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Fillaux J.,Toulouse University Hospitals | Fillaux J.,University Paul Sabatier | Magnaval J.-F.,University Paul Sabatier
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2013

Toxocariasis is a helminth zoonosis caused by infection with the larvae of Toxocara spp. ascarid worms. Only two species, Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, are recognised as causative agents of human disease. The best choice for serodiagnosis of the generalised forms of toxocariasis, visceral larva migrans (VLM) or covert toxocariasis, relies upon the initial use of TES-ELISA, after which any positive result should subsequently be tested by Western blotting (WB). Covert toxocariasis is mostly a benign infection, so a large majority of infected subjects are asymptomatic or have very few symptoms and therefore go undiagnosed. In this form, this helminthosis is often self-limiting, leaving residual specific antibodies. A positive serodiagnosis caused by residual antibodies that do not have any diagnostic significance can be associated with any infectious or non-infectious disease. If separated from the ongoing clinical and laboratory context, such a positive result has no diagnostic value and should be only taken into account after the possible etiologies of any observed syndromes have been ruled out. Unlike the methods used for the immunodiagnosis of bacterial, viral or protozoal (toxoplasmosis) infections, it is not possible with toxocariasis to assess the age of the presence of specific IgG using the levels of specific IgM because IgM antibodies can be found throughout the course of helminthiasis. The detection of other classes of immunoglobulins, namely IgE and IgA, the subclasses, namely IgG4 or circulating Ag was proven to be unable to discriminate between active and self-cured generalised toxocaral infections. Currently, the diagnosis of an active covert toxocariasis relies upon indirect arguments, e.g., the presence of otherwise unexplained symptoms along with blood eosinophilia and/or elevated levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP). This situation is far from ideal and more research should be carried out to solve this difficult problem. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | University of Versailles, Toulouse 1 University Capitole, Russian Academy of Sciences, Toulouse University Hospitals and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.) | Year: 2016

In 2012, a seroprevalence survey concerning 10 zoonoses, which were bacterial (Lyme borreliosis and Q fever), parasitic (alveolar echinococcosis [AE] and cystic echinococcosis [CE], cysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, toxocariasis, and trichinellosis), or arboviral (tick-borne encephalitis and West Nile virus infection), was conducted among 77 adult volunteers inhabiting Suordakh and Tomtor Arctic villages in the Verkhoyansk area (Yakutia). Following serological testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and/or western blot, no positive result was found for cysticercosis, CE, toxocariasis, trichinellosis, and both arboviral zoonoses. Four subjects (5.2%) had anti-Toxoplasma IgG, without the presence of specific IgM. More importantly, eight subjects (10.4%) tested positive for Lyme borreliosis, two (2.6%) for recently acquired Q fever, and one (1.3%) for AE. Lyme infection and Q fever, whose presence had not been reported so far in Arctic Yakutia, appeared therefore to be a major health threat for people dwelling, sporting, or working in the Arctic area of the Sakha Republic.


Fernandez-Galilea M.,University of Navarra | Fernandez-Galilea M.,University of Santiago de Chile | Perez-Matute P.,HIV and Associated Metabolic Alterations Unit | Prieto-Hontoria P.L.,University of Navarra | And 11 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids | Year: 2015

α-Lipoic acid (α-Lip) is a natural occurring antioxidant with beneficial anti-obesity properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the putative effects of α-Lip on mitochondrial biogenesis and the acquirement of brown-like characteristics by subcutaneous adipocytes fromoverweight/obese subjects. Thus, fully differentiated human subcutaneous adipocyteswere treated with α-Lip (100 and 250 μM) for 24 h for studies on mitochondrial content and morphology, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, fatty acid oxidation enzymes and brown/beige characteristic genes. The involvement of the Sirtuin1/Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha (SIRT1/PGC-1α) pathway was also evaluated. Our results showed that α-Lip increased mitochondrial content in cultured human adipocytes as revealed by electron microscopy and by mitotracker green labeling. Moreover, an enhancement in mtDNA content was observed. This increase was accompanied by an up-regulation of SIRT1 protein levels, a decrease in PGC-1innodataalpha acetylation and up-regulation of Nuclear respiratory factor 1 (Nrf1) and Mitochondrial transcription factor (Tfam) transcription factors. Enhanced oxygen consumption and fatty acid oxidation enzymes, Carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 and Acyl-coenzyme A oxidase (CPT-1 and ACOX)were also observed. Mitochondria from α-Lip-treated adipocytes exhibited somemorphological characteristics of brown mitochondria, and α-Lip also induced up-regulation of some brown/beige adipocytes markers such as cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector a (Cidea) and T-box 1 (Tbx1). Moreover, α-Lip up-regulated PR domain containing 16 (Prdm16) mRNA levels in treated adipocytes. Therefore, our study suggests the ability of α-Lip to promote mitochondrial biogenesis and brown-like remodeling in cultured white subcutaneous adipocytes from overweight/obese donors. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Fernandez-Galilea M.,University of Navarra | Perez-Matute P.,HIV and Associated Metabolic Alterations Unit | Prieto-Hontoria P.L.,University of Navarra | Prieto-Hontoria P.L.,University of Santiago de Chile | And 10 more authors.
Obesity | Year: 2014

Objective: α-Lipoic acid (α-LA) is a natural occurring antioxidant with beneficial effects on obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the putative effects of α-LA on triglyceride accumulation and lipogenesis in subcutaneous adipocytes from overweight/obese subjects and to determine the potential mechanisms involved. Methods: Fully differentiated human subcutaneous adipocytes were treated with α-LA (100 and 250 μM) during 24 h for studying triglyceride content, de novo lipogenesis, and levels of key lipogenic enzymes. The involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation was also evaluated. Results: α-LA down-regulated triglyceride content by inhibiting fatty acid esterification and de novo lipogenesis. These effects were mediated by reduction in fatty acid synthase (FAS), stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1, and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 protein levels. Interestingly, α-LA increased AMPK and acetyl CoA carboxylase phosphorylation, while the presence of the AMPK inhibitor Compound C reversed the inhibition observed on FAS protein levels. Conclusions: α-LA down-regulates key lipogenic enzymes, inhibiting lipogenesis and reducing triglyceride accumulation through the activation of AMPK signaling pathway in human subcutaneous adipocytes from overweight/obese subjects. © 2014 The Obesity Society.


Beranger G.E.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Beranger G.E.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Beranger G.E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Karbiener M.,University of Graz | And 11 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids | Year: 2013

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has long been thought to be absent or very scarce in human adults so that its contribution to energy expenditure was not considered as relevant. The recent discovery of thermogenic BAT in human adults opened the field for innovative strategies to combat overweight/obesity and associated diseases. This energy-dissipating function of BAT is responsible for adaptive thermogenesis in response to cold stimulation. In this context, adipocytes can be converted, within white adipose tissue (WAT), into multilocular adipocytes expressing UCP1, a mitochondrial protein that plays a key role in heat production by uncoupling the activity of the respiratory chain from ATP synthesis. These adipocytes have been named "brite" or "beige" adipocytes. Whereas BAT has been studied for a long time in murine models both in vivo and in vitro, there is now a strong demand for human cellular models to validate and/or identify critical factors involved in the induction of a thermogenic program within adipocytes. In this review we will discuss the different human cellular models described in the literature and what is known regarding the regulation of their differentiation and/or activation process. In addition, the role of microRNAs as novel regulators of brown/"brite" adipocyte differentiation and conversion will be depicted. Finally, investigation of both the conversion and the metabolism of white-to-brown converted adipocytes is required for the development of therapeutic strategies targeting overweight/obesity and associated diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Zechner R.,University of Graz | Langin D.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Langin D.,University Paul Sabatier | Langin D.,Toulouse University Hospitals
Cell Metabolism | Year: 2014

The breakdown of cellular fat stores fuels energy production and multiple anabolic processes. Albert et al. (2014) demonstrate that the lack of hormone-sensitive lipase, a member of the enzyme trio that catabolizes fat, has pronounced effects on lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and cell signaling in humans. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Badin P.-M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Badin P.-M.,University Paul Sabatier | Langin D.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Langin D.,University Paul Sabatier | And 3 more authors.
Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2013

Intramyocellular triacylglycerol (IMTG) is emerging as an important energy fuel source during muscle contraction and are adaptively increased in response to exercise, without adverse physiological effects. Paradoxically, elevated IMTG content in obese and type 2 diabetics has been linked to insulin resistance, highlighting the importance of IMTG pools in physiology and pathology. Two separate views suggest that IMTG dynamics are determinant for skeletal muscle fat oxidation, and that disruption of IMTG dynamics facilitates the accumulation of lipotoxic intermediates such as diacylglycerols and ceramides that interfere with insulin signaling. Thus, understanding the factors that control IMTG dynamics is crucial. Here we discuss recent literature describing the regulation of IMTG pools with a particular emphasis on lipases and lipid droplet (LD)-associated proteins. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Langin D.,University Paul Sabatier | Langin D.,Toulouse University Hospitals
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2013

Over the years, an increasing number of connections have been made between adipose tissue and bone, and between obesity and osteoporosis. This short review focuses on the diversity of production from adipose tissue, only a fraction of which, to date, has been studied for their impact on bone metabolism and formation. © International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2013.


Morigny P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Morigny P.,University Paul Sabatier | Houssier M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Houssier M.,University Paul Sabatier | And 5 more authors.
Biochimie | Year: 2016

Obesity-induced insulin resistance is a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. Basal fat cell lipolysis (i.e., fat cell triacylglycerol breakdown into fatty acids and glycerol in the absence of stimulatory factors) is elevated during obesity and is closely associated with insulin resistance. Inhibition of adipocyte lipolysis may therefore be a promising therapeutic strategy for treating insulin resistance and preventing obesity-associated type 2 diabetes. In this review, we explore the relationship between adipose lipolysis and insulin sensitivity. After providing an overview of the components of fat cell lipolytic machinery, we describe the hypotheses that may support the causality between lipolysis and insulin resistance. Excessive circulating fatty acids may ectopically accumulate in insulin-sensitive tissues and impair insulin action. Increased basal lipolysis may also modify the secretory profile of adipose tissue, influencing whole body insulin sensitivity. Finally, excessive fatty acid release may also worsen adipose tissue inflammation, a well-known parameter contributing to insulin resistance. Partial genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of fat cell lipases in mice as well as short term clinical trials using antilipolytic drugs in humans support the benefit of fat cell lipolysis inhibition on systemic insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism, which occurs without an increase of fat mass. Modulation of fatty acid fluxes and, putatively, of fat cell secretory pattern may explain the amelioration of insulin sensitivity whereas changes in adipose tissue immune response do not seem involved. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.


Arner P.,Karolinska University Hospital | Langin D.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Langin D.,University Paul Sabatier | Langin D.,Toulouse University Hospitals
Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Triglycerides in adipose tissue are rapidly mobilized during times of energy needs via lipolysis, a catabolic process that plays important role in whole body triglyceride turnover. Lipolysis is regulated through cell surface receptors via neurotransmitters, hormones, and paracrine factors that activate various intracellular pathways. These pathways converge on the lipid droplet, the site of action of lipases and cofactors. Fat cell lipolysis is also involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, and recent human studies have underscored its role in disease states such as cancer cachexia and obesity-induced insulin resistance. We highlight here topics and findings with physiological and clinical relevance, namely lipid turnover in human fat cells and the role of lipolysis in cancer cachexia and obesity-induced insulin resistance. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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