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Monte Alegre, Brazil

Rocha O.P.,University of Sao Paulo | De Felicio R.,University of Sao Paulo | Rodrigues A.H.B.,University of Sao Paulo | Ambrosio D.L.,Sao Paulo State University | And 5 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2011

The present study reports the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) evaluation of the hexanes and dichloromethane fractions from extracts of the red alga Centroceras clavulatum (C. Agardh) Montagne. Twenty three compounds were identified, totaling ca. 42% of both fractions (0.18 g mass extract). The main constituents of the fractions were hexadecanoic acid (17.6%) and pentadecanoic acid (15.9%). Several secondary metabolites with interesting biological activity, such as (-)-loliolide, neophytadiene, phytol were identified. In addition, several classes of secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds (e.g., phenylacetic acid), terpene derivatives fatty acids, halogenated compound (e.g., 2-chlorocyclohexenol), lignoids, steroids, esters, amides (e.g., hexadecanamide), ketones, carboxylic acids, aldehydes and alcohols were observed. The occurrence of several of these structural classes is described for the first time in this species. The same fractions analyzed by GC-MS, and a separate set of polar fractions, were evaluated against two life cycle stages (epimastigote and trypomastigote forms) of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and against phytopatogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporiodes and C. sphaerospermum. The dichloromethane fraction was active against both T. cruzi forms (epimastigote IC50 = 19.1 μg.mL.1 and trypomastigote IC50 = 76.2 μg.mL.1). The hexanes and ethyl acetate fractions also displayed activity against both fungi species (200 μg) by TLC-bioautography. Source

Proenca-Modena J.L.,University of Sao Paulo | Martinez M.,National University of Asuncion | Amarilla A.A.,National University of Asuncion | Espinola E.E.,National University of Asuncion | And 6 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2013

Since their discovery, four species of human bocavirus (HBoV) have been described in patients with respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. However, a clear causal association between HBoV-1 and gastroenteritis has not been demonstrated. In this study, we describe the detection and quantification of HBoV-1 in stools from children with acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. HBoV-1 genome was detected in 10·6% of stools with frequent association with rotavirus and norovirus. The median of HBoV-1 viral load was 1·88 × 10 4 genome/ml, lower than previously shown in secretions of patients with respiratory infections, without any obvious association between high viral load and presence of HBoV as single agent. Thus, although HBoV-1 was frequently detected in these patients, there is no clear causal association of this agent with diarrhoea. Indeed, HBoV-1 DNA in stools of patients with gastroenteritis without respiratory symptoms may be a remnant of previous infections or associated with prolonged shedding of virus in the respiratory or digestive tracts. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013. Source

Nardotto G.H.B.,Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas | Coelho E.B.,University of Sao Paulo | Marques M.P.,Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas | Lanchote V.L.,Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2016

Carvedilol is an antihypertensive drug, which is available in clinical practice as a racemic mixture. (S)-(-)-carvedilol is a β- and α1-adrenergic antagonist, while (R)-(+)-carvedilol only acts as an α1-adrenergic antagonist. Carvedilol is metabolized mainly by glucuronidation and, to a lesser extent, by CYP2D6 to hydroxyphenyl carvedilol (OHC) and by CYP2C9 to O-desmethyl carvedilol (DMC). This study describes the development and validation of a method for the sequential analysis of the enantiomers of carvedilol, OHC and DMC in plasma using a Chirobiotic® V chiral-phase column coupled to an LC-MS/MS system. The method was linear in the range of 0.05-100, 0.05-10 and 0.02-10 ng/mL for the carvedilol, OHC and DMC enantiomers, respectively. Application of the method to the investigation of a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with a single oral dose of 25 mg racemic carvedilol showed plasma accumulation of the (R)-(+)-carvedilol, (R)-(+)-DMC and (R)-(+)-OHC enantiomers. These results suggest that plasma accumulation of (R)-(+)-carvedilol cannot be explained by its oxidative metabolism. © 2016 . Source

Carneiro P.A.,Sao Paulo State University | Umbuzeiro G.A.,CETESB Cia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental | Oliveira D.P.,Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas | Zanoni M.V.B.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2010

High performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector method was developed to detect disperse dyes in water samples over the range 0.50-35 ng, with detection limits of 0.09 ng, 0.84 ng and 0.08 ng, respectively, with good repeatability and accuracy. This study identifies the disperse azo dyes C.I. Disperse Blue 373, C.I. Disperse Orange 37 and Disperse Violet 93 as components of a commercial dye formulation assigned as Dispersol Black Dye (CVS) used in the textile industry for dyeing synthetic fibers that are contributing to the mutagenicity found in the Cristais River, São Paulo, Brazil. High performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector was applied to monitor the occurrence of these dyes in: (1) the treated industrial effluent, (2) raw river water, (3) treated river water, and (4) the sludge produced by a Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) which is located 6 km downstream from the textile industrial discharge, where dyes' concentrations changed from 1.65 ng L-1 to 316 μ L-1. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Almeida M.R.,Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas | Darin J.D.C.,Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas | Hernandes L.C.,Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas | de Souza Ramos M.F.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Antunes L.M.G.,Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas
Genetics and Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

Copaiba oil-resin, extracted from the trunk of Copaifera, and traditionally used in folk medicine in the treatment of various disorders, has been shown to be an effective antiinflamatory, antitumor, antitetanus, antiseptic and antiblenorrhagea agent. As, there are few studies evaluating its genotoxicity, this aspect of the commercial oil-resin, and its volatile and resinous fractions, were evaluated in mice by comet assay and micronucleus (MN) test. A single dose of oil resin, volatile or resin fractions (500; 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg b.w.) was administered by gavage. The chemical compositions of Copaiba oil resin and its fractions was analyzed by gas chromatography. According to comet assaying, treatment with either one did not increase DNA damage, and as to MN testing, there was no alteration in the incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. Chromatographic analysis of the oil-resin itself revealed sesquiterpenes, diterpenic carboxylic acid methyl esters and high levels of β-caryophyllene. Thus, it can be assumed that the oil resin and volatile and resinous fractions from the commercial product are not genotoxic or mutagenic. © 2012, Sociedade Brasileira de Genética. Printed in Brazil. Source

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