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Toulouse, France

Toulouse 1 University Capitole is located in the heart of the city of Toulouse, in southwestern France. Wikipedia.

Etienne M.,CNRS Coordination Chemistry | Etienne M.,Toulouse 1 University Capitole | Weller A.S.,University of Oxford
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

In this comprehensive review the developments in the synthesis, characterization and reactivity of complexes (s-, d- and f-block) in which a C-C single bond interacts with a metal centre are discussed: so called C-C⋯M agostic complexes. Such species are of significant interest with regard to structure and bonding, the activation of C-C single bonds and, thus, catalytic methods of C-C bond formation (or activation). Examples of C-C agostic complexes of early and later transition metals, actinides and group 1 metals are discussed, along with C-C agostic interactions in metallacyclobutanes. Examples of Si-Si⋯M, B-C⋯M and B-B⋯M agostic interactions are also presented. Throughout, the structural, spectroscopic and computational markers that indicate the likely presence of a C-C⋯M agostic interaction in a complex are highlighted. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Balland P.-A. Proximity and the evolution of collaboration networks: evidence from research and development projects within the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) industry, Regional Studies. This paper analyses the influence of proximity on the evolution of collaboration networks. It determines empirically how organizations choose their partners according to their geographical, cognitive, organizational, institutional and social proximity. Relational databases are constructed from research and development collaborative projects, funded under the European Union 6th Framework Programme within the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) industry from 2004 to 2007. The stochastic actor-based model SIENA is used to model the network dynamic as a realization of a continuous-time Markov chain and to estimate parameters for underlying mechanisms of its evolution. Empirical results show that geographical, organizational and institutional proximity favour collaborations, while cognitive and social proximity do not play a significant role. © 2012 Copyright Regional Studies Association. Source

Colin S.,Toulouse 1 University Capitole
Journal of Heat Transfer | Year: 2012

Accurate modeling of gas microvection is crucial for a lot of MEMS applications (microheat exchangers, pressure gauges, fluidic microactuators for active control of aerodynamic flows, mass flow and temperature microsensors, micropumps, and microsystems for mixing or separation for local gas analysis, mass spectrometers, vacuum, and dosing valves). Gas flows in microsystems are often in the slip flow regime, characterized by a moderate rarefaction with a Knudsen number of the order of 10 -2-10 -1. In this regime, velocity slip and temperature jump at the walls play a major role in heat transfer. This paper presents a state of the art review on convective heat transfer in microchannels, focusing on rarefaction effects in the slip flow regime. Analytical and numerical models are compared for various microchannel geometries and heat transfer conditions (constant heat flux or constant wall temperature). The validity of simplifying assumptions is detailed and the role played by the kind of velocity slip and temperature jump boundary conditions is shown. The influence of specific effects, such as viscous dissipation, axial conduction and variable fluid properties is also discussed. Source

Jorand R.,Toulouse 1 University Capitole
PloS one | Year: 2012

Inhomogeneity in thick biological specimens results in poor imaging by light microscopy, which deteriorates as the focal plane moves deeper into the specimen. Here, we have combined selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) with wavefront sensor adaptive optics (wao). Our waoSPIM is based on a direct wavefront measure using a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and fluorescent beads as point source emitters. We demonstrate the use of this waoSPIM method to correct distortions in three-dimensional biological imaging and to improve the quality of images from deep within thick inhomogeneous samples. Source

VanRullen R.,Toulouse 1 University Capitole
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences | Year: 2014

Does our perceptual awareness consist of a continuous stream, or a discrete sequence of perceptual cycles, possibly associated with the rhythmic structure of brain activity? This has been a long-standing question in neuroscience. We review recent psychophysical and electrophysiological studies indicating that part of our visual awareness proceeds in approximately 7-13 Hz cycles rather than continuously. On the other hand, experimental attempts at applying similar tools to demonstrate the discreteness of auditory awareness have been largely unsuccessful. We argue and demonstrate experimentally that visual and auditory perception are not equally affected by temporal subsampling of their respective input streams: video sequences remain intelligible at sampling rates of two to three frames per second, whereas audio inputs lose their fine temporal structure, and thus all significance, below 20-30 samples per second. This does not mean, however, that our auditory perception must proceed continuously. Instead, we propose that audition could still involve perceptual cycles, but the periodic sampling should happen only after the stage of auditory feature extraction. In addition, although visual perceptual cycles can follow one another at a spontaneous pace largely independent of the visual input, auditory cycles may need to sample the input stream more flexibly, by adapting to the temporal structure of the auditory inputs. Source

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