Li S.-J.,Ghent University |
Njumbe Ediage E.,Ghent University |
De Saeger S.,Ghent University |
Van Waeyenberghe L.,Ghent University |
And 7 more authors.
World Mycotoxin Journal | Year: 2013
Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungi. Animal feeds can be easily infected by fungi during production and storage, resulting in mycotoxin contamination. This study was performed to evaluate the possible health risks of mycotoxin-contaminated feed for cockatiels. The occurrence of mycotoxins in commercial parrot feeds (5 seed mixes and 5 pelleted feeds) was investigated by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The following 12 mycotoxins were detected: zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, fusarenon X, aflatoxin B, sterigmatocystin, alternariol, alternariol methylether, fumonisin B, fumonisin B, and ochratoxin A. Zearalenone was the most prevalent. Pathological effects after 21 days feeding mycotoxin-contaminated diets were examined in an in vivo trial with 3 groups of 5 cockatiels: group 1 (control) was fed a non-contaminated pelleted feed; group 2 was fed a pelleted feed containing zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and fumonisins; and group 3 was fed a pelleted feed containing fumonisins. Average body weight gain and relative organ weight were not significantly different between the treatment groups and the control group. Apoptosis of renal tubular cells, diarrhoea, reduced appetite, enlargement of liver, kidney and proventriculus were occasionally observed in the birds from groups 2 and 3. In summary, contamination with mycotoxins is common in parrot feeds. The mycotoxin levels did not reach toxic levels, but might pose a potential threat to some sensitive cockatiels.
Watteyn A.,Toxicology and Biochemistry |
Devreese M.,Toxicology and Biochemistry |
De Baere S.,Toxicology and Biochemistry |
Wyns H.,Toxicology and Biochemistry |
And 5 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2015
The macrolide gamithromycin (GAM) has the ability to accumulate in tissues of the respiratory tract. Consequently, GAM might be a suitable antibiotic to treat bacterial respiratory infections in poultry, such as Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale. As O. rhinotracheale infections are common in Turkey flocks, the aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of GAM in plasma, lung tissue, and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) of Turkeys and to correlate them with pharmacodynamic (PD) characteristics (PK/PD). The animal experiment was performed with 64 Turkeys, which received either a subcutaneous (SC, n = 32) or an oral (PO, n = 32) bolus of 6 mg GAM/kg body weight (BW). GAM concentrations in plasma, lung tissue, and PELF were measured at different time points post administration (p.a.), and PK characteristics were determined using non-compartmental modeling. The maximum plasma concentration after PO administration was ten-fold lower than after SC injection (0.087 and 0.89 μg/mL, respectively), whereas there was no difference in lung concentrations between both routes of administration. However, lung concentrations at day 1 p.a. were significantly higher than plasma levels for both routes of administration (2.22 and 3.66 μg/g for PO and SC, respectively). Consequently, lung/plasma ratios were high, up to 50 and 80 after PO and SC administration, respectively. GAM could not be detected in PELF, although this might be attributed to the collection method of PELF in birds. The GAM minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 38 O. rhinotracheale strains; MIC50 and MIC90 were 2 and >32 μg/mL, respectively. PK/PD correlation for lung tissue demonstrated that the time above the MIC90 of the susceptible population (2 μg/mL) was 1 day after PO bolus and 3.5 days after SC administration. The area under the curve (AUClast)/MIC ratios for lung tissue after SC and PO administration were 233 and 90, respectively. To conclude, GAM is highly distributed to lung tissue in Turkey poults, suggesting that it has the potential to be used to treat respiratory infections such as O. rhinotracheale. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.