Oku K.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization |
Okutani-Akamatsu Y.,Tottori Prefectural Agriculture and Forest Research Institute |
Watanabe T.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
Annals of the Entomological Society of America | Year: 2010
In Stenotus rubrovittatus (Heteroptera: Miridae), mating behavior consists of male courtship and female mating receptivity. This behavior was shown previously to be correlated with female age. The ovaries of S. rubmvittatus females start to develop in the absence of mating and the development is correlated with age. Accordingly, the relationships between female age and ovarian development that affect the mating behavior of S. rubrovittatus were examined. Male courtship behavior was most active toward 3-d-old females, and almost all 3-d-old females were receptive to male courtship. The ovaries of 3-d-old females showed either signs of oogenesis or the presence of mature eggs. Fifty percent of the males courted females regardless of the stage of ovarian developmental stage, whereas almost all of females with undeveloped ovaries refused male courtship. However, the fraction of males exhibiting courtship behavior and receptive females peaked after the start of oogenesis, These results suggest that S. rubrovittatus males are able to sense, and thus to court, females whose ovaries are at least partially developed. In some heteropterans, including S. rubrovittatus, some ovarian development is needed in order for mating to occur. © 2010 Entomological Society of America.
Nishikawa T.,Kyoto University |
Nishikawa T.,Tottori Prefectural Agriculture and Forest Research Institute |
Kido K.,Kyoto University |
Kido K.,Rengo Co. |
And 4 more authors.
Plant Production Science | Year: 2013
A field experiment assessing the effect of the annual application of anaerobically-digested cattle manure (ADM), produced at a biogas plant, on paddy rice was conducted. In plots with ADM (MF), the early growth of rice plants, from transplanting to the active tillering stage, was inhibited compared to the plots with chemical fertilizers (CF). This phenomenon was observed over many growing seasons and was especially obvious in nitrogen uptake and leaf area index (LAI). However, after panicle initiation, the growth of MF-treated plants was equal to or superior to CF-treated plants. The grain yield in all the MF plots was 96 - 105% of that in the CF plots. The inorganic nitrogen content of the soil in the MF plots was higher than that in the CF plots, which was contradictory to the growth inhibition observed in the initial growth of plants in the MF plots. In contrast, the oxidation/reduction potential and pH of the surface soil in MF plots were within the normal range, indicating that these soil factors were not associated with growth inhibition observed in MF plots. Our results implied that rice cultivars with a long growing period that are able to recover from the initial growth inhibition, such as medium or late maturing cultivars, are suitable for paddy rice production fertilized with ADM.
Kido K.,University of Shizuoka |
Hasegawa M.,Tottori Prefectural Agriculture and Forest Research Institute |
Matsumoto H.,University of Shizuoka |
Kobayashi M.,RIKEN |
Takikawa Y.,University of Shizuoka
Journal of General Plant Pathology | Year: 2010
Ninety-six strains of Pantoea ananatis were isolated from 14 plant species including melon, rice, tea and other crops of economic importance. They were classified into three groups (group I, II, III) based on a welsh onion stabbing assay, tobacco infiltration test, and polymerase chain reaction to detect indole acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis genes (iaaM and iaaH) and a cytokinin biosynthesis gene (etz). Group Ι strains were characterized as causing significant blight symptom on welsh onion and inducing a hypersensitive response (HR)-like reaction on tobacco leaves after 36-48 h and encompassed 20 isolates from foxtail millet, hydrangea, pineapple, river water and rice. These 20 isolates did not possess iaaM, iaaH, or etz genes. Group II, consisting of 34 melon isolates, harbored iaaM,iaaH and etz genes, but did not cause either blight on welsh onion or HR-like reaction on tobacco. Group III strains did not have the iaaM, iaaH, and etz genes, nor did they cause any reaction on welsh onion or tobacco. The 42 strains in group III were isolated from bamboo grass, Chinese silver grass, citrus, dogwood, melon, mugwort, silk tree, sweet corn, tea and welsh onion. Representative strains of the three groups were tested for pathogenicity on melon and rice. Group Ι strains caused palea browning on rice but not internal fruit rot on melon. On the contrary, group II strains did not cause disease on rice but caused internal fruit rot on melon. Group III strains were not pathogenic on rice or melon. These results suggested that the host range of P. ananatis may be predicted by the reactions of welsh onion and tobacco and detection of iaaM, iaaH and etz genes. These tools may serve as rapid tests to identify the pathogenicity groups of P. ananatis. © 2010 The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer.
Shimomura N.,Tottori University |
Matsuda M.,Tottori University |
Ariyoshi K.,Tottori Prefectural Agriculture and Forest Research Institute |
Aimi T.,Tottori University
Botany | Year: 2012
Rhizopogon roseolus (Corda) Th. M. Fr., known as shoro in Japanese, is an edible ectomycorrhizal mushroom. To successfully cultivate ectomycorrhizal mushrooms, inoculation and propagation methods must be developed, and isolates with superior traits must be selected. Pinus thunbergii Parl. seedlings were inoculated with several isolates of R. roseolus using the Petri dish technique and their mycorrhizal abilities were assessed. We selected a superior isolate that rapidly colon- ized and produced a lot of ectomycorrhizas in the roots of P. thunbergii. The selected strain was cultured in liquid medium, and the resultant mycelia were homogenized in saline solution to make a slurry. Adding surfactant to the mycelial slurry stimulated mycorrhizal formation in host roots. We investigated the effects of mycelial slurry containing surfactant on ecto- mycorrhizal formation of P. thunbergii and fruiting body formation in mother plant systems. Stimulatory effects of the slurry were observed not only on ectomycorrhizal formation of the seedlings but also on fruiting body formation. These results suggest that the mycelial slurries containing surfactant could serve as mycelial spawns for the cultivation of shoro under greenhouse conditions.
Kimura R.,Tottori University |
Moriyama M.,Nagasaki University |
Bandou S.,Tottori Prefectural Agriculture and Forest Research Institute
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2015
Numerous studies have suggested that rice quality in Japan is affected by high temperatures during the ripening period, especially in summer. On the assumption that land-surface temperature (LST) can be substituted for air temperature, we examined rice quality using LST satellite data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) during the ripening stage (August) in Tottori prefecture. Rice quality in Tottori was very low compared with Japan as a whole and to neighbouring prefectures. LST was correlated with minimum and average air temperatures in August at six meteorological stations in Tottori. Rice quality decreased with increasing LST, and the threshold LST value when the quality of rice was less than 50% was 307 K (33.9 °C). The spatial distribution of LST in August indicated that LST values over 307 K were widespread, especially in coastal and lowland areas, and areas with the highest rice quality corresponded with intermountain regions that had LSTs less than 307 K. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.
Yoshimura Y.,Tottori University |
Ido A.,Tottori Prefectural Agriculture and Forest Research Institute |
Iwase K.,Teikyo University |
Matsumoto T.,Tottori University |
Yamato M.,Tottori University
Microbes and Environments | Year: 2013
We examined the colonization rate and communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the roots of Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta (Japanese pear) in orchards to investigate the effect of phosphorus (P) fertilization on AMF. Soil cores containing the roots of Japanese pear were collected from 13 orchards in Tottori Prefecture, Japan. Soil-available P in the examined orchards was 75.7 to 1,200 mg kg-1, showing the extreme accumulation of soil P in many orchards. The AMF colonization rate was negatively correlated with soil-available P (P <0.01). AMF communities were examined on the basis of the partial fungal DNA sequences of the nuclear small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) amplified by AMF-specific primers AML1 and AML2. The obtained AMF sequences were divided into 14 phylotypes, and the number of phylotypes (species richness) was also negatively correlated with soil-available P (P <0.05). It was also suggested that some AM fungi may be adapted to high soil-available P conditions. Redundancy analysis showed the significant effects of soil pH, available P in soil, and P content in leaves of P. pyrifolia var. culta trees on AMF distribution. These results suggested that the accumulation of soil-available P affected AMF communities in the roots of Japanese pear in the orchard environment.
Naka H.,Tottori University |
Mochizuki M.,National Institute of Fruit Tree Science |
Nakada K.,Tottori Prefectural Agriculture and Forest Research Institute |
Due Do N.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology |
And 3 more authors.
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2010
In field screening tests of synthetic pheromone candidates for Japanese sesiid species, a mixture of (3Z,13Z)-octadecadien-l-ol and (3Z,13Z)- octadecadienyl acetate successfully attracted male moths of Glossosphecia romanovi, a harmful pest of vine trees. The GC-EAD and GC-MS analyses of the pheromone gland extract revealed that the female moths produced the alcohol and acetate in a ratio of about 20:1, in addition to three other minor structure-related components.
Do N.D.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology |
Ohbayashi K.,Tottori University |
Naka H.,Tottori University |
Nakada K.,Tottori Prefectural Agriculture and Forest Research Institute |
Ando T.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
Journal of Chemical Ecology | Year: 2011
The pear barkminer moth, Spulerina astaurota Meyrick (Gracillariidae: Gracillariinae), is a harmful pest of the Asian-pear tree. Pheromone components of the female were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with an electroantennographic (EAG) detector and GC coupled with mass spectrometry. The analyses of a crude pheromone extract and those of a fractionated extract on a Florisil column indicated three EAG-active components, tetradecadien-1-ol, its acetate, and an aldehyde derivative. Characteristic fragment ions in the mass spectra of the dienyl compounds and derivatives with 4-methyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione revealed double bonds at the 9- and 11-positions. By comparing the chromatographic behaviors to those of four authentic geometrical isomers, which were synthesized by three different routes starting from 1,8-octanediol or 1,9-nonanediol, the configuration of each natural component was assigned to be 9Z,11Z; i. e., it was concluded that the S. astaurota females secreted (9Z,11Z)-9,11-tetradecadien-1-ol (Z9,Z11-14:OH) as a main pheromone component, and the acetate and aldehyde derivatives (Z9,Z11-14:OAc and Z9,Z11-14:Ald) as minor components. This identification was confirmed by a field evaluation of the synthetic pheromone. While the male moths could be attracted to a lure baited with Z9,Z11-14:OH alone, Z9,Z11-14:OAc showed a strong synergistic effect on the attraction. Among the lures tested, the mixture of alcohol and acetate in a ratio of 7:3 exhibited the strongest attraction. Addition of Z9,Z11-14:Ald in the mixture did not significantly increase the number of males attracted. Furthermore, the field test indicated that some contamination of a geometrical isomer of the alcohol did not impair the activity of the binary mixture with the 9Z,11Z configuration. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
PubMed | Tottori Prefectural Agriculture and forest Research Institute and Tottori University
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2015
To better understand the molecular mechanisms related to growth promotion in the early developmental stages of Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn. under end-of-day far-red light (EOD-FR) treatment, we analyzed the leaf transcriptome of treated (EOD) and untreated plants (Cont) by using RNA-seq technology. EOD-FR treatment for only about 2 weeks in regions with limited sunshine during winter resulted in significantly higher internode length between the 3rd and 4th nodes on the main stem in EOD than in Cont. Among the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to synthesis or transport of auxin, higher levels of YUCCA (CL6581) and PIN4 (CL6181) were noted after treatment in EOD than in Cont in the leaf. In addition, high expression levels of GA20ox (Unigene11862) related to gibberellin (GA) synthesis and transcription factor bHLH 135 (CL7761) were observed in the stem of EOD, 3 h after treatment. A vertical section of the stem showed that the pith length of cells at the 4th node was longer in EOD than in Cont. Collectively, these results suggested that EOD-FR treatment increased the expression of DEGs related to GA and auxin biosynthesis, bHLH transcription factor, and internodal cell elongation along the longitudinal axis of Eustoma plants.
Tomitaka Y.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center |
Usugi T.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center |
Yasuda F.,Tottori Prefectural Agriculture and Forest Research Institute |
Okayama H.,Tottori Prefectural Agriculture and Forest Research Institute |
Tsuda S.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center
Phytopathology | Year: 2011
An unusual virus was isolated from a Japanese Cucumis melo cv. Prince melon plant showing mild mottling of the leaves. The virus had a broad experimental host range including at least 19 plant species in five families, with most infected plants showing no symptoms on inoculated and uninoculated systemically infected leaves. The virus particles were spherical, approximately 28 nm in diameter, and the coat protein (CP)had an apparent molecular mass of about 55 kDa. The virus possessed a bi-partite genome with two RNA species, of approximately 8,000 and 4,000 nucleotides. Both genome components for the new virus were se-quenced. Amino acid sequence identities in CP between the new virus and previously characterized nepoviruses were found to be low (less than 27%); however, in phylogenetic reconstructions the closest relationship was revealed between the new virus and subgroup A nepoviruses. These results suggest that the new virus represents a novel member of the genus Nepovirus. A new name, Melon mild mottle virus, has been proposed for this new virus. © 2011 The American Phytopathological Society.