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Villasenor A.,University of Alicante | Greatti C.,Total S.A. | Boccongelli M.,Total Research and Technology | Todoli J.L.,University of Alicante
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry | Year: 2017

A novel calibration method has been developed for the bulk analysis of solid samples through laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). This method has been called dried droplet calibration approach (DDCA). This procedure is thus based on the deposition of a small aqueous standard volume (ca., 1 μL) on the flat surface of a solid sample. Then, the solvent is allowed to completely evaporate at room temperature and the solid residue is finally ablated. The implicit assumptions of the DDCA are that: (i) a single raster is enough to fully ablate the solid layer originating from the evaporation of the standard; and, (ii) the solid residue does not affect the sample ablation yield. Both hypothesis have been verified in the present work. Therefore, several rasters have been performed on the solid residues and the generated signals have been obtained by using an ICP-MS spectrometer. The calibration lines are obtained by plotting the sum of intensities for a given residue (corresponding to a given analyte concentration) versus the analyte ablated mass per laser shot. This method is similar to a standard addition procedure and, hence, the analyte mass ablated from the sample per laser shot has been obtained by extrapolating the obtained straight line to the y-axis zero value. The method has provided accurate concentration results for a glass CRM and three different catalysts employed for petroleum refining purposes, prepared as fused beads. The obtained results have demonstrated that it is possible to overcome significant matrix effects by applying the DDCA. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2017.

Angelini A.,University of Bari | Dibenedetto A.,University of Bari | Curulla-Ferre D.,Total Research and Technology | Aresta M.,CIRCC | Aresta M.,National University of Singapore
RSC Advances | Year: 2015

New Zn- and Ca-based mixed oxides have been tested in the ethanolysis of urea. Cerium and magnesium have revealed to be able to stabilize and enhance the activity of Zn and Ca. All the used compounds act as heterogeneous catalysts in a batch reactor and can be easily recovered and re-used in several catalytic runs. However, although ZnO dissolves as Zn(NCO)2(NH3)2 in the reaction medium under the operative conditions and then partly precipitates at room temperature ensuring a modest immediate recoverability and recyclability, 2CaO/CeO2 is insoluble also at the reaction temperature that makes it well suited even for the use in a flow reactor. MgO-ZnO and SiO2-ZnO have also been tested. The former has an interesting performance, but still not equal to that of 2CaO-CeO2. Interestingly, the latter catalyst is able to convert urea and ethanol into DEC with 91% conversion of urea and 98% selectivity in the long term. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Brown D.J.,Total Research and Technology | De Leye L.,Total Research and Technology | Gainier S.,Total Petrochemicals | De Cooman D.,Total Olefins | Middleton J.,Stone and Webster
28th Ethylene Producers' Conference 2016 - Topical Conference at the 2016 AIChE Spring Meeting and 12th Global Congress on Process Safety | Year: 2016

In 2010 Total, working closely with its selected licensor and basic engineering contractor, Technip Stone & Webster Process Technology ('TS&W'), developed a philosophy for the burner management system ('BMS') of a pair of new furnaces being designed for Total's Gonfreville site (part of the Normandy Platform.) The key features were operator safety; compliance with the European standard (EN 746-2:1997); and reliability. The idea of having remote ignition (from a local panel) and relying on flame monitoring (no visuals) was rather unusual for a cracking furnace. The operators were especially concerned. In practice the system has proved to be reliable, convenient and, most importantly, safe. The BMS was adapted by Total and retrofitted to a pair of older furnaces at Gonfreville. Later, after TS&W was awarded a sub-contract for a near-duplicate pair of furnaces for the Antwerp Platform, Total provided detailed feedback from the experience in Gonfreville to allow the design to be fine-tuned. It was also reviewed for compliance with the new edition of the European standard (EN 746-2:2010). In the paper the authors describe, compare and contrast the design of the BMSs for the three cited references and report on how the systems performed in practice. Finally they consider the implications of the publication of the International Standard, ISO 13577-2:2014, that will eventually supersede EN 746-2 in Europe, and is likely to become the standard adopted by countries which do not currently have a national standard.

Boborodea A.,Certech ASBL | Michel J.,Total Research and Technology | Luciani A.,Certech ASBL
International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization | Year: 2014

Conventional analytical temperature rising elution fractionation (ATREF) is performed using slowly crystallized polymers in about 16 h. In this work, we developed a fast ATREF method in which the polymer sample is directly injected on the column at room temperature, thus reducing the analysis time to about 1 h. The method was tested using four metallocene polyethylenes with unimodal short chain branching distributions and different densities, previously analyzed by ATREF using a cooling rate of 0.1°C/min. The obtained results demonstrate that the fast ATREF method is very effective and accurate in evaluating short chain branching distribution for polyolefins having unimodal distributions. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Maziers E.,Total Research and Technology
Plastics Engineering | Year: 2013

Skin-foam-skin TP-Seal® Rotomolded structures have emerged as a new concept for the production of car bodies for urban mobility. A two-seat concept car is designed for urban mobility, with a weight of around 500 kg. This electric vehicle is produced with a skin-foam-skin chassis, which has been produced by rotomolding with a three-layer structure of skin-foam-skin. The production of plastic foam involves the dispersion of gases within a polymer matrix, with the gaseous phase being generated from either a physical blowing agent or a chemical blowing agent. A foam structure in the rotational molding process requires the polymer matrix to forma continuous melt phase, minimizing losses of the liberated blowing gas to the atmosphere and reducing the adverse effect of incoherent polymer melt on the bubble morphology.

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