Spiess C.,Genentech |
Bevers J.,Genentech |
Chiang N.,Genentech |
Nakamura G.,Genentech |
And 12 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2013
Background: Dual neutralization of IL-4 and IL-13 is a promising therapeutic approach for asthma and allergy. Results: Knobs-into-holes IgG1 and IgG4 bispecific antibodies targeting both cytokines were developed. Conclusion: Bispecific antibodies of both isotypes have comparable in vitro potencies, in vivo pharmacokinetics, and lung partitioning. Significance: Further extension of knobs-into-holes technology to human IgG4 isotype as reported here provides greater options for therapeutics. © 2013 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Enquist-Newman M.,Bio Architecture Laboratory Inc. |
Faust A.M.E.,Bio Architecture Laboratory Inc. |
Bravo D.D.,Bio Architecture Laboratory Inc. |
Santos C.N.S.,Bio Architecture Laboratory Inc. |
And 35 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2014
The increasing demands placed on natural resources for fuel and food production require that we explore the use of efficient, sustainable feedstocks such as brown macroalgae. The full potential of brown macroalgae as feedstocks for commercial-scale fuel ethanol production, however, requires extensive re-engineering of the alginate and mannitol catabolic pathways in the standard industrial microbe Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we present the discovery of an alginate monomer (4-deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronate, or DEHU) transporter from the alginolytic eukaryote Asteromyces cruciatus. The genomic integration and overexpression of the gene encoding this transporter, together with the necessary bacterial alginate and deregulated native mannitol catabolism genes, conferred the ability of an S. cerevisiae strain to efficiently metabolize DEHU and mannitol. When this platform was further adapted to grow on mannitol and DEHU under anaerobic conditions, it was capable of ethanol fermentation from mannitol and DEHU, achieving titres of 4.6% (v/v) (36.2 g l-1) and yields up to 83% of the maximum theoretical yield from consumed sugars. These results show that all major sugars in brown macroalgae can be used as feedstocks for biofuels and value-added renewable chemicals in a manner that is comparable to traditional arable-land-based feedstocks. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.
Dequivre M.,University of Lyon |
Dequivre M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 |
Dequivre M.,CNRS Laboratory for Microbiology, Adaptation & Pathogenesis |
Diel B.,University of Lyon |
And 19 more authors.
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions | Year: 2015
Novel ways of regulating Ti plasmid functions were investigated by studying small RNAs (sRNAs) that are known to act as posttranscriptional regulators in plant pathogenic bacteria. sRNA-seq analyses of Agrobacterium fabrum C58 allowed us to identify 1,108 small transcripts expressed in several growth conditions that could be sRNAs. A quarter of them were confirmed by bioinformatics or by biological experiments. Antisense RNAs represent 24% of the candidates and they are over-represented on the pTi (with 62% of pTi sRNAs), suggesting differences in the regulatory mechanisms between the essential and accessory replicons. Moreover, a large number of these pTi antisense RNAs are transcribed opposite to those genes involved in virulence. Others are 5′- and 3′-untranslated region RNAs and trans-encoded RNAs. We have validated, by rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction, the transcription of 14 trans-encoded RNAs, among which RNA1111 is expressed from the pTiC58. Its deletion decreased the aggressiveness of A. fabrum C58 on tomatoes, tobaccos, and kalanchoe, suggesting that this sRNA activates virulence. The identification of its putative target mRNAs (6b gene, virC2, virD3, and traA) suggests that this sRNA may coordinate two of the major pTi functions, the infection of plants and its dissemination among bacteria. © 2015 The American Phytopathological Society.
Shaw A.J.,Novogy Inc. |
Lam F.H.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology |
Hamilton M.,Novogy Inc. |
Consiglio A.,Novogy Inc. |
And 11 more authors.
Science | Year: 2016
Microbial contamination is an obstacle to widespread production of advanced biofuels and chemicals. Current practices such as process sterilization or antibiotic dosage carry excess costs or encourage the development of antibiotic resistance. We engineered Escherichia coli to assimilate melamine, a xenobiotic compound containing nitrogen. After adaptive laboratory evolution to improve pathway efficiency, the engineered strain rapidly outcompeted a control strain when melamine was supplied as the nitrogen source. We additionally engineered the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica to assimilate nitrogen from cyanamide and phosphorus from potassium phosphite, and they outcompeted contaminating strains in several low-cost feedstocks. Supplying essential growth nutrients through xenobiotic or ecologically rare chemicals provides microbial competitive advantage with minimal external risks, given that engineered biocatalysts only have improved fitness within the customized fermentation environment. © 2016; American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.
Gogolin R.,Institute for Solar Energy Research Hamelin |
Turcu M.,Institute for Solar Energy Research Hamelin |
Ferre R.,Institute for Solar Energy Research Hamelin |
Ferre R.,Manz AG |
And 8 more authors.
IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics | Year: 2014
We present an experimental method to quantify the series resistance R a-Si/ITO through the a-Si:H layers and the a-Si:H/ITO interface on test structures. In order to optimize Ra-Si/ITO, we apply different a-Si:H and ITO deposition parameters. We find the best value for R (p)-a-Si/ITO of 0.42 Ω·cm2 for an ITO double layer with a 10-nm-thin starting layer that provides good contact resistance and an additional 90-nm top layer that provides good conductivity. For R (n)-a-Si/ITO , we reach values below 0.1 Ω·cm 2. We present an analysis of the series resistance and shading losses of our 100-cm2 bifacial screen-printed a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells, which show an open-circuit voltage of Voc = 733 mV, demonstrating the excellent level of interface passivation. The efficiency of 20.2% is limited by a low short-circuit current density of 37.1 mA/cm 2 and fill factor of 76%. © 2014 IEEE.