Jefferson City, AR, United States
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Cao X.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Lin H.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Muskhelishvili L.,Toxicologic Pathology Associates | Latendresse J.,Toxicologic Pathology Associates | And 2 more authors.
Respiratory Research | Year: 2015

Background: The cadmium (Cd) present in air pollutants and cigarette smoke has the potential of causing multiple adverse health outcomes involving damage to pulmonary and cardiovascular tissue. Injury to pulmonary epithelium may include alterations in tight junction (TJ) integrity, resulting in impaired epithelial barrier function and enhanced penetration of chemicals and biomolecules. Herein, we investigated mechanisms involved in the disruption of TJ integrity by Cd exposure using an in vitro human air-liquid-interface (ALI) airway tissue model derived from normal primary human bronchial epithelial cells.Methods: ALI cultures were exposed to noncytotoxic doses of CdCl2 basolaterally and TJ integrity was measured by Trans-Epithelial Electrical Resistance (TEER) and immunofluorescence staining with TJ markers. PCR array analysis was used to identify genes involved with TJ collapse. To explore the involvement of kinase signaling pathways, cultures were treated with CdCl2 in the presence of kinase inhibitors specific for cellular Src or Protein Kinase C (PKC).Results: Noncytotoxic doses of CdCl2 resulted in the collapse of barrier function, as demonstrated by TEER measurements and Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin staining. CdCl2 exposure altered the expression of several groups of genes encoding proteins involved in TJ homeostasis. In particular, down-regulation of select junction-interacting proteins suggested that a possible mechanism for Cd toxicity involves disruption of the peripheral junctional complexes implicated in connecting membrane-bound TJ components to the actin cytoskeleton. Inhibition of kinase signaling using inhibitors specific for cellular Src or PKC preserved the integrity of TJs, possibly by preventing occludin tyrosine hyperphosphorylation, rather than reversing the down-regulation of the junction-interacting proteins.Conclusions: Our findings indicate that acute doses of Cd likely disrupt TJ integrity in human ALI airway cultures both through occludin hyperphosphorylation via kinase activation and by direct disruption of the junction-interacting complex. © 2015 Cao et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


Liu F.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Rainosek S.W.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Sadovova N.,Toxicologic Pathology Associates | Fogle C.M.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | And 5 more authors.
NeuroToxicology | Year: 2014

Propofol is a widely used general anesthetic. A growing body of data suggests that perinatal exposure to general anesthetics can result in long-term deleterious effects on brain function. In the developing brain there is evidence that general anesthetics can cause cell death, synaptic remodeling, and altered brain cell morphology. Acetyl- l-carnitine (l-Ca), an anti-oxidant dietary supplement, has been reported to prevent neuronal damage from a variety of causes. To evaluate the ability of l-Ca to protect against propofol-induced neuronal toxicity, neural stem cells were isolated from gestational day 14 rat fetuses and on the eighth day in culture were exposed for 24. h to propofol at 10, 50, 100, 300 and 600. μM, with or without l-Ca (10. μM). Markers of cellular proliferation, mitochondrial health, cell death/damage and oxidative damage were monitored to determine: (1) the effects of propofol on neural stem cell proliferation; (2) the nature of propofol-induced neurotoxicity; (3) the degree of protection afforded by l-Ca; and (4) to provide information regarding possible mechanisms underlying protection. After propofol exposure at a clinically relevant concentration (50. μM), the number of dividing cells was significantly decreased, oxidative DNA damage was increased and a significant dose-dependent reduction in mitochondrial function/health was observed. No significant effect on lactase dehydrogenase (LDH) release was observed at propofol concentrations up to 100. μM. The oxidative damage at 50. μM propofol was blocked by l-Ca. Thus, clinically relevant concentrations of propofol induce dose-dependent adverse effects on rat embryonic neural stem cells by slowing or stopping cell division/proliferation and causing cellular damage. Elevated levels of 8-oxoguanine suggest enhanced oxidative damage [reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation] and l-Ca effectively blocks at least some of the toxicity of propofol, presumably by scavenging oxidative species and/or reducing their production. © 2014.


Zhang X.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Paule M.G.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Newport G.D.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Sadovova N.,Toxicologic Pathology Associates | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Neural Transmission | Year: 2011

Recent reports indicate that 6-12 h of ketamine anesthesia can trigger neuronal apoptosis in postnatal day (PND) 7 rats. In vitro, ex vivo, and confocal fluorescent imaging studies suggest that dansyl compounds can accumulate within the cytoplasm of the apoptotic cell. High-resolution positron emission tomography (microPET) imaging has been proposed as a minimally invasive method for detecting apoptosis in the rat brain. Compared with [ 18F]-labeled annexin V, which binds to externalized phosphatidylserine (PS) on the outer membrane of apoptotic cells, intracellular uptake of the dansylhydrazone of p-fluorobenzaldehyde (DFNSH) may lead to improved target-to-background contrast ratios. In this study, the effect of ketamine on the uptake and retention of [18F]-DFNSH in the rat brain was investigated using microPET imaging. On PND 7, rat pups in the experimental group were exposed, at 2-h intervals, to six subcutaneous injections of ketamine (20 mg/kg) and control rat pups received six injections of saline. On PND 35, [18F]-DFNSH (37 MBq) was injected into the tail vein of rats and microPET images were obtained over 2 h following the injection. Radiolabeled tracer accumulation in the region of interest (ROI) in the frontal cortex was converted into standard uptake values (SUVs). The radiotracer was quickly distributed into the brains of both ketamine- and saline-treated rats. Compared with the control group, the uptake of [18F]-DFNSH was significantly increased in the ROI, frontal cortex area of ketamine-treated rats. In addition, the wash-out duration of the tracer was prolonged in the ketamine-treated animals. This study demonstrates that microPET imaging is capable of distinguishing differences in retention of [18F]-DFNSH in ROI and suggests that this compound may serve as a minimally invasive biomarker of neuronal apoptosis in rodents. © Springer-Verlag 2010.


PubMed | U.S. Food and Drug Administration and Toxicologic Pathology Associates
Type: | Journal: Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology | Year: 2017

Exposure to cigarette smoke causes a multitude of pathological changes leading to tissue damage and disease. Quantifying such changes in highly differentiated in vitro human tissue models may assist in evaluating the toxicity of tobacco products. In this methods development study, well-differentiated human air-liquid-interface (ALI) in vitro airway tissue models were used to assess toxicological endpoints relevant to tobacco smoke exposure. Whole mainstream smoke solutions (WSSs) were prepared from two commercial cigarettes (R60 and S60) that differ in smoke constituents when machine-smoked under International Organization for Standardization (ISO) conditions. The airway tissue models were exposed apically to WSSs 4-h per day for one to five days. Cytotoxicity, tissue barrier integrity, oxidative stress, mucin secretion, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) excretion were measured. The treatments were not cytotoxic and had marginal effects on tissue barrier properties; however, other endpoints responded in time- and dose-dependent manners, with the R60 resulting in higher levels of response than the S60 for many endpoints. Based on the lowest effective dose, differences in response to the WSSs were observed for mucin induction and MMP secretion. Mitigation of mucin induction by co-treatment of cultures with N-acetylcysteine suggests that oxidative stress contributes to mucus hypersecretion. Overall, these preliminary results suggest that quantifying disease-relevant endpoints using ALI airway models is a potential tool for tobacco product toxicity evaluation. Additional research using tobacco samples generated under smoking machine conditions that more closely approximate human smoking patterns will inform further methods development.


PubMed | National Health Research Institute, Toxicologic Pathology Associates, University of Lisbon and National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR)
Type: | Journal: Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association | Year: 2016

Furan is a volatile organic chemical that is a contaminant in many common foods. Furan is hepatocarcinogenic in mice and rats; however, the risk to humans from dietary exposure to furan cannot be estimated accurately because the lowest tested dose of furan in a 2-year bioassay in rats gave nearly a 100% incidence of cholangiocarcinoma. To provide bioassay data that can be used in preparing risk assessments, the carcinogenicity of furan was determined in male F344/N Nctr rats administered 0, 0.02, 0.044, 0.092, 0.2, 0.44, 0.92, and 2mg furan/kg body weight (BW) by gavage 5 days/week for 2 years. Exposure to furan was associated with the development of malignant mesothelioma on membranes surrounding the epididymis and on the testicular tunics, with the increase being significant at 2mg furan/kg BW. There was also a dose-related increase in the incidence of mononuclear cell leukemia, with the increase in incidence being significant at 0.092, 0.2, 0.92, and 2mg furan/kg BW. Dose-related non-neoplastic liver lesions included cholangiofibrosis, mixed cell foci, basophilic foci, biliary tract hyperplasia, oval cell hyperplasia, regenerative hyperplasia, and cytoplasmic vacuolization. The most sensitive non-neoplastic lesion was cholangiofibrosis, the frequency of which increased significantly at 0.2mg furan/kg BW.


PubMed | National Health Research Institute, Experimental Pathology Laboratories Inc., Toxicologic Pathology Associates, Integrated Laboratory Systems, Inc. and Amgen
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxicologic pathology | Year: 2015

This article describes the results of comparisons of digitally scanned whole slide images (WSIs) and glass microscope slides for diagnosis of tissues under peer review by the National Toxicology Program. Findings in this article were developed as a result of the data collected from 6 pathology working groups (PWGs), 1 pathology peer review, and survey comments from over 25 participating pathologists. For each PWG, 6-14 pathologists examined 10-143 tissues per study from 6- and 9-month perinatal studies and 2-year carcinogenicity studies. Overall it was found that evaluation of WSIs is generally equivalent to using glass slides. Concordance of PWG consensus diagnoses based upon review of WSIs versus glass slides ranged from 74% to 100% (median 86%). The intra- and interobserver diagnostic variation did not appear to influence the conclusions of any study. Based upon user opinions collected from surveys, WSIs may be less optimal than glass slides for evaluation of subtle lesions, large complex lesions, small lesions in a large section of tissue, and foci of altered hepatocytes. These results indicate that, although there may be some limitations, the use of WSIs can effectively accomplish the objectives of a conventional glass slide review and definitely serves as a useful adjunct to the conduct of PWGs.


Delclos K.B.,900 NCTR Road | Camacho L.,900 NCTR Road | Lewis S.M.,Office of Scientific Coordination | Vanlandingham M.M.,900 NCTR Road | And 12 more authors.
Toxicological Sciences | Year: 2014

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume industrial chemical to which there is widespread human oral exposure. Guideline studies used to set regulatory limits detected adverse effects only at doses well above human exposures and established a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 5 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day. However, many reported animal studies link BPA to potentially adverse effects on multiple organ systems at doses below the NOAEL. The primary goals of the subchronic study reported here were to identify adverse effects induced by orally (gavage) administered BPA below the NOAEL, to characterize the dose response for such effects and to determine doses for a subsequent chronic study. Sprague Dawley rat dams were dosed daily from gestation day 6 until the start of labor, and their pups were directly dosed from day 1 after birth to termination. The primary focus was on seven equally spaced BPA doses (2.5-2700 μg/kg bw/day). Also included were a naïve control, two doses of ethinyl estradiol (EE. 2) to demonstrate the estrogen responsiveness of the animal model, and two high BPA doses (100,000 and 300,000 μg/kg bw/day) expected from guideline studies to produce adverse effects. Clear adverse effects of BPA, including depressed gestational and postnatal body weight gain, effects on the ovary (increased cystic follicles, depleted corpora lutea, and antral follicles), and serum hormones (increased serum estradiol and prolactin and decreased progesterone), were observed only at the two high doses of BPA. BPA-induced effects partially overlapped those induced by EE. 2, consistent with the known weak estrogenic activity of BPA. © Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.


Gamboa da Costa G.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | Jacob C.C.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | Von Tungeln L.S.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | Hasbrouck N.R.,Center for Veterinary Medicine | And 4 more authors.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology | Year: 2012

The adulteration of pet food with melamine and derivatives, including cyanuric acid, has been implicated in the kidney failure and death of cats and dogs in the USA and other countries. In a previous 7-day dietary study in F344 rats, we established a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for a co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid of 8.6. mg/kg bw/day of each compound, and a benchmark dose lower confidence limit (BMDL) of 8.4-10.9. mg/kg bw/day of each compound. To ascertain the role played by the duration of exposure, we treated F344 rats for 28. days. Groups of male and female rats were fed diet containing 0 (control), 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, or 360. ppm of both melamine and cyanuric acid. The lowest dose that produced histopathological alterations in the kidney was 120. ppm, versus 229. ppm in the 7-day study. Wet-mount analysis of kidney sections demonstrated the formation of melamine cyanurate spherulites in one male and two female rats at the 60. ppm dose and in one female rat at the 30. ppm dose, establishing a NOAEL of 2.1. mg/kg bw/day for males and <. 2.6. mg/kg bw/day for females, and BMDL values as low as 1.6. mg/kg bw/day for both sexes. These data demonstrate that the length of exposure is an important component in the threshold of toxicity from a co-exposure to these compounds and suggest that the current risk assessments based on exposures to melamine alone may not reflect sufficiently the risk of a co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid. © 2012.


Jacob C.C.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | Reimschuessel R.,Center for Veterinary Medicine | von Tungeln L.S.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | Olson G.R.,Toxicologic Pathology Associates | And 4 more authors.
Toxicological Sciences | Year: 2011

The intentional adulteration of pet food with melamine and derivatives, including cyanuric acid, has been implicated in the kidney failure and death of a large number of cats and dogs in the United States. Although individually these compounds present low toxicity, coexposure can lead to the formation of melamine cyanurate crystals in the nephrons and eventual kidney failure. To determine the dose-response for nephrotoxicity upon coadministration of melamine and cyanuric acid, groups of male and female F344 rats (six animals per sex per group) were fed 0 (control), 7, 23, 69, 229, or 694 ppm of both melamine and cyanuric acid; 1388 ppm melamine; or 1388 ppm cyanuric acid in the diet for 7 days. No toxicity was observed in the rats exposed to the individual compounds, whereas anorexia and a statistically significant increase in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels was observed in the animals treated with 229 and 694 ppm melamine and cyanuric acid. The kidneys of these animals were grossly enlarged and pale yellow. Large numbers of crystalline structures deposited in the tubules were seen on sections in kidneys from all rats in these treatment groups. No significant changes were detected in the remaining treatment groups exposed to both melamine and cyanuric acid. In the melamine-only treatment group, 5 of 12 rats had scattered crystals present in renal tubules when examined by wet mount. These were not observed by histopathology. The observed adverse effect level (8.6 mg/kg bw [body weight]/day) and benchmark dose modeling data (8.4-10.9 mg/kg bw/day) determined in this study suggest that the tolerable daily intake values derived from studies conducted with melamine alone may underestimate the risk from coexposures to melamine and cyanuric acid. Published by Oxford University Press 2010.


PubMed | University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Toxicologic Pathology Associates, University of Portland and Loma Linda University
Type: | Journal: Life sciences in space research | Year: 2015

Interest in deep space exploration underlines the needs to investigate the effects of exposure to combined sources of space radiation. The lung is a target organ for radiation, and exposure to protons and heavy ions as radiation sources may lead to the development of degenerative disease and cancer. In this study, we evaluated the pro-fibrotic and epigenetic effects of exposure to protons (150 MeV/nucleon, 0.1 Gy) and heavy iron ions ((56)Fe, 600 MeV/nucleon, 0.5 Gy) alone or in combination (protons on Day 1 and (56)Fe on Day 2) in C57BL/6 male mice 4 weeks after irradiation. Exposure to (56)Fe, proton or in combination, did not result in histopathological changes in the murine lung. At the same time, combined exposure to protons and (56)Fe resulted in pronounced molecular alterations in comparison with either source of radiation alone. Specifically, we observed a substantial increase in the expression of cytokine Il13, loss of expression of DNA methyltransferase Dnmt1, and reactivation of LINE-1, SINE B1 retrotransposons, and major and minor satellites. Given the deleterious potential of the observed effects that may lead to development of chronic lung injury, pulmonary fibrosis, and cancer, future studies devoted to the investigation of the long-term effects of combined exposures to proton and heavy ions are clearly needed.

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