American Fork, UT, United States
American Fork, UT, United States

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Beck J.J.,University of California at Davis | Porter N.,Torion Technologies | Cook D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Gee W.S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 5 more authors.
Phytochemical Analysis | Year: 2015

Introduction: Understanding the complex chemical signalling of plants and insects is an important component of chemical ecology. Accordingly, the collection and analysis of chemical cues from plants in their natural environment is integral to elucidation of plant-insect communications. Remote plant locations and the need for a large number of replicates make in situ headspace analyses a daunting logistical challenge. A hand-held, portable GC-MS system was used to discriminate between damaged and undamaged Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle) flower heads in both a potted-plant and natural setting. Objective: To determine if a portable GC-MS system was capable of distinguishing between undamaged and mechanically damaged plant treatments, and plant environments. Methodology: A portable GC-MS utilising needle trap adsorbent technology was used to collect and analyse in situ headspace volatiles of varying yellow starthistle treatments. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to distinguish treatments and identify biomarker volatiles. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine differences between treatment volatile amounts. Results: The portable GC-MS system detected 31 volatiles from the four treatments. Each GC-MS run was completed in less than 3min. PCA showed four distinct clusters representing the four treatments - damaged and undamaged potted plant, and damaged and undamaged natural plant. Damage-specific volatiles were identified. Conclusion: The portable GC-MS system distinguished the treatments based on their detected volatile profiles. Additional statistical analysis identified five possible biomarker volatiles for the treatments, among them cyclosativene and copaene, which indicated damaged flower heads. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Smith P.A.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | Lepage C.R.J.,Defence R and D Canada Suffield | Savage P.B.,Brigham Young University | Bowerbank C.R.,Torion Technologies | And 2 more authors.
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2011

The chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate (VX) and many related degradation products produce poorly diagnostic electron ionization (EI) mass spectra by transmission quadrupole mass spectrometry. Thus, chemical ionization (CI) is often used for these analytes. In this work, pseudomolecular ([M+H]+) ion formation from self-chemical ionization (self-CI) was examined for four VX degradation products containing the diisopropylamine functional group. A person-portable toroidal ion trap mass spectrometer with a gas chromatographic inlet was used with EI, and both fixed-duration and feedback-controlled ionization time. With feedback-controlled ionization, ion cooling (reaction) times and ion formation target values were varied. Evidence for protonation of analytes was observed under all conditions, except for the largest analyte, bis(diisopropylaminoethyl)disulfide which yielded [M+H]+ ions only with increased fixed ionization or ion cooling times. Analysis of triethylamine-d15 provided evidence that [M+H]+ production was likely due to self-CI. Analysis of a degraded VX sample where lengthened ion storage and feedback-controlled ionization time were used resulted in detection of [M+H]+ ions for VX and several relevant degradation products. Dimer ions were also observed for two phosphonate compounds detected in this sample. © 2011.


PubMed | Torion Technologies and U.S. Department of Agriculture
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: Phytochemical analysis : PCA | Year: 2015

Understanding the complex chemical signalling of plants and insects is an important component of chemical ecology. Accordingly, the collection and analysis of chemical cues from plants in their natural environment is integral to elucidation of plant-insect communications. Remote plant locations and the need for a large number of replicates make in situ headspace analyses a daunting logistical challenge. A hand-held, portable GC-MS system was used to discriminate between damaged and undamaged Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle) flower heads in both a potted-plant and natural setting.To determine if a portable GC-MS system was capable of distinguishing between undamaged and mechanically damaged plant treatments, and plant environments.A portable GC-MS utilising needle trap adsorbent technology was used to collect and analyse in situ headspace volatiles of varying yellow starthistle treatments. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to distinguish treatments and identify biomarker volatiles. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine differences between treatment volatile amounts.The portable GC-MS system detected 31 volatiles from the four treatments. Each GC-MS run was completed in less than 3min. PCA showed four distinct clusters representing the four treatments - damaged and undamaged potted plant, and damaged and undamaged natural plant. Damage-specific volatiles were identified.The portable GC-MS system distinguished the treatments based on their detected volatile profiles. Additional statistical analysis identified five possible biomarker volatiles for the treatments, among them cyclosativene and copaene, which indicated damaged flower heads.


Smith P.A.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | Smith P.A.,Salt Lake Technical Center | Roe M.T.A.,3M | Sadowski C.,Smiths Detection | Lee E.D.,Torion Technologies
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene | Year: 2011

A newly developed person-portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system was used to analyze several solvent standards, contact cement, paint thinner, and polychlorinated biphenyl samples. Passive solid phase microextraction sampling and fast chromatography with a resistively heated low thermal mass GC column were used. Results (combined sampling and analysis) were obtained in <2 min for solvent, contact cement, and paint thinner samples, and in <13 min for the polychlorinated biphenyl sample. Mass spectra produced by the small toroidal ion trap detector used were similar to those produced with heavily used transmission quadrupole mass spectrometers for polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, simple alkanes, and cycloalknes, while mass spectra for benzene and the ketone compounds analyzed showed evidence for ion/molecule reactions in the ion trap. For one of the contact cement samples analyzed, no evidence was found to indicate the presence of n-hexane, although the relevant material safety data sheet listed this ingredient. Specific chemical constituents corresponding to a potentially wide range of petroleum distillate compounds were identifiable from GC-MS analyses. The possibility for an improved basic characterization step in the exposure assessment process exists with the availability of fast, person-portable GC-MS, although work is needed to further refine this tool and understand the best ways it may be used.


Hansen B.J.,Brigham Young University | Niemi R.J.,Brigham Young University | Hawkins A.R.,Brigham Young University | Lammert S.A.,Torion Technologies | Austin D.E.,Brigham Young University
Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems | Year: 2013

We present a linear type radiofrequency ion trap mass spectrometer consisting of metal electrodes that are lithographically patterned onto two opposing planar ceramic substrates. An electric field for ion trapping is formed by applying specific voltage potentials to the electrode pattern. This technique represents a miniaturization approach that is relatively immune to problems with surface roughness, machining complexity, electrode misalignment, and precision of electrode shape. We also present how these traps allow a thorough study of higher order nonlinear effects in the trapping field profile and their effect on mass analyzer performance. This trap has successfully performed mass analysis using both a frequency sweep for resonant ion ejection, and linear voltage amplitude ramp of the trapping field. Better-than-unit mass resolution has been achieved using frequency sweep mass analysis. Mass resolution (m/Δm) has been measured at 160 for peaks of m/z values less than 100. [2012-0380] © 1992-2012 IEEE.


Lammert S.A.,Torion Technologies
NATO Science for Peace and Security Series A: Chemistry and Biology | Year: 2014

The emergence of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication techniques is prevalent in modern electronics, personal communications systems and many other everyday devices that continually become smaller and more capable. Mass spectrometry (MS) (Fox J, Saini R, Tsui K, Verbeck G, Rev Sci Instrum 80(9):93302–93306, 2009), too has benefited from these fabrication techniques and as a result, there has been an increased focus on instrument miniaturization and field portability. Much of the effort in this area has been in the miniaturization of the mass analyzer where even micron-sized analyzers have been reported. However, the miniaturization of the mass analyzer is not the only barrier to system size reduction. Much of the support hardware (pumping systems, ionization sources, detectors, etc.) has not scaled proportionally, either in size or operational capability. Often the batteries are the largest/heaviest components in a miniature system and, despite improvements in battery technologies, power is still a major limitation for field portability. In addition to MS hardware, the methods for sample acquisition, processing and introduction must be reduced with respect to complexity, size and power requirements while still maintaining sufficient analytical efficiency for adequate detection specifications. Finally, the systems must be easy to use by nonexpert operators. All of these analytical figures of merit interplay in such a way that significant tradeoffs must be made when designing a field-portable instrument for a particular application.The three talks presented at the 2013 NATO Advanced Studies Institute in Sienna Italy and summarized in this chapter cover the progress and obstacles in miniaturization of MS components as well as the interdependencies of the instrumental figures of merit, analytical performance and field applications as they pertain to field-portable miniature MS. The talks included examples from the speakers’ past and current fieldable instrument development projects. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014.


A new algorithm is taught for identifying compounds from spectroscopic or mass spectra data, wherein the improved order of operations of the present invention are defined as 1) background noise removal, 2) deconvolution by smoothing peaks, finding peaks and grouping peaks into unknown compounds, 3) preparing correlation values for combinations of unknown compound and target compound pairs, 4) sorting the combinations of unknown compound and target compound pairs by their correlation values, 5) removing complete ions from the mass spectra data using a peak, a retention time, and a retention window, and 6) matching unknown compounds to target compounds such that no target compound appears twice.


A system and method for improving operation of a needle trap by changing a flow path through a needle trap to enable a needle to draw a fluid sample into a working end of the needle and out through the side hole, wherein drawing the sample through the side hole eliminates the possibility of a leak through the side hole while drawing a fluid sample into the working end.


Trademark
Torion Technologies | Date: 2012-06-12

Computer software for analyzing data from scientific analysis of chemical compounds; computer software for analyzing data from chromatographic analysis of chemical compounds; computer software for analyzing data from gas chromatographic analysis of chemical compounds; computer software for identifying chemical compounds from data obtained by chromatographic analysis; computer software for identifying chemical compounds from data obtained by gas chromatography; all of the foregoing sold as a component part of portable chromatographs and/or mass spectrometers; computer software for analyzing data from scientific analysis of chemical compounds; computer software for analyzing data from chromatographic analysis of chemical compounds; computer software for analyzing data from gas chromatographic analysis of chemical compounds; computer software for identifying chemical compounds from data obtained by chromatographic analysis; computer software for identifying chemical compounds from data obtained by gas chromatography; all of the foregoing software products are for use in detecting organic compounds and are not for use in detecting non-organic compounds.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Army | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 69.84K | Year: 2010

A need for miniaturized mass spectrometer (MS) instrumentation exists for both stationary point monitoring and applications where instrument size is critical, including military swatch test monitoring of chemical agent permeation rates and field detection of chemical agents. A 50% size and weight reduction over current portable MS instrumentation through modern microfabrication techniques while maintaining excellent performance represents a major breakthrough in detection capability. Planar, microfabricated ion trap (IT) MS devices will be constructed that meet these requirements of high sensitivity, high resolution, tandem MS operation, high operating pressure, reduced cleaning and service requirements, unsurpassed robustness, and ease of use. A novel two-plate microfabrication approach is proposed which will allow higher electric field accuracy than is possible using other microfabricated techniques, resulting in high mass resolution and sensitivity. The dual analyzer will simultaneously characterize both positive and negative ions (including MS/MS mode), allowing detection of a broad range of chemical targets. This approach allows the benefits of microfabrication—higher operating pressure, lower power, lower cost—while overcoming the performance deficiencies of other MS techniques. Widespread interest in the first high performance microfabricated linear ITMS system is anticipated with commercial applications for detection of explosives, drugs, toxic industrial chemicals, and environmental pollutants.

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