Topsoe Fuel Cell

Kongens Lyngby, Denmark

Topsoe Fuel Cell

Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
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Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2009.3.3 | Award Amount: 5.65M | Year: 2011

Long-term stable operation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) is a basic requirement for introducing this technology to the stationary power market. Degradation phenomena limiting the lifetime can be divided into continuous (baseline) and incidental (transient) effects. This project is concerned with understanding the details of the major SOFC continuous degradation effects and developing models that will predict single degradation phenomena and their combined effect on SOFC cells and single repeating units. The outcome of the project will be an in-depth understanding of the degradation phenomena as a function of the basic physico-chemical processes involved, including their dependency on operational parameters. Up to now research has rarely succeeded in linking the basic changes in materials properties to the decrease in electro-chemical performance at the level of multi-layer systems and SOFC cells, and even up to single repeating units.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2012.3.2 | Award Amount: 7.36M | Year: 2013

This project aims at improving the robustness, manufacturability, efficiency and cost of Fuel Cells state-of-the-art SOFC stacks so as to reach market entry requirements. We propose a focused project addressing the key issues that have manifested themselves in the course of the ongoing product development efforts at Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S (TOFC). The key issues are the mechanical robustness of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), and the delicate interplay between cell properties, stack design, and operating conditions of the SOFC stack. The novelty of the project lies in combining state of the art methodologies for cost-optimal reliability-based design (COPRD) with actual production optimization. To achieve the COPRD beyond state of the art multi-physical modelling concepts must be developed and validated for significantly improved understanding of the production and operation of SOFC stacks. The key to this understanding is validating experiments and models on multiple levels of the SOFC system and introduction of extensive test programs specified by the COPRD methodology.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2010.1.5 | Award Amount: 9.87M | Year: 2012

Within the DESTA project the first European SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell) Truck APU (Auxiliary Power Unit) will be demonstrated. SOFC technology offers big advantages compared to other fuel cell technologies due to compatibility to conventional road fuels like diesel. Within the last years significant improvements have been made to bring SOFC stack technology and APU BoP components to prototype and product level. The project will begin with APU requirement definition for application of an SOFC APU into an US type Volvo heavy-duty truck. In parallel the test conditions for the vehicle test and off-vehicle tests will be elaborated. Due to huge development efforts at Eberspcher and AVL at project begin of DESTA already 2 SOFC APU systems will be available at laboratory prototype level. These 2 APU systems (in each case 3) will be tested based on an accelerated test profile for at least 1 year. Based on the test results and additional investigations a benchmark of the 2 systems will be performed by the independent research institute Forschungszentrum Jlich. Based on this benchmark and derived recommendations the 2 systems will be merged and optimized to one final DESTA SOFC APU. In this process the most promising approaches from both systems will be identified and realized in the final DESTA SOFC APU. In parallel to the system test and development TOFC will focus on SOFC stack optimization. In this project the decision has been made to focus on ASC stacks to due high maturity of this technology. This technology is already very close to industrialization. But the stacks still have to be improved in terms of start-up time, lifetime and sulphur tolerance which will be performed in WP3. Finally the optimized DESTA SOFC APU systems will go into tests. On the one hand the truck demonstration and on the other hand laboratory systems tests (performance, long-time, vibration, salt spray,..) will be performed.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2009.3.4 | Award Amount: 7.11M | Year: 2011

The main objectives of this proposal is to evaluate different process alternatives and find optimal process and mechanical solutions for the cathode and stack subsystems with the aim of having commercially feasible and technologically optimised subsystem solutions ready for future ~ 250 kWe atmospheric SOFC systems. The aspects taken into account in the development are mainly electrical efficiency, controllability, reliability, mass production and costs effectiveness of developed subsystems and individual components. This project is focused on the development of SOFC systems air side fluid and thermal management and mechanical solutions, i.e. cathode subsystem and individual components. In large SOFC systems the cathode subsystem is typically the largest source of auxiliary losses and a major factor decreasing electrical efficiency of the system. The reason for this is that almost all components are based on existing products developed for some other purposes and are not optimized for certain SOFC systems. By making cathode side components from the SOFC system point of view, i.e. optimizing the overall system solutions, significant improvements in terms of costs, reliability, performance and lifetime will be achieved. A parallel optimization of the anode subsystem is carried out in the EU funded ASSENT project. The project will further focus on the integration of SOFC stacks in large systems. If large SOFC systems would be realized by simple multiplication of smaller SOFC stacks, the cost of the so-called Balance of Stack components would be very large. The Balance of Stack components includes air- and gas manifolding, stack compression, thermal insulation, electrical insulation, wiring, lead-ins and sealing. Based on state-of-the-art SOFC stacks this project will develop scalable, cost-efficient Balance of Stack solutions suitable for ~ 250 kW SOFC systems.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2009.2.3 | Award Amount: 4.16M | Year: 2011

The ADEL project (ADvanced ELectrolyser for Hydrogen Production with Renewable Energy Sources) proposes to develop a new steam electrolyser concept named Intermediate Temperature Steam Electrolysis (ITSE) aiming at optimizing the electrolyser life time by decreasing its operating temperature while maintaining satisfactory performance level and high energy efficiency at the level of the complete system including the heat and power source and the electrolyser unit. The relevance of this ITSE will be assessed both at the stack level based on performance and durability tests followed by in depth post test analysis and at the system level based on flow sheets and energy efficiency calculations.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2009.3.2 | Award Amount: 4.34M | Year: 2010

The project will demonstrate a new full ceramic SOFC cell with superior robustness as regards to sulphur tolerance, carbon deposition (coking) and re-oxidation (redox resistance). Such a cell mitigates three major failure mechanisms which today have to be addressed at the system level. Having a more robust cell will thus enable the system to be simplified, something of particular importance for small systems, e.g. for combined heat and power (CHP). The new ceramic based cell will be produced by integrating a new, very promising class of materials, strontium titanates, into existing, proven SOFC cell designs. Cost effective and up-scalable processes will be developed for the fabrication of supports and cells. In an iterative process the cell performance at defined tolerance levels will subsequently be improved by adjustments of the fabrication on full cell level according to identified failure mechanisms. Cells with matching performance but improved sulphur, coling and re-oxidation tolerance compared to state-of-the-art Ni-cermet materials will finally be demonstrated in a real system environment.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2010.3.1 | Award Amount: 8.02M | Year: 2011

State of the art SOFC technology for stationary as well as for transportation application is to date being demonstrated with either planar or tubular ceramic anode-supported or electrolyte-supported SOFC cells. However, the SOFC technology faces many challenges when it comes to commercialization, since cost reduction, reliability and extended lifetime is required. In order to improve durability and cost efficiency of the cells the stacks and the system much of the development has in the past been focused on lower operation temperature, increased power density and material savings based on reduced cell and stack component thickness. Nevertheless, most of the demonstrations with ceramic cells in real system operation have until now revealed problems regarding these issues in combination with low robustness. Attention to these issues has especially been paid in connection with SOFC technology for mobile application, such as in APUs. Modelling studies as well as recent practical experience has proved how up-scaling of cells and stacks to larger more industrially relevant sizes generally leads to lower reliability in real system operation and intolerance towards system abuse and operation failures. These observations conform to the statistical distribution of mechanical properties governing the probability of failure of cells based on ceramic materials, whether it is for mobile or for stationary applications. The aim of the METSAPP project is to develop novel cells and stacks based on a robust and reliable up-scale-able metal supported technology with the following primary objectives: 1. Robust metal-supported cell design, ASRcell < 0.5 Ohmcm2, 650 C; 2. Cell optimized and fabrication upscaled for various sizes; 3. Improved durability for stationary applications, degradation < 0.25%/kh; 4. Modular, up-scaled stack design, stack ASRstack < 0.6 Ohmcm2, 650 C; 5. Robustness of 1-3 kW stack verified; 6. Cost effectiveness, industrially relevance, up-scale-ability illustrated.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2010.3.4 | Award Amount: 6.25M | Year: 2011

If we consider a new energy framework, based on the concepts of sustainability, energy security using local resources, maximization of the exergy efficiency of the whole system, a possible solution could be based on the following criteria: Combined cooling, heat and power (CCHP) plants; Small-medium size plants locally distributed; Plants with maximization of the energy recovery from the primary sources: maximum exergy efficiency of the whole system; Flexibility in the use of local primary sources (biogas, bio-syngas, bio-fuels); Easy and efficient CO2 separation from the plant exhaust Among the technologies which could satisfy these criteria, a new technology is gaining more and more interest: energy systems based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) which, in the medium term, could become one of the most interesting technologies able to address the above criteria. The proposal is an applied research project devoted to demonstrate the technical feasibility and the energy and environmental advantages of CCHP plants based on SOFC fed by different typologies of biogenous primary fuels (locally produced), also integrated by a process for the CO2 separation from the anode exhaust gases. The research activity will address the scientific, technical, economical management of two proof-of-concepts of complete energy systems based on SOFCs, through real in-field demonstration units. Several issues will be pointed out, like high efficiency integration designs, impact of pollutants on SOFC and fuel processing units, gas cleaning, operation in CCHP configuration, carbon sequestration module. The activities developed by each Partner, in the different areas of the proposed research, have the ultimate goal of assembling, testing and validate the two proof-of-concept systems. In order to guarantee the success of the Demonstration activity, it is also integrated with: Lab-scale Activities (preliminary to the real demonstration activities); Conceptual and Analysis Activities


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2010.3.1 | Award Amount: 3.45M | Year: 2011

PCFC is one of the most promising technologies to reach the requirements related to cogeneration application, especially for small power systems (1-5 kWel). The investigation in the concept of advanced thin-film ceramic fuel cell technology at operating intermediate temperature between 400 and 700 C aims at improving the characteristics (thermal cycling, heat transfer, current collection,.) as well as lowering drastically the costs of the system. The aim of METPROCELL is to develop innovative Proton Conducting Fuel Cells (PCFCs) by using new electrolytes and electrode materials and implementing cost effective fabrication routes based on both conventional wet chemical routes and thermal spray technologies. Following a complementary approach, the cell architecture will be optimised on both metal and anode type supports, with the aim of improving the performance, durability and cost effectiveness of the cells. Specific objectives: - Development of novel electrolyte (e.g. BTi02, BCY10/BCY10) and electrode materials (e.g. NiO-BIT02 and NiO-BCY10/BCY10 anodes) with enhanced properties for improved proton conducting fuel cells dedicated to 500-600C. - Development of alternative manufacturing routes using cost effective thermal spray technologies such detonation spraying (electrolytes and protective coatings on interconnects) and plasma spraying (anode). - Development of innovative proton conducting fuel cell configurations to be constructed on the basis of both metal supported and anode supported cell designs. - To up-scale the manufacturing procedures based on both conventional wet chemical methods and thermal spraying for the production of flat Stack Cells with a footprint of 12 x 12 cm. - Bring the proof of concept of these novel PCFCs by the set-up and validation of prototype like stacks in two relevant industrial systems, namely APU and gas/micro CHP.


A process for the conditioning of and applying a ceramic or other layer onto the surface of a sheet of stainless steel comprises the steps of (a) optionally annealing the steel plate or sheet in a protective gas atmosphere at an elevated temperature, (b) controlled etching of the surface of the sheet to produce a roughened surface and (c) depositing a protective and electrically conductive layer onto the roughened metallic surface. The process leads to coated metallic sheets with desirable properties, primarily to be used as interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide electrolysis cells.

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