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Gouth F.,Total S.A. | Belushko I.,Total S.A. | Herwin H.,TOTAL E and P Indonesie
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, APOGCE 2014 - Changing the Game: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions | Year: 2014

Fairview field is located in the Bowen Basin in South East Queensland and covers an area of approximately 1600 km2. It has been in production since 1994, from the 6 main coal seams of the Bandanna Formation. Presently, about 150 wells are on-stream feeding the domestic gas market. Further development is in progress to supply the Gladstone LNG plants on Curtis Island in 2015. This paper focuses on a developed zone in the North of the field where extensive production and pressure data; more than 15 years, are available. The majority of the wells in the area are commingled and target the sweet spots with permeability ranging from tens to a few hundreds mDs. Material balance analysis observed a typical layered reservoir behavior which is consistent with permeability discrepancies measured between seams. It also provided a comprehensive large scale calibration of the gas accumulation split between well connected and poorly connected areas. This split tightly controlled the gas production performance and recovery. A strong permeability increase over reservoir pressure depletion was also identified after the two-phase flow production period. The magnitude was a 10 fold increase over 300 psi of depletion which is likely related to the well known coal shrinkage effect. This observation is consistent with previously published data from the San Juan Basin in the US. Within the high quality seams, this phenomenon had limited impact on long-term production recovery; however the impact on expected-ultimate-recovery (EUR) was more significant in the poorer seams. These two phenomena show that permeability characterization, including its relationship with reservoir pressure depletion, is a key element for better production forecast. Copyright 2014, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Chaineau C.-H.,Total S.A. | Mine J.,Total S.A. | Suripno,TOTAL E and P Indonesie
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2010

This paper describes the approach of TOTAL Exploration & Production concerning the protection of biodiversity during oil and gas exploration and production activities, particularly in sensitive environments such as tropical islands. This approach was developed according to three stages: knowing biodiversity, protecting biodiversity and, going further, by contributing to scientific research. This three step approach is embedded in an environment protection policy and an associated set of actions already implemented for many years. Knowledge of the biodiversity is an indispensable preliminary to evaluating the sensitivity of a site which is likely to be impacted by an industrial activity. TOTAL E&P Indonésie (TI) has been operating for over 30 years in the East part of Borneo Island in areas of increasing sensitivity with respect to mangrove ecosystems; for example the Mahakam delta which includes the Tambora, Handil and Tunu fields. This area was initially covered by dense mangrove vegetation. Regular biodiversity surveys in the delta, especially for fishes, birds and benthos, have allowed TI to witness the progressive changes occurring in the delta. Reducing significant impacts and conserving biodiversity is considered as an integral part of sustainable development. With regard to the Mahakam delta, in the last decades there has been a marked increase of local population activities and deforestation due to shrimp-culture development. TI has made significant efforts with environmental management actions to protect the mangrove ecosystem through several environmental programs such as minimizing land clearing and reinstating cleared areas. The programs have involved local communities and other stakeholders such as NGO's and governmental bodies. Contributing to scientific knowledge of biodiversity is of mutual interest to both science and industry. The TOTAL Group, through its Foundation for Biodiversity and the Sea, has supported the establishment of a comprehensive inventory of the marine biodiversity of the island of Panglao, situated southwest of Bohol, Philippines. The Panglao Marine Biodiversity project was driven in collaboration between the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, and the University of San Carlos, Cebu City, Philippines. Recently, another major biodiversity inventory has been also supported by the TOTAL Foundation: the Santo 2006 biodiversity project. On this island, located in the Vanuatu archipelago, the research program has focused on four themes: marine, forest, karstic environments and alien species. Furthermore, TOTAL in partnership with IFREMER, a French oceanographic research centre, has also developed a comprehensive biodiversity research and development program dedicated to Deep Sea ecosystems. Even if initially focused off Western Africa, this emerging issue is also of concern in most of the tropical areas in the world where deep offshore environments are present. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

Santhyani D.,TOTAL E and P Indonesie
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, APOGCE 2013: Maximising the Mature, Elevating the Young | Year: 2013

Top of line corrosion (TLC) is experienced on the upper section of gas or multiphase pipelines operated in a stratified flow regime. TLC occurs when water vapor, contained in the gas phase, condenses on the internal upper pipe wall. The condensation may be caused by the cold wall effect generated by external cooling sources (river water, sea water or cold air) when the pipe is not properly heat insulated or buried. Both dissolved CO2 and possible presence of organic acids reduce the pH of condensed water and enhance corrosiveness. Instantaneous high corrosion rates, up to 10 mm/y, can occur in the first production period, although worst corrosion rates averaged over a longer period of 2-3 years are rather in the range of 1 to 3 mm/y. In addition, as long as the flow regime is stratified, usual corrosion inhibitors cannot reach the upper surface of the pipeline. This study covers TLC assessment on new 8 km pipeline that will transport multiphase hydrocarbon from a new platform to existing facilities. Expected production life of the field is quite short, less than 10 years, maximum wellhead flowing temperature is 105°C and CO 2 content is about 8%. Based on TLC assessment performed during conceptual study, TLC has been considered as a significant issue in case of water condensation rate (WCR) > 0.05 gr/m2s. Being WCR far above such limit, the use of cladding pipe was proposed as the main mitigation measure to limit TLC consequences. However during the next stage of Project, TLC risk was re-assessed in more detail by using more accurate data in order to find the best solution in term of CAPEX and OPEX. Following studies were performed: □ Water condensation rate study WCR study is performed in order to identify the pipeline length where TLC will be occured and how long TLC risks will last. Such calculation is done by using OLGA software based on the data of wellhead flowing temperature (WHFT). □ Top of line corrosion rate study TLC rate is calculated to assess the feasibility of the mitigation that consists in having a sufficient corrosion allowance to cover TLC risk and to evaluate the required corrosion allowance □ Sensitivity study of using thermal insulation and buried pipe Performed to assess whether the used of thermal insulation and buried pipe can be an option to mitigate TLC Result of these studies demonstrated that the utilization of carbon steel with extra corrosion allowance, combined with cold spot prevention as the best technical-economic option for TLC mitigation. It was also possible to conclude that thermal insulation or bury the pipe may not always be the most appropriate option due to the quality assurance along the years, the constructability constraint and the cost. Copyright 2013, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Hadiaman F.,TOTAL E and P Indonesie | Neto N.B.,Schlumberger
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition 2011 | Year: 2011

Handil field is a giant mature oil field in Indonesia. It's been producing since 1975, being the current recovery factor for oil 49% and 57% for gas. Cumulatively, the total oil produced is around 855 MMstb and gas around 1.68 Tcf. Today, oil is being produced at 20,000 bopd, gas at 75 mmscfd and water at 130,000 bwpd. Enhanced oil recovery projects, infill wells and light workover of existing wells are key elements to maintain field production. This paper describes an innovative light workover intervention, called Annular Squeeze Cement that helps keeping Handil field production performance at its best level. It covers the field study analysis that led to this the technique, some precautions and current challenges concerning the cementing operation as part of light workover activity. It also share lessons learnt from the field execution and evaluation. A case study is also presented for a full understanding how this cementing placement technique contributes to the field performance. This technique was successfully implemented and acts also as one of the important element to extend the life of a giant mature field where economic and success ratio becoming a paramount parameter. Copyright 2011, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Cahyono D.,TOTAL E and P Indonesie | Tjahjono E.W.,TOTAL E and P Indonesie
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, APOGCE 2013: Maximising the Mature, Elevating the Young | Year: 2013

Background: Benzene is a proven human carcinogen. Exposure to benzene increase incidence of leukemia. The aim of this study is to determine the chromosome breakage of lymphocyte in benzene exposed worker. Method and Result: The benzene management in TOTAL E&P INDONESIE conducted by performing identification of benzene sources, air monitoring, personal dose measurement, and biological monitoring. Benzene sources are identified in the location: flotator, pigging, and oil water treatment. Most of the benzene air concentration reach above Threshold Limit Value (>1 ppm), some are above 250 ppm. Most of personal exposed monitoring and biologic monitoring is below the maximum standard. Risk management was also performed. The health surveillance in 115 samples shows: 73 samples (63%) have chromosome breakage (banding), 99 (86%) for non-banding. Variables that are statistically significant (p<0.05) are work locations, positions, SPMA in urine, PPE, Respirator use, Vitamin C intake and tea consumption. A higher breakage of chromosome numbers 3 & 6 found among workers exposed to benzene compared to non/less exposed. Main Findings and Policy Implication: The finding of this study is the chromosome (3 & 6) breakage among workers exposed to benzene. Despite well recognized benzene effects (leukemia), other possible implications on health can be different for certain populations as chromosome numbers 3 and 6 are associated with endocrine/metabolic and immunological disorders. This is consistent with fact that more than 40 years operation, no leukemia case detected among the workers in TEPI. Workers health surveillance shall be continued to detect the possible early effects on endocrine/immune systems. Benzene exposed should be further controlled by management benzene exposure (Regular benzene exposure measurement of air ambient and biological monitoring, engineering control of benzene source) , antioxidant consumption and behavior of employees in using proper respirator. Copyright 2013, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

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