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Nishimoto H.,Yonago College | Yamaguchi K.,Yonago College | Kimura K.,Tottori Institute of Industrial Technology | Suzuki Y.,Tottori Institute of Industrial Technology | And 2 more authors.
Key Engineering Materials | Year: 2015

Optical interferometry methods are widely used for measuring microdisplacement with nanometer accuracy. However, most commercially available optical interferometry systems are large and expensive for manufacturing applications. In this study, we report the development of a low-cost portable optical interferometry microscope for factory use. The light source was a tungsten-halogen white lamp with an optical filter. The microscope has an objective lens with a numerical aperture of 0.3, a magnifying power of 10, and field depth of 3.056 μm. Interference images were collected with an NTSC CCD-video camera. The resolution of the interference image is 320 × 240 pixels and stored in BMP format. To obtain phase-shifted interferometry images, a piezoelectric actuator was used to monitor the table movement along the optical axis. The total cost of all system parts is approximately 7000 to 8000 US dollars. To evaluate the basic performance of the developed interferometry microscope, we measured a steel ball, the penetration mark of a Rockwell scale hardness indenter, and a gauge block surface with a bump. The developed interferometry microscope can measure continuous and gently sloping surfaces. The processing time is approximately 10-20 s. © (2015) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Source

Morimoto M.,Tottori University | Takatori M.,Tottori University | Hayashi T.,Tottori University | Mori D.,Tottori University | And 8 more authors.
Carbohydrate Research | Year: 2014

Fucoidan and chondroitin sulfate, which are well known sulfated polysaccharides, were depolymerized under hydrothermal conditions (120-180 C, 5-60 min) as a method for the preparation of sulfated polysaccharides with controlled molecular weights. Fucoidan was easily depolymerized, and the change of the molecular weight values depended on the reaction temperature and time. The degree of sulfation and IR spectra of the depolymerized fucoidan did not change compared with those of untreated fucoidan at reaction temperatures below 140 C. However, fucoidan was partially degraded during depolymerization above 160 C. Nearly the same depolymerization was observed for chondroitin sulfate. These results indicate that hydrothermal treatment is applicable for the depolymerization of sulfated polysaccharides, and that low molecular weight products without desulfation and deformation of the initial glycan structures can be obtained under mild hydrothermal conditions.©2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Kohyama K.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Kato-Nagata A.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Kato-Nagata A.,Tottori Institute of Industrial Technology | Shimada H.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Texture Studies | Year: 2013

To determine an effective method to evaluate the texture of cucumbers, human-bite measurement using a multiple-point sheet sensor and instrumental tests using wedge probes with various angles and a cylindrical probe were conducted. To detect small differences in texture, cross-sectional slices taken from the middle part of a cucumber fruit were served at 4 or 22C. The 60°-wedge probe that could completely divide samples like human incisors performed best compared with sharper wedges or cylindrical probe that partly broke the tissue. The human-bite force for cucumber slices of 4C was significantly lower than that of 22C. Breaking force and energy with the wedges of 60 and 30° in the compression test and those for flesh puncture test demonstrated a similar temperature effect. A faster compression speed close to the human-bite speed (20mm/s) was necessary to detect the significant temperature effects. Practical Applications: The texture of cucumber was analyzed more precisely using a wedge probe with an angle of 60° inserted into sectional slices of the samples similar to the action of human front teeth that completely cut off the section. A cylindrical probe could insert only part of the cucumber tissues and a blade or a sharper wedge probe partially broke the slices to the depth which the probe reached. Faster test speed (>10mm/s) close to the average speed of human bite is preferred to detect temperature effects on fracture force. If there are some differences in breaking properties of cucumbers, the proposed conditions of compression test with a 60° wedge at 20mm/s will detect delicate differences as those due to serving temperature were small. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.. Source

Wakuda T.,Tottori University | Azuma K.,Tottori University | Saimoto H.,Tottori University | Ifuku S.,Tottori University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2013

The effects of pear vinegar (PV), which was specially brewed for enhanced galacturonic acid content, on the DSS-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) mouse model were evaluated. PV improved clinical symptoms, colon inflammation, and histological tissue injury in the DSS-induced acute UC mouse model. Moreover, PV suppressed inflammation due to acute UC by suppressing the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-mediated activation of inflammatory cells such as leukocytes and decreasing the serum concentration of IL-6. Our results demonstrated the protective action of PV in the DSS-induced acute UC mouse model. On the other hand, commercial apple vinegar did not show a protective effect in the DSS-induced acute UC mouse model. Our findings indicate that PV may act as a new functional food for inflammatory bowel disease patients. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Nakasone N.,Tottori University | Nakamura Y.S.,Tottori Institute of Industrial Technology | Higaki K.,Tottori University | Oumi N.,Tottori University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2014

Most cases with Niemann-Pick disease type C carry mutations in NPC1. Some of the mutations, including the most frequent I1061T, give rise to unstable proteins selected for endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. The purpose of the current study was to shed mechanistic insights into the degradation process. A proteasome inhibitor MG132 prolonged the life span of the wild-type NPC1 expressed in COS cells. The expressed protein associated with multiple chaperones including heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), Hsp70, heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70), and calnexin. Accordingly, expression of an E3 ligase CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein) enhanced MG132-induced accumulation of ubiquitylated NPC1. Co-expression and RNAi knockdown experiments in HEK cells indicated that Hsp70/Hsp90 stabilized NPC1, whereas Hsc70 destabilized it. In human fibroblasts carrying the I1061T mutation, adenovirus-mediated expression of Hsp70 or treatment with an HSP-inducer geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) increased the level of the mutant protein. In GGA-treated cells, the rescued protein was localized in the late endosome and ameliorated cholesterol accumulation. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry revealed three lysine residues at amino acids 318, 792, and 1180 as potential ubiquitin-conjugation sites. Substitutions of the three residues with alanine yielded a mutant protein with a steady-state level more than three times higher than that of the wild-type. Introduction of the same substitutions to the I1061T mutant resulted in an increase in its protein level and functional restoration. These findings indicated the role of HSPs in quality control of NPC1 and revealed the role of three lysine residues as ubiquitin-conjugation sites. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source

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