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Laskin J.J.,Cancer Center | Nicholas G.,Ottawa Hospital Cancer Center | Lee C.,Cancer Center | Gitlitz B.,University of Southern California | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology | Year: 2012

Purpose: Clusterin (CLU), an antiapoptotic, stress-associated protein, confers resistance to therapy when overexpressed. This trial tested custirsen (OGX-011), an inhibitor of CLU protein production, combined with gemcitabine/platinum in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods: This was a single-arm, multicenter, phase I/II study in chemotherapy-naive stage IIIB/IV NSCLC. Custirsen was infused during a loading dose period and weekly in combination with gemcitabine (1250 mg/m 2) on days 1 and 8 and with cisplatin (75 mg/m 2) or carboplatin (area under the curve 5) on day 1 of each 21-day cycle. Ten patients were treated in a phase I lead-in and 71 in the phase II component. The primary efficacy endpoint was response rate, with exploratory analyses of other efficacy outcomes and biomarker relationships. Results: Eighty-one patients received custirsen and were included in the primary analysis. The median age was 61 years; 82% had stage IV disease. Overall response was 25 of 81 (31%; 95% confidence interval 21-42). The 1- and 2-year survivals were 54 and 30%, respectively. Toxicity of the combination was not appreciably different from what is reported for gemcitabine/platinum combinations. Custirsen treatment decreased serum CLU levels in 95% of patients evaluated. Patients who achieved a minimum median CLU level for the population of ≤38 μg/ml during treatment had a median survival of 27.1 compared with 16.1 months for patients who did not (p = 0.02). Conclusion: Based on the above results, a randomized phase 3 trial to evaluate the survival benefit of custirsen in patients with NSCLC is warranted. Copyright © 2012 by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer.

Lawton C.A.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Yan Y.,Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center | Lee W.R.,Duke University | Gillin M.,University of Houston | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2012

Purpose: External-beam radiation therapy combined with low - doserate permanent brachytherapy are commonly used to treat men with localized prostate cancer. This Phase II trial was performed to document late gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicity as well as biochemical control for this treatment in a multi-institutional cooperative group setting. This report defines the long-term results of this trial. Methods and Materials: All eligible patients received external-beam radiation (45 Gy in 25 fractions) followed 2-6 weeks later by a permanent iodine 125 implant of 108 Gy. Late toxicity was defined by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer late radiation morbidity scoring scheme. Biochemical control was defined by the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) Consensus definition and the ASTRO Phoenix definition. Results: One hundred thirty-eight patients were enrolled from 20 institutions, and 131 were eligible. Median follow-up (living patients) was 8.2 years (range, 2.7-9.3 years). The 8-year estimate of late grade >3 genitourinary and/or gastrointestinal toxicity was 15%. The most common grade >3 toxicities were urinary frequency, dysuria, and proctitis. There were two grade 4 toxicities, both bladder necrosis, and no grade 5 toxicities. In addition, 42% of patients complained of grade 3 impotence (no erections) at 8 years. The 8-year estimate of biochemical failure was 18% and 21% by the Phoenix and ASTRO consensus definitions, respectively. Conclusion: Biochemical control for this treatment seems durable with 8 years of follow-up and is similar to high - dose external beam radiation alone or brachytherapy alone. Late toxicity in this multi-institutional trial is higher than reports from similar cohorts of patients treated with high - dose external-beam radiation alone or permanent low - doserate brachytherapy alone, perhaps suggesting further attention to strategies that limit doses to normal structures or to unimodal radiotherapy techniques. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Metcalfe K.,University of Toronto | Metcalfe K.,Womens College Research Institute | Gershman S.,University of Toronto | Gershman S.,Womens College Research Institute | And 12 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2011

Purpose:The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of contralateral breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers; and measure the extent to which host, family history, and cancer treatment-related factors modify the risk.Patients and methods:Patients were 810 women, with stage I or II breast cancer, for whom a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation had been identified in the family. Patients were followed from the initial diagnosis of cancer until contralateral mastectomy, contralateral breast cancer, death, or last follow-up.Results: Overall, 149 subjects (18.4%) developed a contralateral breast cancer. The 15-year actuarial risk of contralateral breast cancer was 36.1% for women with a BRCA1 mutation and was 28.5% for women with a BRCA2 mutation. Women younger than 50 years of age at the time of breast cancer diagnosis were significantly more likely to develop a contralateral breast cancer at 15 years, compared with those older than 50 years (37.6 vs 16.8%; P0.003). Women aged 50 years with two or more first-degree relatives with early-onset breast cancer were at high risk of contralateral breast cancer, compared with women with fewer, or no first-degree relatives with breast cancer (50 vs 36%; P0.005). The risk of contralateral breast cancer was reduced with oophorectomy (RR 0.47; 95% CI 0.30-0.76; P0.002).Conclusion:The risk of contralateral breast cancer risk in BRCA mutation carriers declines with the age of diagnosis and increases with the number of first-degree relatives affected with breast cancer. Oophorectomy reduces the risk of contralateral breast cancer in young women with a BRCA mutation. © 2011 Cancer Research UK All rights reserved.

Michalski J.M.,University of Washington | Yan Y.,Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center | Watkins-Bruner D.,Emory University | Bosch W.R.,University of Washington | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2013

Purpose To give a preliminary report of clinical and treatment factors associated with toxicity in men receiving high-dose radiation therapy (RT) on a phase 3 dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials The trial was initiated with 3-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) and amended after 1 year to allow intensity modulated RT (IMRT). Patients treated with 3D-CRT received 55.8 Gy to a planning target volume that included the prostate and seminal vesicles, then 23.4 Gy to prostate only. The IMRT patients were treated to the prostate and proximal seminal vesicles to 79.2 Gy. Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2.0, and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer late morbidity scores were used for acute and late effects. Results Of 763 patients randomized to the 79.2-Gy arm of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0126 protocol, 748 were eligible and evaluable: 491 and 257 were treated with 3D-CRT and IMRT, respectively. For both bladder and rectum, the volumes receiving 65, 70, and 75 Gy were significantly lower with IMRT (all P<.0001). For grade (G) 2+ acute gastrointestinal/genitourinary (GI/GU) toxicity, both univariate and multivariate analyses showed a statistically significant decrease in G2+ acute collective GI/GU toxicity for IMRT. There were no significant differences with 3D-CRT or IMRT for acute or late G2+ or 3+ GU toxicities. Univariate analysis showed a statistically significant decrease in late G2+ GI toxicity for IMRT (P=.039). On multivariate analysis, IMRT showed a 26% reduction in G2+ late GI toxicity (P=.099). Acute G2+ toxicity was associated with late G3+ toxicity (P=.005). With dose-volume histogram data in the multivariate analysis, RT modality was not significant, whereas white race (P=.001) and rectal V70 ≥15% were associated with G2+ rectal toxicity (P=.034). Conclusions Intensity modulated RT is associated with a significant reduction in acute G2+ GI/GU toxicity. There is a trend for a clinically meaningful reduction in late G2+ GI toxicity with IMRT. The occurrence of acute GI toxicity and large (>15%) volumes of rectum >70 Gy are associated with late rectal toxicity. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Lawton C.A.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Hunt D.,Statistical Center | Lee W.R.,Duke University | Gomella L.,Thomas Jefferson University | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2011

Purpose: To evaluate the long-term effectiveness of transrectal ultrasound-guided permanent radioactive I125 implantation of the prostate for organ confined adenocarcinoma of the prostate compared with historical data of prostatectomy and external beam radiotherapy within a cooperative group setting. Methods and Materials: Patients accrued to this study had histologically confirmed, locally confined adenocarcinoma of the prostate clinical stage T1b, T1c, or T2a; no nodal or metastatic disease; prostate-specific antigen level of ≤10 ng/ml; and a Gleason score of ≤6. All patients underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided radioactive I125 seed implantation into the prostate. The prescribed dose was 145 Gy to the prostate planning target volume. Results: A total of 101 patients from 27 institutions were accrued to this protocol; by design, no single institution accrued more than 8 patients. There were 94 eligible patients. The median follow up was 8.1 years (range, 0.1-9.2 years). After 8 years, 8 patients had protocol-defined biochemical (prostate-specific antigen) failure (cumulative incidence, 8.0%); 5 patients had local failure (cumulative incidence, 5.5%); and 1 patient had distant failure (cumulative incidence, 1.1%; this patient also had biochemical failure and died of causes not related to prostate cancer). The 8-year overall survival rate was 88%. At last follow-up, no patient had died of prostate cancer or related toxicities. Three patients had maximum late toxicities of Grade 3, all of which were genitourinary. No Grade 4 or 5 toxicities were observed. Conclusions: The long-term results of this clinical trial have demonstrated that this kind of trial can be successfully completed through the RTOG and that results in terms of biochemical failure and toxicity compare very favorably with other brachytherapy published series as well as surgical and external beam radiotherapy series. In addition, the prospective, multicenter design highlights the probable generalizability of the outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

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