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Kozler P.,Charles University | Sobek O.,Topelex Ltd. | Pokorny J.,Charles University
Physiological Research | Year: 2015

A number of clinical neurological pathologies are associated with increased permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Induced changes of the homeostatic mechanisms in the brain microenvironment lead among others to cellular changes in the CNS. The question was whether some of these changes can be induced by osmotic opening of BBB in an in vivo experiment and whether they can be detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF was taken via the suboccipital puncture from 10 healthy rats and six rats after the osmotic opening of the BBB. In all 16 animals, concentration of myelin basic protein (MBP ng/ml), Neuron-specific enolase (NSE ng/ml) and Tau-protein (Tau pg/ml) were determined in CSF by ELISA. Values in both groups were statistically evaluated. Significant difference between the control and experimental group was revealed only for the concentration of myelin basic protein (p < 0.01). The presented results indicate that osmotic opening of the BBB in vivo experiment without the presence of other pathological conditions of the brain leads to a damage of myelin, without impairment of neurons or their axons. © 2015 Institute of Physiology v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic.

Adam P.,Institute of Cerebrospinal Fluid and Neuroimmunology | Adam P.,Topelex Ltd. | Sobek O.,Institute of Cerebrospinal Fluid and Neuroimmunology | Scott C.S.,Abbot Laboratories | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Laboratory Hematology | Year: 2010

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples (n = 50) from patients with neurological disease (bacterial infection, viral infection, neuroborreliosis and multiple sclerosis) were analysed to characterize cell populations by fluorescent immunocytometry with the CD-Sapphire haematology analyser. Reagent combinations applied to all CSF samples comprised CD3/CD19/HLA-DR and CD4/CD8, with some being further analysed using CD3/CD4, CD3/CD16 and CD3/CD25 protocols. Of the 50 samples, 11 were excluded because of high proportions of nonviable cells (n = 2) or insufficient cell numbers (n = 9). Apart from bacterial infection with granulocytosis, all diagnostic groups showed high proportions (51.4-77.0%) of CD3+ T cells. There was a modest association between T-cell and B-cell counts, but absolute B-cell numbers exceeded 5 cells/μl in only 7/39 cases (neuroborreliosis, n = 6; bacterial meningitis, n = 1). CD3/Ia antigen (activation) co-expression was low and only exceeded 5% in 7/39 samples with no diagnostic correlation. Primary CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets showed similar quantitative trends and CD4/CD8 co-analysis revealed the presence in all diagnostic groups (neuroborreliosis and multiple sclerosis in particular) of a CD4+ CD8int fraction that was predominantly CD3+ and CD16- and had a morphological profile consistent with small lymphoid cells. Supplementary CD-Sapphire cellular immunological analysis of most CSF samples is feasible using the procedure detailed in this communication.

Hajdukova L.,Topelex Ltd. | Hajdukova L.,Military University Hospital Prague | Sobek O.,Topelex Ltd. | Prchalova D.,Topelex Ltd. | And 6 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2015

NSE and S100B belong among the so-called structural proteins of the central nervous system (CNS). Lately, this group of structural proteins has been profusely used as specific biomarkers of CNS tissue damage. So far, the majority of the research papers have focused predominantly on the concentrations of these proteins in blood in relation to CNS damage of various origins. Considering the close anatomic and functional relationship between the brain or spinal cord and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), in case of a CNS injury, a rapid and pronounced increase of the concentrations of structural proteins specifically in CSF takes place. This study inquires into the physiological concentrations of NSE and S100B proteins in CSF, carried out on a sufficiently large group of 601 patients. The detected values can be used for determination of a normal reference range in CSF in a clinical laboratory diagnostics. © 2015 Lenka Hajduková et al.

Borecka K.,Thomayers Hospital | Adam P.,Topelex Ltd. | Adam P.,Charles University | Sobek O.,Topelex Ltd. | And 4 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2013

Urgent examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provides immediate important information about the character of central nervous system (CNS) impairment. Although this examination includes energy parameters such as glucose and lactate concentrations, it does not commonly use Coefficient of Energy Balance (CEB). In this study, we focused on CEB because it enables more exact assessment of actual energy state in the CSF compartment than glucose and lactate alone. CEB informs about the actual functioning condition of present cells, and it does not require any other analysis or costs. Using Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, we examined a large CSF sample (n = 8183) and we compared CEB values among groups with different cytological syndromes. We found a statistically significant difference of CEB between the group with granulocyte pleocytosis and the control group. These results indicate a high degree of anaerobic metabolism caused by the oxidative burst of neutrophils. Similarly, we found a statistically significant difference of CEB between the control group and groups with tumorous oligocytosis plus pleocytosis and monocyte pleocytosis. This difference can be attributed to the oxidative burst of macrophages. Our findings suggest that CEB combined with CSF cytology has a great importance for diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and early therapy of CNS diseases. © 2013 Klára Bořecká et al.

Waters P.,University of Oxford | Reindl M.,Innsbruck Medical University | Saiz A.,University of Barcelona | Schanda K.,Innsbruck Medical University | And 43 more authors.
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry | Year: 2016

Objective Antibodies to cell surface central nervous system proteins help to diagnose conditions which often respond to immunotherapies. The assessment of antibody assays needs to reflect their clinical utility. We report the results of a multicentre study of aquaporin (AQP) 4 antibody (AQP4-Ab) assays in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). Methods Coded samples from patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) or NMOSD (101) and controls (92) were tested at 15 European diagnostic centres using 21 assays including live (n=3) or fixed cell-based assays (n=10), flow cytometry (n=4), immunohistochemistry (n=3) and ELISA (n=1). Results Results of tests on 92 controls identified 12assays as highly specific (0-1 false-positive results). 32 samples from 50 (64%) NMO sera and 34 from 51 (67%) NMOSD sera were positive on at least two of the 12 highly specific assays, leaving 35 patients with seronegative NMO/spectrum disorder (SD). On the basis of a combination of clinical phenotype and the highly specific assays, 66 AQP4-Ab seropositive samples were used to establish the sensitivities (51.5-100%) of all 21 assays. The specificities (85.8-100%) were based on 92 control samples and 35 seronegative NMO/SD patient samples. Conclusions The cell-based assays were most sensitive and specific overall, but immunohistochemistry or flow cytometry could be equally accurate in specialist centres. Since patients with AQP4-Ab negative NMO/SD require different management, the use of both appropriate control samples and defined seronegative NMOSD samples is essential to evaluate these assays in a clinically meaningful way. The process described here can be applied to the evaluation of other antibody assays in the newly evolving field of autoimmune neurology. © 2016 by the BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

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