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Towson, MD, United States

Towson University, often referred to as TU or simply Towson for short, is a public university located in Towson in Baltimore County, Maryland, U.S. It is a part of the University System of Maryland.Founded in 1866 as Maryland's first training school for teachers, Towson University has evolved into a 4-year degree granting institution consisting of 8 colleges with over 20,000 students enrolled. Towson is one of the largest public universities in Maryland and still produces the most teachers of any university in the state.The U.S. News & World Report ranked Towson University 8th in the Public Universities-Master’s category for its 2010 America's Best Colleges issue. Forbes included Towson University in its 2009 list of the top 100 public colleges and universities in the United States. Kiplinger's Personal Finance magazine named Towson University one of the top 100 best values in public colleges for the 2008-2009 academic year.As of 2013, Towson University has a 52% acceptance rate. Wikipedia.


Accounting for energy use by fishes has been taking place for over 200 years. The original, and continuing gold standard for measuring energy use in terrestrial animals, is to account for the waste heat produced by all reactions of metabolism, a process referred to as direct calorimetry. Direct calorimetry is not easy or convenient in terrestrial animals and is extremely difficult in aquatic animals. Thus, the original and most subsequent measurements of metabolic activity in fishes have been measured via indirect calorimetry. Indirect calorimetry takes advantage of the fact that oxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide is produced during the catabolic conversion of foodstuffs or energy reserves to useful ATP energy. As measuring [CO2] in water is more challenging than measuring [O2], most indirect calorimetric studies on fishes have used the rate of O2 consumption. To relate measurements of O2 consumption back to actual energy usage requires knowledge of the substrate being oxidized. Many contemporary studies of O2 consumption by fishes do not attempt to relate this measurement back to actual energy usage. Thus, the rate of oxygen consumption (M˙O2) has become a measurement in its own right that is not necessarily synonymous with metabolic rate. Because all extant fishes are obligate aerobes (many fishes engage in substantial net anaerobiosis, but all require oxygen to complete their life cycle), this discrepancy does not appear to be of great concern to the fish biology community, and reports of fish oxygen consumption, without being related to energy, have proliferated. Unfortunately, under some circumstances, these measures can be quite different from one another. A review of the methodological history of the two measurements and a look towards the future are included. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles. Source


Zimand M.,Towson University
Proceedings of the Annual IEEE Conference on Computational Complexity | Year: 2011

We prove a strong Symmetry of Information relation for random strings (in the sense of Kolmogorov complexity) and establish tight bounds on the amount on nonuniformity that is necessary for extracting a string with randomness rate 1 from a single source of randomness. More precisely, as instantiations of more general results, we show: • For all n-bit random strings x and y, x is random conditioned by y if and only if y is random conditioned by x; • While O(1) amount of advice regarding the source is not enough for extracting a string with randomness rate 1 from a source string with constant random rate, ω(1) amount of advice is. The proofs use Kolmogorov extractors as the main technical device. © 2011 IEEE. Source


La Polla J.S.,Towson University | Dlussky G.M.,Moscow State University | Perrichot V.,University of Rennes 1
Annual Review of Entomology | Year: 2013

The dominance of ants in the terrestrial biosphere has few equals among animals today, but this was not always the case. The oldest ants appear in the fossil record 100 million years ago, but given the scarcity of their fossils, it is presumed they were relatively minor components of Mesozoic insect life. The ant fossil record consists of two primary types of fossils, each with inherent biases: as imprints in rock and as inclusions in fossilized resins (amber). New imaging technology allows ancient ant fossils to be examined in ways never before possible. This is particularly helpful because it can be difficult to distinguish true ants from non-ants in Mesozoic fossils. Fossil discoveries continue to inform our understanding of ancient ant morphological diversity, as well as provide insights into their paleobiology. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source


Llera S.J.,Towson University | Newman M.G.,Pennsylvania State University
Behavior Therapy | Year: 2014

The Contrast Avoidance model (Newman & Llera, 2011) proposes that individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are hypersensitive to sharp upward shifts in negative emotion that typically accompany negative events, and use worry to maintain sustained intrapersonal negativity in an attempt to avoid these shifts. Although research shows that worry increases negative emotionality and mutes further emotional reactivity to a stressor when compared to the worry period (e.g., Llera & Newman, 2010), no study has tracked changes in negative emotionality from baseline to worry inductions followed by a range of emotional exposures. Further, no study has yet assessed participants' subjective appraisals of prior worry on helping to cope with such exposures. The present study tested the main tenets of the Contrast Avoidance model by randomly assigning participants with GAD (n= 48) and nonanxious controls (n= 47) to experience worry, relaxation, and neutral inductions prior to sequential exposure to fearful, sad, and humorous film clips. Both physiological (nonspecific skin conductance responses [NS-SCRs]) and self-reported emotional changes were observed. Results indicated that worry boosted negative emotionality from baseline, which was sustained across negative exposures, whereas low negative emotionality during relaxation and neutral inductions allowed for sharp increases in response to exposures. Furthermore, GAD participants found worry to be more helpful than other conditions in coping with exposures, whereas control participants reported the opposite pattern. Results provide preliminary support for the Contrast Avoidance model. This suggests that treatment should focus on underlying avoidance patterns before attempting to reduce worry behavior. © 2014. Source


Hatfield D.L.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Tsuji P.A.,Towson University | Carlson B.A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Gladyshev V.N.,Harvard University
Trends in Biochemical Sciences | Year: 2014

The many biological and biomedical effects of selenium are relatively unknown outside the selenium field. This fascinating element, initially described as a toxin, was subsequently shown to be essential for health and development. By the mid-1990s selenium emerged as one of the most promising cancer chemopreventive agents, but subsequent human clinical trials yielded contradictory results. However, basic research on selenium continued to move at a rapid pace, elucidating its many roles in health, development, and in cancer prevention and promotion. Dietary selenium acts principally through selenoproteins, most of which are oxidoreductases involved in diverse cellular functions. © 2013. Source

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