Touro College is a sponsored independent institution of higher and professional education, in New York City, New York, United States. Founded by Bernard Lander, the College was established primarily to enrich the Jewish heritage, and to serve the larger American community. Approximately 19,000 students are currently enrolled in the various schools and divisions that comprise the Touro College and University System.The system includes Touro College and New York Medical College, accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education, as well as Touro University California and Touro University Nevada, both of which are accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. The non-profit online university, Touro University Worldwide , is also part of the Touro College and University Systems. Wikipedia.
Del Rosso J.Q.,Valley Hospital Medical Center Las Vegas |
Del Rosso J.Q.,Touro College
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology | Year: 2013
Several more recent advances have led to a better understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in rosacea and therapeutic modalities used for treatment. Although the clinical features may vary among patients, there are some unifying mechanisms that appear to relate to the more common presentations of rosacea. Both neurovascular dysregulation and augmented immune detection and response appear to play central roles that lead to many of the signs and symptoms of rosacea. Diffuse central facial erythema is a very common finding that intensifies during flares and persists to varying degrees between flares. This background of facial redness occurs secondary to vasodilation and fixed vascular changes that develop over time. Physical modalities are commonly used to treat the erythema that persists as a result of fixed changes in superficial cutaneous vasculature that do not remit after treatment with agents whose mechanisms are active primarily against some of the inflammatory processes operative in rosacea (ie metronidazole, azelaic acid, tetracyclines). As enlarged superficial cutaneous vessels that contribute to the fixed background facial redness of rosacea remain vasoactive to sympathetic nervous system innervation, topical α-adrenergic receptor agonists, namely brimonidine and oxymetazoline, are currently under evaluation for the treatment of facial erythema of rosacea. This article focuses on the clinical differentiation of facial erythema of rosacea and its management. © 2013 by the American Academy of Dermatology, Inc.
Cummings J.L.,Cleveland Clinic |
Morstorf T.,Touro College |
Zhong K.,Cleveland Clinic
Alzheimer's Research and Therapy | Year: 2014
Introduction. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasing in frequency as the global population ages. Five drugs are approved for treatment of AD, including four cholinesterase inhibitors and an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor antagonist. We have an urgent need to find new therapies for AD. Methods. We examined Clinicaltrials.gov, a public website that records ongoing clinical trials. We examined the decade of 2002 to 2012, to better understand AD-drug development. We reviewed trials by sponsor, sites, drug mechanism of action, duration, number of patients required, and rate of success in terms of advancement from one phase to the next. We also reviewed the current AD therapy pipeline. Results: During the 2002 to 2012 observation period, 413 AD trials were performed: 124 Phase 1 trials, 206 Phase 2 trials, and 83 Phase 3 trials. Seventy-eight percent were sponsored by pharmaceutical companies. The United States of America (U.S.) remains the single world region with the greatest number of trials; cumulatively, more non-U.S. than U.S. trials are performed. The largest number of registered trials addressed symptomatic agents aimed at improving cognition (36.6%), followed by trials of disease-modifying small molecules (35.1%) and trials of disease-modifying immunotherapies (18%). The mean length of trials increases from Phase 2 to Phase 3, and the number of participants in trials increases between Phase 2 and Phase 3. Trials of disease-modifying agents are larger and longer than those for symptomatic agents. A very high attrition rate was found, with an overall success rate during the 2002 to 2012 period of 0.4% (99.6% failure). Conclusions: The Clinicaltrials.gov database demonstrates that relatively few clinical trials are undertaken for AD therapeutics, considering the magnitude of the problem. The success rate for advancing from one phase to another is low, and the number of compounds progressing to regulatory review is among the lowest found in any therapeutic area. The AD drug-development ecosystem requires support. © 2014 Cummings et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Troll J.G.,Touro College
Current Atherosclerosis Reports | Year: 2011
There is a significant prevalence (20%-80% depending on the population and the study) of lipid disorders and other cardiovascular risk factors in people living with HIV infection. This review focuses on HIV and HIV treatment-associated metabolic and cardiovascular concerns, including dyslipidemias, lipodystrophy syndromes, endothelial dysfunctions, and associated metabolic events such as insulin resistance. Emerging hypotheses of the underlying pathophysiology of these issues, with impact on selection of specific antiretroviral treatment (ART) strategies, therapy, and preventive approaches to decreasing cardiovascular risk and other problems associated with these syndromes are discussed. Screening for cardiovascular risk as part of the decision of starting antiretroviral therapy, and during care of patients with HIV regardless of ART therapy status, is suggested with particular areas of focus. Statins, other hyperlipidemic therapies, treatment for specific problems arising due to lipodystrophy, and implications on ART selection to avoid drug interactions and adverse effects are also discussed. © 2010 The Author(s).
Ita K.B.,Touro College
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology | Year: 2014
There are a number of advantages associated with transdermal drug delivery. With this route of administration, it is possible to avoid pain and presystemic metabolism. In addition, pharmacokinetic profile of the drug is more uniform with fewer peaks and troughs. However, the outermost layer of the skin - the stratum corneum - constitutes a strong barrier making it difficult for permeants to cross the skin at clinically relevant rates. This review examines progress made over the last 4 decades and challenges ahead. Over this period, about 35 transdermal products have been approved by regulatory authorities. About 19 drugs have been formulated into transdermal patches and approved by the Food and Drug Administration. The main challenge lies with the formulation of macromolecules- proteins, small interfering RNA and other products of biotechnology into transdermal delivery systems. This challenge is being met with approaches such as microneedles, iontophoresis, sonophoresis and electroporation.
Del Rosso J.Q.,Touro College
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2014
Introduction: Over the past decade, both basic science and clinical research have provided new information on pathophysiology and therapy that has led to advances in the management of rosacea. As rosacea is a very common facial skin disorder in adults of both genders and essentially all races and ethnicities, these advances can provide therapeutic benefit to many affected individuals around the world.Areas covered: This article provides a collective review of more recent information on the pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of rosacea, and discusses individual medical therapies based on PubMed literature searches on 'rosacea', 'rosacea therapies' and each therapy that are included in this article. The perspectives of the author on management of rosacea are also included. Newer therapies and treatment concepts received greater emphasis.Expert opinion: Management of cutaneous rosacea involves patient education, integration of proper skin care, differentiation of visible manifestations and symptoms, selecting therapies that correlate with the manifestations that are to be treated, setting realistic patient expectations on anticipated degree and time course of response and designing an overall management plan that addresses needs of the individual patient. In many cases, a combination approach is needed, and due to the chronicity of the disease long-term management is often warranted. © Informa UK, Ltd.
Ip E.J.,Touro College
American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists | Year: 2013
The impact of pharmacist interventions on short-term clinical markers and long-term cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes is investigated. Selected health outcomes were retrospectively analyzed in 147 adults with type 2 diabetes whose care was managed by a team of providers including a pharmacist (the enhanced care group) and a matched sample of patients (n = 147) managed by a primary care physician only (the control group). All patients received services through the same health maintenance organization (HMO). The primary study endpoints were (1) the changes from baseline to 12-month follow-up in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and blood pressure (BP) values, (2) rates of attainment of HbA(1c), LDL-C and BP goals, and (3) changes from baseline in predicted 10-year risks of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. During the 12-month study period, the mean HbA(1c) value was decreased from 9.5% to 6.9% in the enhanced care group and from 9.3% to 8.4% in the control group (p < 0.001); patients in the enhanced care group were significantly more likely to attain goals for HbA(1c) (odds ratio [OR], 3.9), LDL-C (OR, 2.0), and BP reduction (OR, 2.0) and three times more likely to attain all three goals (OR, 3.2). The estimated 10-year risk of CHD was decreased from 16.4% to 9.3% with enhanced care versus a reduction from 17.4% to 14.8% with usual care (p < 0.001). The addition of a pharmacist to an HMO primary care team improved short-term surrogate markers as well as long-term cardiovascular risk in adult patients with type 2 diabetes.
Gugliucci A.,Touro College
Clinica Chimica Acta | Year: 2014
Background: We hypothesize that during high density lipoprotein (HDL) remodeling PON1 reaches an optimal distribution in HDL subclasses by which it achieves maximum activity. We conducted this study to gain insight on PON1 fate and activation during short-term HDL remodeling ex vivo. Methods: Serum from 8 healthy volunteers was either frozen at - 80. °C (time 0) or incubated under sterile conditions for up to 48. h at 37. °C or at 4. °C. Aliquots were taken at 3, 6, 9, 24 and 48. h and immediately frozen at - 80. °C. PON1 activities were measured, as well as PON1 and apolipoprotein distributions in HDL subclasses by gradient gel electrophoresis. Results: The first novel finding in our study is the evidence provided for a significant activation of both lactonase and arylesterase activities of PON1 that ensues in a very short time frame of incubation of serum ex vivo at 37°C. All subjects studied displayed these changes, the activation was apparent in <3h, peaked at 6h and amounted to >20%. This is associated with a temperature and time-dependent redistribution of PON1 activity in HDL subclasses, with an increase in activity in both very large HDL2 and small HDL3 in the first phase (3-9h), followed by a progressive transfer of PON1 to very large HDL2 as the particles mature. These changes are paralleled by the appearance of weak, but apparent PON1 activity at subspecies that correspond to sdLDL. During the first phase of PON1 activation and shifts, a parallel shift of apoE can be evidenced: at 3-9h, apoE increases in sdLDL, after that time it is lost from HDL and also from sdLDL and stays in VLDL at the origin of the run. ApoA-I shifts towards larger particles, which parallels the change in PON1. As HDL matures there is a progressive shift of apoA-II towards larger HDL. Low levels of apoA-IV at the initiation of the incubation are followed by time dependent quick disappearance of apoA-IV in HDL which parallels the changes in PON1, apoE and A-II. Conclusion: Short, ex vivo incubation of serum leads to quick activation of PON1 associated with transfers to HDL3c, large HDL and sdLDL. The process is blocked by CETP and LCAT inhibitors. The data suggest that HDL maturation optimizes PON1 activity. These findings may be of interest for future studies aimed at modulating PON-1 activity for its cardioprotective effects and suggest a new mechanism whereby CETP inhibitors failed in clinical trials. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: Biological Anthropology | Award Amount: 72.54K | Year: 2016
Among the fundamental questions about human origins is how our hominin ancestors lived. This study uses a multidisciplinary approach (paleontology, paleoecology, comparative anatomy, experimental biology) to ask questions about how extinct populations of hominins behaved on their natural landscapes. Specifically, the investigators will analyze lower jaws (mandibles), among the most commonly represented parts of the skeleton in the early human fossil record, of modern great apes and two early species of extinct hominins (Autralopithecus), to understand how the structure of the mandible is related to changes in feeding behavior and diet. The research will provide new data about how changes in diet and feeding behavior transformed our anatomy across time, permitting more robust explanations of the processes by which we became human. Broader impacts will include undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral training in the latest analytical techniques for fossil analyses; outreach to primary and secondary school science teachers and students using hands-on experiences and web-based content designed to enhance teaching and learning about human origins; and the production of a unique collection 3D data for modern apes and rare fossil specimens that will be available to the scientific community.
Mandibles are the most common element in the hominin fossil record after teeth; they are used to diagnose species, test phylogenetic hypotheses, and infer feeding behavior and diet. However, extensive theoretical and experimental work on extant primates has not clarified which aspects of variation in mandibular form are related to variation in the positions of the tooth row, jaw muscles and jaw joint, which are related to the mandibles resistance to internal forces, and how these relate to feeding behavior and diet. Furthermore, the classical consensus on the relationship between dentognathic morphology and diet in Plio-Pleistocene hominins - adaptation to processing mechanically resistant foods - has been challenged by recent inferences from dietary isotopes, occlusal microwear, and finite element modeling, which do not converge on a shared view of early hominin diets and feeding behavior. This lack of consensus is especially glaring in light of the rich fossil record of mandibles for the Australopithecus anamensis-A. afarensis lineage (4.2-3.0 Ma), which documents clear changes in dentognathic morphology and carbon-isotope signatures over time. The primary focus of the proposed research is an integrative investigation of how spatial and mechanical determinants of mandibular form track change in diet and feeding behavior in extant hominids (great apes and humans) and early Australopithecus. The research is organized under three specific aims: 1. Quantifying and comparing the location, magnitude and nature of external and internal morphological variation in mandibles of extant (Homo, Pongo, Pan, and Gorilla) and fossil (A. anamensis, A. afarensis) hominids via computed tomography and geometric morphometrics; 2. Testing specific hypotheses about the biomechanical significance of variation in hominid mandibular morphology via finite-element models; and 3. Evaluating the extent to which spatial positioning of masticatory system components (tooth row, jaw joint, and muscle attachment points) explain variation in mandibular morphology across extant hominids and early Australopithecus. The project will provide new data on the structural and functional determinants of early hominin mandibular morphology, to help identify the factors that drove these morphological changes and allow tests of adaptive hypotheses about the early evolution of the genus.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: Biological Anthropology | Award Amount: 224.28K | Year: 2016
Studying muscle can help us to understand the diets of early humans and other extinct primates. Jaw-muscle fiber types play an important role in fine-tuning the jaw muscles for specific motor tasks such as chewing and powerful biting. This research will study jaw-muscle fiber types across a range of primate species and use those data to test three hypotheses about the evolution of jaw muscle patterns in primates. Results of this work will provide new insights into the relationship between muscle and diet by i) increasing knowledge about the behavioral and ecological factors that shape feeding-system anatomy; ii) advancing our understanding of how jaw-muscle fiber types and whole muscle anatomy work together to generate the jaw movements and jaw forces necessary during feeding and aggressive biting; and (iii) refining models of chewing biomechanics in living and fossil primates. A central component of this work includes the training and mentoring of undergraduate and graduate students and postdoctoral scholars, including women and underrepresented minorities, in state-of-the-art methods for muscle fiber typing. In addition, results will be incorporated in community outreach programs aimed at exposing primary school girls to science. Lastly, this project will generate a unique collection of digital images and slides of muscle tissue that will be made available to the scientific community for teaching and research.
The jaw-closing muscles are the motors of the masticatory system. Collectively, these muscles are responsible for generating the jaw movements and forces associated with feeding behaviors as well as non-feeding oral behaviors such as aggressive biting and wide-mouth opening for canine threat display. While fiber architecture is an important determinant of whole muscle function, its functional and adaptive significance cannot be fully appreciated in the absence of information on fiber type. This lack of data on primate fiber phenotype limits 1) knowledge about variation in jaw-muscle fiber phenotype; 2) the functional significance of this variation for behavior and performance; and 3) the specificity with which we can model and test hypotheses of feeding-system function and performance in both living and fossil species. To provide a more complete framework for linking measures of primate masticatory anatomy and physiology with function and performance, the investigators will collect and analyze novel data on jaw-muscle fiber type composition and distribution in select, closely related species of strepsirrhine and anthropoid primates that diverge in a key feeding or biting behavior. The data collected will be used to: (i) quantify the myosin heavy chain (MHC) fiber type composition and distribution in primate jaw-closing muscles using state-of-the-art immunohistochemistry; (ii) test three key functional and adaptive hypotheses that have been advanced to explain the evolution of fiber phenotype in mammalian jaw muscles: the frequent recruitment hypothesis, the aggressive bite hypothesis, and the high occlusal force hypothesis; and (iii) assess the correspondence among fiber phenotype, fiber architecture and leverage with the goal of refining models of masticatory biomechanics. This project will provide novel data on the contractile proteins found in primate jaw-closing muscles, advance knowledge of the ecological and behavioral factors that drove changes in the primate jaw-muscle fiber phenotype, and yield new insights into how key components of feeding-system morphology such as fiber architecture, fiber phenotype and leverage combine to facilitate or constrain feeding behavior in primates, including species that have been advanced as models for interpreting feeding behavior and diet in early human ancestors.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 587.16K | Year: 2011
This Type 2 project is expanding the use of the POGIL (Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning) approach in psychology to eight sites within the Touro College system, a diverse multi-campus institution. Instructional materials for experimental psychology labs based on the POGIL approach (developed with support from a CCLI Phase 1 grant) are also being expanded. The pedagogical approach now includes a version of a student preceptor model developed in a CCLI Phase 1 grant to St. Olaf College. Early results indicate that combining POGIL with student preceptors boosts student learning. In order to disseminate this work, workshops are being conducted on Touro College campuses and are planned for nearby colleges in order to reach faculty from other institutions in the tri-state (New York, New Jersey, Connecticut) area - especially those with underserved populations. The workshops provide hands-on experience with the POGIL materials. Feedback from faculty and students at other institutions is serving to further refine and revise the new curricular materials.
Intellectual Merit: In addition to testing and refining the extant POGIL instructional materials and widening the community of users to additional campuses, the current project is also developing a performance assessment instrument in order to test the impact of the new instructional materials on students abilities to apply principles in experimental psychology laboratories.
Broader Impact: The standardized set of POGIL instructional materials are being disseminated for use at other institutions, first locally within the Touro College system, then in the New York tri-state area, and eventually nationally. They have the potential to be used by many students at other colleges. The POGIL approach has proven to be particularly effective for students from underrepresented groups.