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Livonia, MI, United States

Tower International LLC is a global designer and producer of structural components and assemblies used by most major automotive vehicle manufacturers. The company's main products include body structural stampings and assemblies, chassis structural stampings and assemblies, including full frames and cradles, suspension components, modules and systems and exposed sheet metal Class A surfaces.Headquartered in Livonia, Michigan, the company generated revenues of $2.08 billion in 2012. The company currently has 39 facilities in 13 countries in North and South America, Europe and Asia. In the Automotive News global supplier ranking for 2006, the company ranked 55th. Wikipedia.

Flory J.F.,Tower International
OCEANS 2013 MTS/IEEE - San Diego: An Ocean in Common | Year: 2013

The Cordage Institute (CI) recently published a new guideline for marine grade nylon yarn. This and an earlier, similar guideline for marine grade polyester yarn provide minimum performance criteria based on the yarn-on-yarn (YoY) abrasion test. © 2013 MTS.

Nath S.K.,Tower International
Indian Journal of Surgery | Year: 2015

Stapled haemorrhoidectomy (SH) is gradually becoming popular. Though it is a “patient friendly” procedure, it has not become the “gold standard”. About 15 % complication rate is reported. A perfect purse-string can avoid many of the complications. The author has made a semicircular hole in the anoscope, which has helped in taking the purse-string at proper depth and at proper distance from the dentate line. A total of 72 cases of SH are performed without any complication. Histopathological examination of donoughts in the first 20 cases shows excision up to the submucosa in 16 cases. Our modified anoscope helps in proper visualisation and proper pick up of the rectal wall for perfect purse-string suture and thus complications are avoided. © 2014, Association of Surgeons of India.

Closson S.,Tower International
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

Energized by service members wounded and killed protecting fuel convoys in Iraq in the mid-2000s and stunned by the oil price spike in 2008, the Department of Defense (DOD) had already started to seriously address energy challenges when the Obama Administration took steps to accelerate these actions. Real-world events, a growing military realization of threats and opportunities, and an Administration intent on fostering American leadership in clean-energy innovation have coalesced to promote change across the military services in the energy domain. This has been particularly evident in the Department's efforts to lessen its oil consumption. However, the ability to turn policy into practice has met numerous challenges from within and without the defense establishment. The question remains whether the DOD will be able to move beyond oil in a significant way. By examining a series of US government policy documents and programs, this article seeks to analyze the motivations behind the drive by the DOD to reduce oil consumption, to identify the challenges in meeting this objective, and to analyze efforts underway by the Department. Given that replacing oil for the largest transport fleet in the world will take several decades, it will require a sustained leadership from senior military officials. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Wilson I.,Tower International
British Journal of Politics and International Relations | Year: 2015

Research Highlights and Abstract: Governments offer scholarships to foreign nationals expected to become influential in their home countries and shape public opinion to the benefit of their sponsor. This is known as the 'opinion leader' model. The histories of three British scholarship programs whose directors now subscribe to the 'opinion leader' model suggest they were actually set up for other reasons. Beliefs about what the programs are for have shifted toward the 'opinion leader' model even as they have continued to do the same things. The pattern of changing objectives seems to fit a Kingdonian model of the policy process. Many governments offer scholarships specifically to foreign citizens. In recent years both policymakers and academics have associated these scholarships with political influence, arguing that they generate sympathetic and influential alumni who support positive relationships between their home country and their sponsor. Digging deeper into the histories of several scholarship programs which are now being portrayed in this way shows they were actually set up for very different reasons. Explanations for why scholarships are being given to foreign citizens have changed over time, consistent with a Kingdonian model of the policy process. We need to be cautious about taking these claims at face value, an important reminder for foreign policy analysts more generally. © 2013 Political Studies Association.

Li M.,Tower International
2013 10th China International Forum on Solid State Lighting, ChinaSSL 2013 | Year: 2013

To ensure the designers, owners, policy makers, investors and other stakeholders can fully understand the energy saving potential and environmental impacts of the LED lighting project to be designed, it is essential to establish a measurements system to evaluate the potentials and impacts. The "ESEFM" system proposed in this article is an evaluation tool to calculate and predict the energy savings and environmental impacts of a LED lighting project. There are two layers of evaluation components in this system, the core components (include PPRM, PPP, PPTS, PO, PPR, PER, PIE, and PEI) and the variable components. Along with the evaluation mechanism which defines how to combine the two layers of components and conduct the evaluation, as well as with the support of the Energy Ingredients Chain (EIC) system, the basic evaluation framework for "ESEFM" is formed. © 2013 IEEE.

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