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Elsom D.M.,Oxford Brookes University | Elsom D.M.,Tornado and Storm Research Organisation | Webb J.D.C.,Tornado and Storm Research Organisation
Weather | Year: 2014

From 1988 to 2012 there were, on average, 29 people known to have experienced an electrical shock due to lightning per annum in the UK, of which two died. There are probably many incidents involving minor injuries that were not recorded. Consequently, the actual number of people struck each year may be significantly greater. Just over half of all incidents occurred outdoors but, because many of those incidents involved more than one person, they accounted for two-thirds of the total number of people struck during the study period. Whereas very few indoor incidents resulted in serious injuries and none were fatal, nearly half of all outdoor incidents resulted in serious injuries or even death. © 2014 Royal Meteorological Society.


Kirk P.,Tornado and Storm Research Organisation
International Journal of Meteorology | Year: 2013

Shortly before 1100 UTC on the morning of the 7 December 2006 a T5 (62 to 72 m/s) tornado struck Kensal Rise (Also Kensal Green) in north-west London travelling a total distance of 2.5km. This paper focuses in on the site investigation which was carried out the following day and also comments on the association of a mesovortex with the tornado.


Clark M.R.,UK Met Office | Clark M.R.,Tornado and Storm Research Organisation | Webb J.D.C.,Tornado and Storm Research Organisation
Weather | Year: 2013

Summary: The Coventry-Sleaford supercell was exceptional for the UK, both in terms of the maximum-recorded hail size and the overall length of the hail swathe: only 15 other storms producing continuous hail swathes > 100km in length have been recorded in the UK in the last 210 years. Observations suggest that storm mode (and, in particular, potential for development of surface-based supercells) was a complex function of the capping inversion strength, proximity of neighbouring cells and timing in the diurnal heating cycle. Consequently, although the vertical wind shear and CAPE appeared supportive of supercells over a rather large area within the warm sector, the window of opportunity for development of isolated, surface-based supercells was fairly short-lived and limited in areal extent. The early storms were not surface-based, whilst rising surface temperatures encouraged the more numerous initiation of storms from early afternoon. This led to the eventual merger of discrete storms into larger clusters, as was observed in the latter stages of the Coventry-Sleaford supercell. A favoured location for long-lived supercells was at the southeast flank of ongoing clusters of convection, where surface temperatures were comparatively high and storm inflow was not obstructed by neighbouring cells.


Webb J.D.C.,Tornado and Storm Research Organisation
International Journal of Meteorology | Year: 2014

2013 was, overall, another 'quiet' year for thundery activity with most of England and Wales recording well below average thunderstorm day totals. However, thunder was recorded more often than normal in parts of Ireland and northwest Scotland. Severe thunderstorm activity was conspicuously concentrated in a two week thundery period from 21 July to 5 August.


Brown P.R.,Tornado and Storm Research Organisation | Meaden G.T.,Tornado and Storm Research Organisation
International Journal of Meteorology | Year: 2014

Tornadoes, waterspouts, funnel clouds, and other whirlwinds are summarised for the United Kingdom for 2013, and the data compared with those for the preceding five years. Tornado totals have been very stable in recent years but waterspouts and funnel clouds have fluctuated in number, both being relatively low in 2013; on the other hand, fine spells in the summer allowed more land devils to develop.


Brown P.R.,Tornado and Storm Research Organisation
International Journal of Meteorology | Year: 2015

This paper describes briefly the sequence of weather in the British Isles from December 2013 to February 2014, and summarises the significant aspects of the season, which was the most cyclonic 3-month period known in these islands. For England and Wales as a whole, as well as for many individual stations, it was the wettest winter on record. © THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF METEOROLOGY.


Brown P.R.,Tornado and Storm Research Organisation
International Journal of Meteorology | Year: 2014

This note describes the evolution of an exceptionally deep depression that passed close to the northwest of Scotland on 24 December 2013 and gave the lowest barometer reading in the British Isles since 1886. © THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF METEOROLOGY.


Webb J.D.C.,Tornado and Storm Research Organisation
International Journal of Meteorology | Year: 2013

Days with thunder heard were close to average for many in Britain and Ireland, and, likewise in line with normal expectation, observers in eastern England recorded the highest incidences. Despite the very wet summer, this was another year with very few occasions of widespread severe thunderstorms, a notable exception being on 28 June when an unusually severe hailstorm traversed the English Midlands. © The International Journal of Meteorology.


Brown P.R.,Tornado and Storm Research Organisation
International Journal of Meteorology | Year: 2013

One hundred years ago, on 27 October 1913, a tornado of T7 strength passed through the Taff Valley in Glamorgan. This paper describes the synoptic pattern and the effects of the tornado, using newspaper accounts of the time and an official report compiled later in the Meteorological Office. Other tornadoes of the same day are briefly discussed. © THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF METEOROLOGY.


Sanderson M.G.,UK Met Office | Hand W.H.,UK Met Office | Groenemeijer P.,European Severe Storms Laboratory | Boorman P.M.,UK Met Office | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Climatology | Year: 2015

Hailstorms can pose a significant threat to society, by damaging property and disrupting livelihoods. An understanding of how hailstorm characteristics may change under a warming climate is therefore important for assessing the risk of hail damage for the insurance industry. A simple model of hailstone formation has been driven using meteorological data produced by a regional climate model (RCM) to project how hailstorm numbers and hailstone sizes could change during the 21st century in the UK. Evaluation of the modelled hailstone sizes, numbers and spatial distributions showed that they agreed reasonably well with observations. The effect of climate change on the numbers of damaging hailstorms in the UK (hailstones with diameters greater than 15 mm) was then investigated. A downward trend in the total number of damaging hailstorms during the 21st century was projected, with statistically significant trends for hailstones with diameters between 21 and 50 mm. Melting of hailstones made little contribution to the projected reductions. The results are subject to large uncertainties, some of which originate with the convective parameterization scheme used by the climate model. © 2014 Royal Meteorological Society.

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