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Barrere C.,University of Rouen | Selmi W.,University of Rouen | Hubert-Roux M.,University of Rouen | Coupin T.,Total Research and Technology Feluy | And 3 more authors.
Polymer Chemistry

In this work ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) coupled to an atmospheric solid analysis probe (ASAP) was used for the characterization of polymer blends involving biodegradable polymers (poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)) and poly(ethylene) (PE). Interestingly both PLA and PBS yielded by ASAP an ionization ion series corresponding to cyclic oligomers that were nearly identical to those obtained by conventional Py-GC-CI/MS. However from the drift-time vs. m/z plot of a PLA-PE blend, the ion series of both polymers can be readily identified, as the PLA ions are significantly more compact than the PE ions. From this 2D plot specific mass spectra can be extracted which are almost identical to those of each polymer alone. This work highlights the potential of ASAP-IM-MS to achieve a very fast analysis of complex polymer blends. It was demonstrated that coupling gas phase ion separations (IM) with direct and weakly discriminant ionization techniques (ASAP) significantly enhances the dynamic range of accessible concentrations and polymer polarities, opening a new avenue to carry out more complex "materiomics" studies. © the Partner Organisations 2014. Source

Chiche D.,French Institute of Petroleum | Diverchy C.,Total Research and Technology Feluy | Lucquin A.-C.,French Institute of Petroleum | Porcheron F.,French Institute of Petroleum | Defoort F.,CEA Grenoble
Oil and Gas Science and Technology

Tropsch (FT) based B-XTL processes are attractive alternatives for future energy production. These processes aim at converting lignocellulosic biomass possibly in co-processing with petcoke, coal, or vacuum residues into synthetic biofuels. A gasification step converts the feed into a synthesis gas (CO and H2 mixture), which undergoes the Fischer-Tropsch reaction after H2/CO ratio adjustment and CO2 removal. However synthesis gas also contains various impurities that must be removed in order to prevent Fischer-Tropsch catalyst poisoning. Due to the large feedstocks variety that can be processed, significant variations of the composition of the synthesis gas are expected. Especially, this affects the nature of the impurities that are present (element, speciation), as well as their relative contents. Moreover, due to high FT catalyst sensitivity, severe syngas specifications regarding its purity are required. For these reasons, synthesis gas purification constitutes a major challenge for the development of B-XTL processes. In this article, we focus on these major hurdles that have to be overcome. The different kinds of syngas impurities are presented. The influence of the nature of feedstocks, gasification technology and operating conditions on the type and content of impurities is discussed. Highlight is given on the fate of sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, halides, transition and heavy metals. Main synthesis gas purification technologies (based on adsorption, absorption, catalytic reactions, etc.) are finally described, as well as the related challenges. © 2013, IFP Energies nouvelles. Source

Rose A.,University of Bayreuth | Thiessen J.,University of Bayreuth | Jess A.,University of Bayreuth | Curulla-Ferre D.,Total Research and Technology Feluy
Chemical Engineering and Technology

Langmuir-Hinselwood (LH) and power rate equations were applied to describe the kinetics of the Fischer-Tropsch reaction on cobalt catalysts and manganese-doped cobalt catalysts supported on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). LH-based kinetics characterize the activity behavior of the unpromoted Co/CNT system satisfactorily, but fail with respect to the manganese-promoted Co/CNT catalyst. An alternative LH equation is able to fit the experimental data, but the fitting parameters are out of the range of usual values and underrate the activity at ambient pressure regardless of manganese promotion. Application of power law rate expressions results in satisfying characterization of the kinetics in the whole CO pressure range in the promoted case and within a defined range of CO pressure in the unpromoted case. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Martin O.,ETH Zurich | Mondelli C.,ETH Zurich | Cervellino A.,Paul Scherrer Institute | Ferri D.,Paul Scherrer Institute | And 2 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition

Optimal amounts of CO2 are added to syngas to boost the methanol synthesis rate on Cu-ZnO-Al2O3 in the industrial process. The reason for CO2 promotion is not sufficiently understood at the particle level due to the catalyst complexity and the high demands of characterization under true reaction conditions. Herein, we applied operando synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and modulated-excitation infrared spectroscopy on a commercial catalyst to gain insights into its morphology and surface chemistry. These studies unveiled that Cu and ZnO agglomerate and ZnO particles flatten under CO/H2 and/or CO2/H2. Under the optimal CO/CO2/H2 mixture, sintering is prevented and ZnO crystals adopt an elongated shape due to the minimal presence of the H2O byproduct, enhancing the water-gas shift activity and thus the methanol production. Our results provide a rationale to the CO2 promotion emphasizing the importance of advanced analytical methods to establish structure-performance relations in heterogeneous catalysis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Maziers E.,Total Research and Technology Feluy
Society of Plastics Engineers - 2013 SPE International Polyolefins Conference

This Paper will introduce the use of the rotomolding process together with a skin-foam-structure to produce plastic car bodies. These structures will be mainly dedicated to small city cars. The plastic bodies have a very good balance of weight /mechanical performances as well as a significant contribution in making the city car a sustainable part of mobility. Source

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