Tottori Prefectural Museum

Tottori, Japan

Tottori Prefectural Museum

Tottori, Japan
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Sentoku A.,Kyoto University | Tokuda Y.,Tottori Prefectural Museum | Tokuda Y.,Tottori University of Environmental Studies | Ezaki Y.,Osaka City University
Scientific Reports | Year: 2016

We describe a previously unknown niche for hard corals in the small, bowl-shaped, solitary scleractinian, Deltocyathoides orientalis (Family Turbinoliidae), on soft-bottom substrates. Observational experiments were used to clarify how the sea floor niche is exploited by turbinoliids. Deltocyathoides orientalis is adapted to an infaunal mode of life and exhibits behaviours associated with automobility that include burrowing into sediments, vertical movement through sediments to escape burial, and recovery of an upright position after being overturned. These behaviours were achieved through repeated expansion and contraction of their peripheral soft tissues, which constitute a unique muscle-membrane system. Histological analysis showed that these muscle arrangements were associated with deeply incised inter-costal spaces characteristic of turbinoliid corals. The oldest known turbinoliid, Bothrophoria ornata, which occurred in the Cretaceous (Campanian), also possessed a small, conical skeleton with highly developed costae. An infaunal mode of life became available to turbinoliids due to the acquisition of automobility through the muscle-membrane system at least 80 million years ago. The newly discovered active burrowing strategies described herein provide new insights into the use of an unattached mode of life by corals inhabiting soft-bottom substrates throughout the Phanerozoic.


Tabata J.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Ichiki R.T.,Japan International Research Center for Agricultural science | Tanaka H.,Tottori Prefectural Museum | Kageyama D.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Asexual reproduction, including parthenogenesis in which embryos develop within a female without fertilization, is assumed to confer advantages over sexual reproduction, which includes a "cost of males." Sexual reproduction largely predominates in animals, however, indicating that this cost is outweighed by the genetic and/or ecological benefits of sexuality, including the acquisition of advantageous mutations occurring in different individuals and the elimination of deleterious mutations. But the evolution of sexual reproduction remains unclear, because we have limited examples that demonstrate the relative success of sexual lineages in the face of competition from asexual lineages in the same environment. Here we investigated a sympatric occurrence of sexual and asexual reproduction in the pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus brevipes. This pest invaded southwestern Japan, including Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands, in the 1930s in association with imported pineapple plants. Our recent censuses demonstrated that on Okinawa sexually reproducing individuals can coexist with and even dominate asexual individuals in the presence of habitat and resource competition, which is considered to be severe for this nearly immobile insect. Molecular phylogeny based on partial DNA sequences in the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, as well as the endosymbiotic bacterial genome, revealed that the asexual lineage diverged from a common sexual ancestor in the relatively recent past. In contrast, only the asexual lineage exhibiting obligate apomictic thelytoky was discovered on Ishigaki. Co-existence of the two lineages cannot be explained by the results of laboratory experiments, which showed that the intrinsic rate of increase in the sexual lineage was not obviously superior to that of the asexual lineage. Differences in biotic and/or abiotic selective forces operating on the two islands might be the cause of this discrepancy. This biological system offers a unique opportunity to assess the relative success of sexual versus asexual lineages with an unusual morphology and life cycle. © 2016 Tabata et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


PubMed | Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science, Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences, Japan International Research Center for Agricultural science and Tottori Prefectural Museum
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Asexual reproduction, including parthenogenesis in which embryos develop within a female without fertilization, is assumed to confer advantages over sexual reproduction, which includes a cost of males. Sexual reproduction largely predominates in animals, however, indicating that this cost is outweighed by the genetic and/or ecological benefits of sexuality, including the acquisition of advantageous mutations occurring in different individuals and the elimination of deleterious mutations. But the evolution of sexual reproduction remains unclear, because we have limited examples that demonstrate the relative success of sexual lineages in the face of competition from asexual lineages in the same environment. Here we investigated a sympatric occurrence of sexual and asexual reproduction in the pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus brevipes. This pest invaded southwestern Japan, including Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands, in the 1930s in association with imported pineapple plants. Our recent censuses demonstrated that on Okinawa sexually reproducing individuals can coexist with and even dominate asexual individuals in the presence of habitat and resource competition, which is considered to be severe for this nearly immobile insect. Molecular phylogeny based on partial DNA sequences in the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, as well as the endosymbiotic bacterial genome, revealed that the asexual lineage diverged from a common sexual ancestor in the relatively recent past. In contrast, only the asexual lineage exhibiting obligate apomictic thelytoky was discovered on Ishigaki. Co-existence of the two lineages cannot be explained by the results of laboratory experiments, which showed that the intrinsic rate of increase in the sexual lineage was not obviously superior to that of the asexual lineage. Differences in biotic and/or abiotic selective forces operating on the two islands might be the cause of this discrepancy. This biological system offers a unique opportunity to assess the relative success of sexual versus asexual lineages with an unusual morphology and life cycle.


Tokuda Y.,Tottori Prefectural Museum | Ezaki Y.,Osaka City University
Journal of Paleontology | Year: 2012

Truncatoflabellum has been considered a free-living genus that exhibits both sexual and asexual phases; divided lower coralla (anthocauli) are specialized for asexual reproduction by transverse division through a decalcification process, whereas the upper coralla (anthocyathi) only undertake sexual reproduction, in a life-cycle strategy that includes a distinct alternation of generations. However, little evidence has been presented to support this idea of its life cycle. We elucidate the life mode of Truncatoflabellum by identifying key fossil characters (e.g., multiple rejuvenations and decalcification records just beneath lateral spines) and statistically analyzing the size distributions of over 500 individual coralla. Results of those morphological and biometric analyses clearly indicate alternation of generations in the life cycle of Truncatoflabellum. Copyright © 2012 The Paleontological Society.


Tokuda Y.,Tottori Prefectural Museum | Ezaki Y.,Osaka City University
Lethaia | Year: 2013

Marine sessile benthic organisms living on hard substrates have evolved a variety of attachment strategies. Rhizotrochus (Scleractinia, Flabellidae) is a representative azooxanthellate solitary scleractinian coral with a wide geographical distribution and unique attachment structures; it firmly attaches to hard substrates using numerous tube-like rootlets, which are extended from a corallum wall, whereas most sessile corals are attached by stereome-reinforced structures at their corallite bases. Detailed morphological and constructional traits of the rootlets themselves, along with their evolutionary significance, have not yet been fully resolved. Growth and developmental processes of spines in Truncatoflabellum and rootlets in Rhizotrochus suggest that these structures are homologous, as they both develop from the growth edges of walls and are formed by transformation of wall structures and their skeletal microstructures possess similar characteristics, such as patterns of rapid accretion and thickening deposits. Taking molecular phylogeny and fossil records of flabellids into consideration, Rhizotrochus evolved from a common free-living ancestor and invaded hard-substrate habitats by exploiting rootlets of spines origin, which were adaptive for soft-substrate environments. © 2013 The Authors, Lethaia © 2013 The Lethaia Foundation.


PubMed | Tottori Prefectural Museum, Kyoto University and Osaka City University
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

We describe a previously unknown niche for hard corals in the small, bowl-shaped, solitary scleractinian, Deltocyathoides orientalis (Family Turbinoliidae), on soft-bottom substrates. Observational experiments were used to clarify how the sea floor niche is exploited by turbinoliids. Deltocyathoides orientalis is adapted to an infaunal mode of life and exhibits behaviours associated with automobility that include burrowing into sediments, vertical movement through sediments to escape burial, and recovery of an upright position after being overturned. These behaviours were achieved through repeated expansion and contraction of their peripheral soft tissues, which constitute a unique muscle-membrane system. Histological analysis showed that these muscle arrangements were associated with deeply incised inter-costal spaces characteristic of turbinoliid corals. The oldest known turbinoliid, Bothrophoria ornata, which occurred in the Cretaceous (Campanian), also possessed a small, conical skeleton with highly developed costae. An infaunal mode of life became available to turbinoliids due to the acquisition of automobility through the muscle-membrane system at least 80 million years ago. The newly discovered active burrowing strategies described herein provide new insights into the use of an unattached mode of life by corals inhabiting soft-bottom substrates throughout the Phanerozoic.


Zuo Q.,East China Normal University | Higuchi M.,National Museum of Nature and Science Tokyo | Wang Y.F.,East China Normal University | Arikawa T.,Tottori Prefectural Museum | Hirayama Y.,National Museum of Nature and Science Tokyo
Journal of Bryology | Year: 2011

The Asian genus Struckia Müll.Hal. is reduced to a synonym of Plagiothecium Bruch & Schimp. according to a phylogenetic analysis involving S. argentata (Mitt.) Mü ll.Hal., S. enervis (Broth.) Ignatov, T.J.Kop. & D.G.Long and 13 representative boreal species of Plagiothecium. Two nuclear regions, ITS and partial gapC, and five chloroplast regions, rbcL, rps4-trnS, psaB, trnG and trnL-F, were utilized to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationship between Struckia and Plagiothecium. Bayesian, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood analyses resulted in a strongly supported clade including Struckia and Plagiothecium. Plagiothecium handelii Broth. and P. paleaceum (Mitt.) A.Jaeger, which share similar geographical ranges with Struckia and intermediate morphological traits between Struckia and Plagiothecium, grouped with the Chinese Struckia, and all of them appeared as sister to the 'core' of Plagiothecium. The accurate position of P. piliferum (Sw.) Schimp. remains unclear due to moderate support from all analyses, and we suggest that it is retained in Plagiothecium until further evidence is available. © British Bryological Society 2011.


Jonathan Shaw A.,Duke University | Shaw B.,Duke University | Johnson M.G.,Duke University | Higuchi M.,National Museum of Nature and Science | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

Premise of the study: Sphagnum dominates vast expanses of wetland habitats throughout the northern hemisphere and species delimitation within the genus is important because floristic changes associated with a warming global climate may have measureable impacts on large-scale ecological processes. Most northern hemisphere peatmoss species (Sphagnum) have circumbo-real ranges, but the Japanese species generally known as S. calymmatophyllum is endemic to Honshu Island. This prompted a population genetic and phylogenetic analysis to resolve the origin(s), population structure, and phylogenetic relationships of this morphologically variable species. Methods: Sixty plants collected from Mt. Gassan and Mt. Hakkoda were genotyped for 12 microsatellite loci. Two plastid loci and three anonymous nuclear loci were sequenced in a subset of the plants, plus representatives from 10 closely related species. Key results: Gametophytes exhibited fixed or nearly fixed heterozygosity at 9-10 of the 12 microsatellite loci. Two genetic groups were resolved by the microsatellite data, individuals showed no evidence of admixture, and the two groups of plants differ in morphology. They are heterozygous for different sets of alleles. The two taxa share plastid DNA sequences with two species that are common in Alaska. Conclusions: Two taxa were distinguished: S. guwassanense and S. triseriporum. Both are allopolyploids; they originated independently from different but closely related progenitors. The maternal progenitor was likely either S. orientale or S. inex-spectatum. The two allopolyploid taxa are heterozygous for (different) private microsatellite alleles, and one progenitor could be extinct. © 2013 Botanical Society of America.


Tanaka H.,Tottori Prefectural Museum | Kondo T.,Research Center Palmira
ZooKeys | Year: 2015

A new soft scale (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) species, Pulvinaria caballeroramosae Tanaka & Kondo, sp. n., is described from specimens collected on twigs of Ficus soatensis Dugand (Moraceae) in Bogota, Colombia. The new species resembles P. drymiswinteri Kondo & Gullan, described from Chile on Drimys winteri J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. (Winteraceae), but differs in the distribution of preopercular pores on the dorsum, the presence of dorsal tubular ducts, dorsal microducts, and reticulation on the anal plates; and in its feeding habits, i.e., P. caballeroramosae feeds on the twigs whereas P. drymiswinteri feeds on the leaves of its host. A key to the Colombian species of Pulvinaria Targioni Tozzetti is provided. © Hirotaka Tanaka, Takumasa Kondo.


The Japanese soft scale Takahashia citricola Kuwana, 1909 is redescribed and transferred to the genus Pulvinaria Targioni Tozzetti as Pulvinaria citricola (Kuwana, 1909), comb. n. (Coccoidea: Coccidae). Pulvinaria gamazumii Kanda, 1960 is synonymized with P. citricola comb. n. and Pulvinaria nipponica Lindinger, 1933, is resurrected as the replacement name for Pulvinaria citricola Kuwana, 1914 (nee Kuwana, 1909). The adult female of P. citricola (Kuwana, 1909) is redescribed and illustrated. © Hirotaka Tanaka.

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