observed at the two higher exposure concentrations. No lesions were detected in rats exposed to 6.8mg/m3. This 4-week exposure study in rats showed that 6.8mg/m3 was the highest no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL). These results will be useful for assessing the health risk to humans of exposure to lunar dust, establishing human exposure limits and guiding the design of dust mitigation systems in lunar landers or habitats. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted. Source


Moolgavkar S.H.,Exponent, Inc. | Moolgavkar S.H.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Mcclellan R.O.,Toxicology and Human Health Risk Analysis | Dewanji A.,Indian Statistical Institute | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2013

Background: Hierarchical Bayesian methods have been used in previous papers to estimate national mean effects of air pollutants on daily deaths in time-series analyses. Objectives: We obtained maximum likelihood estimates of the common national effects of the criteria pollutants on mortality based on time-series data from ≤ 108 metropolitan areas in the United States. Methods: We used a subsampling bootstrap procedure to obtain the maximum likelihood estimates and confidence bounds for common national effects of the criteria pollutants, as measured by the percentage increase in daily mortality associated with a unit increase in daily 24-hr mean pollutant concentration on the previous day, while controlling for weather and temporal trends. We considered five pollutants [PM10, ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2)] in single- and multipollutant analyses. Flexible ambient concentration-response models for the pollutant effects were considered as well. We performed limited sensitivity analyses with different degrees of freedom for time trends. Results: In single-pollutant models, we observed significant associations of daily deaths with all pollutants. The O3 coefficient was highly sensitive to the degree of smoothing of time trends. Among the gases, SO2 and NO2 were most strongly associated with mortality. The flexible ambient concentration-response curve for O3 showed evidence of nonlinearity and a threshold at about 30 ppb. Conclusions: Differences between the results of our analyses and those reported from using the Bayesian approach suggest that estimates of the quantitative impact of pollutants depend on the choice of statistical approach, although results are not directly comparable because they are based on different data. In addition, the estimate of the O3-mortality coefficient depends on the amount of smoothing of time trends. Source


Hesterberg T.W.,Navistar | Long C.M.,University of Cambridge | Sax S.N.,University of Cambridge | Lapin C.A.,Lapin and Associates | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association | Year: 2011

Diesel exhaust (DE) characteristic of pre-1988 engines is classified as a "probable" human carcinogen (Group 2A) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has classified DE as "likely to be carcinogenic to humans." These classifications were based on the large body of health effect studies conducted on DE over the past 30 or so years. However, increasingly stringent U.S. emissions standards (1988-2010) for particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in diesel exhaust have helped stimulate major technological advances in diesel engine technology and diesel fuel/lubricant composition, resulting in the emergence of what has been termed New Technology Diesel Exhaust, or NTDE. NTDE is defined as DE from post-2006 and older retrofit diesel engines that incorporate a variety of technological advancements, including electronic controls, ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel, oxidation catalysts, and wall-flow diesel particulate filters (DPFs). As discussed in a prior review (T. W. Hesterberg et al.; Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008, 42, 6437-6445), numerous emissions characterization studies have demonstrated marked differences in regulated and unregulated emissions between NTDE and "traditional diesel exhaust" (TDE) from pre-1988 diesel engines. Now there exist even more data demonstrating significant chemical and physical distinctions between the diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) in NTDE versus DEP from pre-2007 diesel technology, and its greater resemblance to particulate emissions from compressed natural gas (CNG) or gasoline engines. Furthermore, preliminary toxicological data suggest that the changes to the physical and chemical composition of NTDE lead to differences in biological responses between NTDE versus TDE exposure. Ongoing studies are expected to address some of the remaining data gaps in the understanding of possible NTDE health effects, but there is now sufficient evidence to conclude that health effects studies of pre-2007 DE likely have little relevance in assessing the potential health risks of NTDE exposures. © 2011 Air & Waste Management Association. Source


Hesterberg T.W.,Navistar | Long C.M.,Gradient | Bunn W.B.,Navistar | Lapin C.A.,Lapin and Associates | And 2 more authors.
Inhalation Toxicology | Year: 2012

The mutagenicity of organic solvent extracts from diesel exhaust particulate (DEP), first noted more than 55 years ago, initiated an avalanche of diesel exhaust (DE) health effects research that now totals more than 6000 published studies. Despite an extensive body of results, scientific debate continues regarding the nature of the lung cancer risk posed by inhalation of occupational and environmental DE, with much of the debate focused on DEP. Decades of scientific scrutiny and increasingly stringent regulation have resulted in major advances in diesel engine technologies. The changed particulate matter (PM) emissions in "New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE)" from today's modern low-emission, advanced-technology on-road heavy-duty diesel engines now resemble the PM emissions in contemporary gasoline engine exhaust (GEE) and compressed natural gas engine exhaust more than those in the "traditional diesel exhaust" (TDE) characteristic of older diesel engines. Even with the continued publication of epidemiologic analyses of TDE-exposed populations, this database remains characterized by findings of small increased lung cancer risks and inconsistent evidence of exposure-response trends, both within occupational cohorts and across occupational groups considered to have markedly different exposures (e.g. truckers versus railroad shopworkers versus underground miners). The recently published National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-National Cancer Institute (NCI) epidemiologic studies of miners provide some of the strongest findings to date regarding a DE-lung cancer association, but some inconsistent exposure-response findings and possible effects of bias and exposure misclassification raise questions regarding their interpretation. Laboratory animal studies are negative for lung tumors in all species, except for rats under lifetime TDE-exposure conditions with durations and concentrations that lead to "lung overload." The species specificity of the rat lung response to overload, and its occurrence with other particle types, is now well-understood. It is thus generally accepted that the rat bioassay for inhaled particles under conditions of lung overload is not predictive of human lung cancer hazard. Overall, despite an abundance of epidemiologic and experimental data, there remain questions as to whether TDE exposure causes increased lung cancers in humans. An abundance of emissions characterization data, as well as preliminary toxicological data, support NTDE as being toxicologically distinct from TDE. Currently, neither epidemiologic data nor animal bioassay data yet exist that directly bear on NTDE carcinogenic potential. A chronic bioassay of NTDE currently in progress will provide data on whether NTDE poses a carcinogenic hazard, but based on the significant reductions in PM mass emissions and the major changes in PM composition, it has been hypothesized that NTDE has a low carcinogenic potential. When the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reevaluates DE (along with GEE and nitroarenes) in June 2012, it will be the first authoritative body to assess DE carcinogenic health hazards since the emergence of NTDE and the accumulation of data differentiating NTDE from TDE. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

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