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Chaineau C.-H.,Total S.A. | Mine J.,Total S.A. | Suripno,TOTAL E and P Indonesie
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2010

This paper describes the approach of TOTAL Exploration & Production concerning the protection of biodiversity during oil and gas exploration and production activities, particularly in sensitive environments such as tropical islands. This approach was developed according to three stages: knowing biodiversity, protecting biodiversity and, going further, by contributing to scientific research. This three step approach is embedded in an environment protection policy and an associated set of actions already implemented for many years. Knowledge of the biodiversity is an indispensable preliminary to evaluating the sensitivity of a site which is likely to be impacted by an industrial activity. TOTAL E&P Indonésie (TI) has been operating for over 30 years in the East part of Borneo Island in areas of increasing sensitivity with respect to mangrove ecosystems; for example the Mahakam delta which includes the Tambora, Handil and Tunu fields. This area was initially covered by dense mangrove vegetation. Regular biodiversity surveys in the delta, especially for fishes, birds and benthos, have allowed TI to witness the progressive changes occurring in the delta. Reducing significant impacts and conserving biodiversity is considered as an integral part of sustainable development. With regard to the Mahakam delta, in the last decades there has been a marked increase of local population activities and deforestation due to shrimp-culture development. TI has made significant efforts with environmental management actions to protect the mangrove ecosystem through several environmental programs such as minimizing land clearing and reinstating cleared areas. The programs have involved local communities and other stakeholders such as NGO's and governmental bodies. Contributing to scientific knowledge of biodiversity is of mutual interest to both science and industry. The TOTAL Group, through its Foundation for Biodiversity and the Sea, has supported the establishment of a comprehensive inventory of the marine biodiversity of the island of Panglao, situated southwest of Bohol, Philippines. The Panglao Marine Biodiversity project was driven in collaboration between the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, and the University of San Carlos, Cebu City, Philippines. Recently, another major biodiversity inventory has been also supported by the TOTAL Foundation: the Santo 2006 biodiversity project. On this island, located in the Vanuatu archipelago, the research program has focused on four themes: marine, forest, karstic environments and alien species. Furthermore, TOTAL in partnership with IFREMER, a French oceanographic research centre, has also developed a comprehensive biodiversity research and development program dedicated to Deep Sea ecosystems. Even if initially focused off Western Africa, this emerging issue is also of concern in most of the tropical areas in the world where deep offshore environments are present. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.


Gouth F.,Total S.A. | Belushko I.,Total S.A. | Herwin H.,TOTAL E and P Indonesie
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, APOGCE 2014 - Changing the Game: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions | Year: 2014

Fairview field is located in the Bowen Basin in South East Queensland and covers an area of approximately 1600 km2. It has been in production since 1994, from the 6 main coal seams of the Bandanna Formation. Presently, about 150 wells are on-stream feeding the domestic gas market. Further development is in progress to supply the Gladstone LNG plants on Curtis Island in 2015. This paper focuses on a developed zone in the North of the field where extensive production and pressure data; more than 15 years, are available. The majority of the wells in the area are commingled and target the sweet spots with permeability ranging from tens to a few hundreds mDs. Material balance analysis observed a typical layered reservoir behavior which is consistent with permeability discrepancies measured between seams. It also provided a comprehensive large scale calibration of the gas accumulation split between well connected and poorly connected areas. This split tightly controlled the gas production performance and recovery. A strong permeability increase over reservoir pressure depletion was also identified after the two-phase flow production period. The magnitude was a 10 fold increase over 300 psi of depletion which is likely related to the well known coal shrinkage effect. This observation is consistent with previously published data from the San Juan Basin in the US. Within the high quality seams, this phenomenon had limited impact on long-term production recovery; however the impact on expected-ultimate-recovery (EUR) was more significant in the poorer seams. These two phenomena show that permeability characterization, including its relationship with reservoir pressure depletion, is a key element for better production forecast. Copyright 2014, Society of Petroleum Engineers.


Cahyono D.,Total E and P Indonesie | Tjahjono E.W.,Total E and P Indonesie
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, APOGCE 2013: Maximising the Mature, Elevating the Young | Year: 2013

Background: Benzene is a proven human carcinogen. Exposure to benzene increase incidence of leukemia. The aim of this study is to determine the chromosome breakage of lymphocyte in benzene exposed worker. Method and Result: The benzene management in TOTAL E&P INDONESIE conducted by performing identification of benzene sources, air monitoring, personal dose measurement, and biological monitoring. Benzene sources are identified in the location: flotator, pigging, and oil water treatment. Most of the benzene air concentration reach above Threshold Limit Value (>1 ppm), some are above 250 ppm. Most of personal exposed monitoring and biologic monitoring is below the maximum standard. Risk management was also performed. The health surveillance in 115 samples shows: 73 samples (63%) have chromosome breakage (banding), 99 (86%) for non-banding. Variables that are statistically significant (p<0.05) are work locations, positions, SPMA in urine, PPE, Respirator use, Vitamin C intake and tea consumption. A higher breakage of chromosome numbers 3 & 6 found among workers exposed to benzene compared to non/less exposed. Main Findings and Policy Implication: The finding of this study is the chromosome (3 & 6) breakage among workers exposed to benzene. Despite well recognized benzene effects (leukemia), other possible implications on health can be different for certain populations as chromosome numbers 3 and 6 are associated with endocrine/metabolic and immunological disorders. This is consistent with fact that more than 40 years operation, no leukemia case detected among the workers in TEPI. Workers health surveillance shall be continued to detect the possible early effects on endocrine/immune systems. Benzene exposed should be further controlled by management benzene exposure (Regular benzene exposure measurement of air ambient and biological monitoring, engineering control of benzene source) , antioxidant consumption and behavior of employees in using proper respirator. Copyright 2013, Society of Petroleum Engineers.


Santhyani D.,Total E and P Indonesie
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, APOGCE 2013: Maximising the Mature, Elevating the Young | Year: 2013

Top of line corrosion (TLC) is experienced on the upper section of gas or multiphase pipelines operated in a stratified flow regime. TLC occurs when water vapor, contained in the gas phase, condenses on the internal upper pipe wall. The condensation may be caused by the cold wall effect generated by external cooling sources (river water, sea water or cold air) when the pipe is not properly heat insulated or buried. Both dissolved CO2 and possible presence of organic acids reduce the pH of condensed water and enhance corrosiveness. Instantaneous high corrosion rates, up to 10 mm/y, can occur in the first production period, although worst corrosion rates averaged over a longer period of 2-3 years are rather in the range of 1 to 3 mm/y. In addition, as long as the flow regime is stratified, usual corrosion inhibitors cannot reach the upper surface of the pipeline. This study covers TLC assessment on new 8 km pipeline that will transport multiphase hydrocarbon from a new platform to existing facilities. Expected production life of the field is quite short, less than 10 years, maximum wellhead flowing temperature is 105°C and CO 2 content is about 8%. Based on TLC assessment performed during conceptual study, TLC has been considered as a significant issue in case of water condensation rate (WCR) > 0.05 gr/m2s. Being WCR far above such limit, the use of cladding pipe was proposed as the main mitigation measure to limit TLC consequences. However during the next stage of Project, TLC risk was re-assessed in more detail by using more accurate data in order to find the best solution in term of CAPEX and OPEX. Following studies were performed: □ Water condensation rate study WCR study is performed in order to identify the pipeline length where TLC will be occured and how long TLC risks will last. Such calculation is done by using OLGA software based on the data of wellhead flowing temperature (WHFT). □ Top of line corrosion rate study TLC rate is calculated to assess the feasibility of the mitigation that consists in having a sufficient corrosion allowance to cover TLC risk and to evaluate the required corrosion allowance □ Sensitivity study of using thermal insulation and buried pipe Performed to assess whether the used of thermal insulation and buried pipe can be an option to mitigate TLC Result of these studies demonstrated that the utilization of carbon steel with extra corrosion allowance, combined with cold spot prevention as the best technical-economic option for TLC mitigation. It was also possible to conclude that thermal insulation or bury the pipe may not always be the most appropriate option due to the quality assurance along the years, the constructability constraint and the cost. Copyright 2013, Society of Petroleum Engineers.


Perrier S.,Total E and P Indonesie | Sugiarto T.,Total E and P Indonesie
Proceedings - SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition | Year: 2012

Tunu is a multilayered gas field operated by Total EP Indonesie in the Kutei basin, which has produced 8Tcf since 1993. It consists of thousands of gas-bearing sandstone reservoirs, spread over up to 2000m of vertical gross thickness, developed using tubingless completions (more than 700 wells to date). Perforations are performed by light electric unit swamp barges, following a progressive bottom-up strategy. Perforation techniques applied in the field typically involve perforating in static under-balanced pressure conditions with conventional guns and charges (underbalance value and gun design may vary). However, more than 40 reservoirs were perforated using Dynamic Underbalance technologies between 2005 and 2011. This paper presents an in-depth comparative survey of the performance of these 2 perforation techniques, and compares the productivity obtained from these jobs to an extensive benchmark of documented conventional perforations. Methodologically, all reservoir and perforation parameters influencing perforation performance are reviewed, to search for, and correct, any possible statistical bias in the comparison of different groups of reservoirs. Using methods classically used in epidemiological statistics, the aim is to get a statistically sound comparative survey on the productivity provided by these two techniques of perforation. Based on two independent methods, this paper shows that the Dynamic Underbalance technique provides reservoir productivities significantly better than conventional perforations in gas reservoirs. The robust statistical confidence associated to this productivity increase will be explicitly discussed and presented in this paper. Copyright 2012, Society of Petroleum Engineers.


Adinugroho K.,Total E and P Indonesie | Supriyatman D.,Total E and P Indonesie
Society of Petroleum Engineers - Kuwait Oil and Gas Show and Conference, KOGS 2013 | Year: 2013

The Oil and Gas Industry requires 4H: High Investments, High Technology, High Risks and High skillful manpower. The Industry are facing difficult situation on obtaining local skillful manpower with high tech calibers due to unmatched between the Industry needs and the supplies of the educational institutions. Education is one of the key milestones stipulated In the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs). Despite most of the MDGs are achieved or progressing, there are several goals needs major attention or required hard works. UN Secretary General Ban Ki - Moon in a UN report on the MDGs in 2013 confirms the global conditions associated with the level of achievement of the MDGs as a whole lot of progress. The proportion of urban slum dwellers is significantly decreased. Indonesia for example from 2000 to 2010 has been reduced from 34% to 23%. Likewise, the amount of decrease in TB patients and the fight against Malaria , and improvement efforts in health and basic education. On the MDG targets on Education that need hard works: the number of children out of school declined by almost half from 102 million to 57 million. While the MDG targets on Education that need attention: Poor children are three times likely to drop out of school compared with wealthier households. Indonesia keeps improving the quality of education. From 1945 to nowadays Indonesia has changed into better improved curriculum for 10 times. However, the quality is still considered to be "low". The PISA data shows that in the very last year, the score of student's ability in reading is 393, in mathematics 393, in problem solving 361, while the international average score is 450. This situation is caused by the low teacher's quality: 48,69% of the teachers do not have sufficient qualification of education and 70% of teachers are not certified yet. Furthermore, there are some problems of current education curriculum in Indonesia such as the content of the current curriculum is too much and it is not based on competence. The national ratio of student and teacher numbers in elementary school level is 1:20 which means one teacher has to teach 20 students. It is better than the situation in Singapore ((1:25), Korea (1:31), and Philippines (1:35). The condition of secondary level is about similar. It is 1:15 in Indonesia which is better than Malaysia (1:18), China (1:19), or Thailnad (1:25). In fact, Indonesia still has the problem of uneven distribution of teachers. It really affects the quality of education in Indonesia. PISA shows that Indonesia is at the 34th out of 41 countries. In science, Indonesia is the 38th out of 41 countries. Copyright 2013, Society of Petroleum Engineers.


Nathanael C.,Total e and P Indonesie | Masitah S.,Total e and P Indonesie
Proceedings of the Annual Offshore Technology Conference | Year: 2014

Peciko is a giant gas field operated by Total E & P Indonésie which has been in production since late 1999. The field is situated in Mahakam PSC about 25 km offshore. After more than six years of production, the field entered its decline phase after reaching peak production at 1.3 Bscfd in 2005. With the total number of wells exceeding 130, sustaining the field production has become very challenging in this maturation phase. Problems like liquid loading, scale, tubing breach and sand production require immediate remedial action to prevent wells from suffering any further. Gas water contact movements must also be monitored prior to define targets for infill drilling. Data acquisition is of key importance to spot on problems which may impair the producing wells, and to understand the well and field behavior for any next development phase. From 2010 to 2012, around 120 production logging tests (PLT) were done as well as over 20 jobs of caliper log. PLT is widely used to evaluate reservoir performance and to identify source of water, while caliper log is commonly used for quantifying wellbore access restriction or enlargement. Many wells with high water production are associated with wellbore restriction due to scale build-up. Production logging combined with caliper log has also helped tubing breach identification in a zone completed with sleeve only. Further, more than 70 jobs of pulse neutron logging (PNL) were run to monitor the movement of gas water contacts. Sand production is also an issue in Peciko field, and to this end 10 jobs of sand detection logging were acquired. Results are conclusive for a couple of wells, whilst ambiguous for the other, and for these wells the challenge for a solution to remedy sand production remains. This paper explains how reservoir management team (RMT) of the Peciko field has extensively used surveillance technologies in fighting the decline by solving liquid unloading problem, maintaining wellbore integrity, and horizontal well placement for hydrocarbon recovery optimization. Copyright 2014, Offshore Technology Conference.


Hadiaman F.,Total E and P Indonesie | Neto N.B.,Schlumberger
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition 2011 | Year: 2011

Handil field is a giant mature oil field in Indonesia. It's been producing since 1975, being the current recovery factor for oil 49% and 57% for gas. Cumulatively, the total oil produced is around 855 MMstb and gas around 1.68 Tcf. Today, oil is being produced at 20,000 bopd, gas at 75 mmscfd and water at 130,000 bwpd. Enhanced oil recovery projects, infill wells and light workover of existing wells are key elements to maintain field production. This paper describes an innovative light workover intervention, called Annular Squeeze Cement that helps keeping Handil field production performance at its best level. It covers the field study analysis that led to this the technique, some precautions and current challenges concerning the cementing operation as part of light workover activity. It also share lessons learnt from the field execution and evaluation. A case study is also presented for a full understanding how this cementing placement technique contributes to the field performance. This technique was successfully implemented and acts also as one of the important element to extend the life of a giant mature field where economic and success ratio becoming a paramount parameter. Copyright 2011, Society of Petroleum Engineers.


Permata E.,Total E and P Indonesie | McBride S.,Total E and P Indonesie
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production 2010 | Year: 2010

The oil & gas industry has taken substantive steps toward reducing its environmental footprint from drilling activities. The implementation of a drill cuttings waste management strategy in the Mahakam Delta, East Kalimantan, Indonesia includes the use of thermal desorption technology. Oily drill cuttings are collected and treated using thermal desorption unit resulting an efficient, recovery and reuse of base oil and reducing the oil on the treated cuttings from 20 wt% to an average of 0.3 wt%. The solid treated cuttings have potential to be reused as a raw material for civil construction such as road base or backfill material. However, Indonesian hazardous waste regulation enlists drill muds and cuttings as a specific source of hazardous waste. Subsequent to treatment, the treated cuttings are still considered as hazardous even though laboratory analysis demonstrates that the chemical concentrations do not exceed those used to identify materials with hazardous characteristics. The company generates approximately 65 000 tons of treated cuttings annually. The hazardous waste regulations require that the oil & gas industry dispose of this material in an appropriate manner. Therefore the post treated, inert material, that is in compliance with drilling waste management regulation, is disposed in a non-sensitive offshore location. The company is searching for ways to convince the authorities of the benefit of reusing treated cuttings for alternative uses including road base and backfill material. Copyright 2010, Society of Petroleum Engineers.


Aryaguna A.,Total E and P Indonesie | Novendra O.S.,Total E and P Indonesie
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production 2010 | Year: 2010

Global warming is one of the hottest issues in the last decades. The 2007 assessment report compiled by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) observed that "Changes in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols, land cover and solar radiation alter the energy balance of the climate system", and concluded that "Increases in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations is very likely to have caused most of the increases in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century". Total E&P Indonésie (TEPI) as the largest gas producer in Indonesia has a very strong commitment to demonstrate their environment stewardship. One of the ways is by providing accurate reporting of GHG releases. Currently, many developing countries do not have any specific, GHG related regulations, taxes incentives or disincentives as applied in some developed countries. In this issue, TEPI demonstrated their leadership by monitoring GHG emission as a base for further action. In addition, the reporting system that TEPI utilizes has been audited by a reputable international audit firm. This paper explores GHG data management, from data acquisition to report compilation in TEPI, as a part of environment reporting that covers the following areas: • Referential / Corporate Management System. The internal rules and guidance document for the development of the TEPI GHG report. • Data gathering on Production Site. Identification of related GHG Emission sources that will be described in data mapping. • Roles and responsibility. Related entities that are responsible for each step of the process • Data Extraction and Compilation. The links between the available Production Site data, the user interface in the office, and the data compilation in automated GHG computer software. • Verification and Validation. The inconsistency check that will be clarified and validated by the authorized entities. • Report development. Compilation of validated data report to be provided to TEPI Management and subsequently, to Corporate Offices in France. Through this process, TEPI will be able to review Environment Key Performances Indicator (KPI) such as; Flaring Volume, GHG volume, GHG Intensity, etc. After reviewing, TEPI could decide what will be the way forward for improving the Environment Performances. Copyright 2010, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

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