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Vrolix R.,NUTRIM School for Nutrition | Vrolix R.,Top Institute of Food and Nutrition TIFN | Mensink R.P.,NUTRIM School for Nutrition | Mensink R.P.,Top Institute of Food and Nutrition TIFN
Contemporary Clinical Trials

Background: Many studies on the health effects of the glycemic index (GI) are confounded by differences in the intakes of other macronutrients and fibre. Little data exist about the within- and between-subject variability of the GI. Objective: Our objectives were therefore (i) to calculate the GI of eight commonly used food products with similar macronutrient and fibre composition, but with different sources of carbohydrates, (ii) to examine the inter- and intra-individual variability of the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) after consuming the reference solution, and (iii) to compare the effect of three different methods on 2-h postprandial blood glucose responses. Design: Four groups of 10 healthy subjects consumed in random order the increased (iGI) and decreased GI (dGI) variants and twice a glucose solution. All products consisted of 25 g available carbohydrates (CHO). For the fruit drink, glucose values were simultaneously analyzed using venous and capillary blood samples, and by using a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). Results: The GIs for increased and decreased variants were (mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM)) 69 ± 15 and 40 ± 4 for bread, 86 ± 14 and 48 ± 8 for a fruit drink, 51 ± 12 and 20 ± 4 for cake, and 63 ± 17 and 37 ± 10 for a cookie. The inter- and intra-individual coefficient of variation (CV) of the iAUCs of the reference solution was large and varied respectively between 13 and 38%, and between 33 and 80%. Conclusions: These data suggest that the GI is difficult to use at the individual level. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Van Der Made S.M.,Maastricht University | Van Der Made S.M.,Top Institute of Food and Nutrition TIFN | Plat J.,Maastricht University | Mensink R.P.,Maastricht University | Mensink R.P.,Top Institute of Food and Nutrition TIFN

Background: In vitro and animal studies have shown positive effects of resveratrol on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, but human studies specifically designed to examine these effects are lacking. Objective: The primary outcome parameter of this study in overweight and slightly obese subjects was the effect of resveratrol on apoA-I concentrations. Secondary outcome parameters were effects on other markers of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, glucose metabolism, and markers for inflammation and endothelial function. Design: This randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study was conducted in 45 overweight and slightly obese men (n = 25) and women (n = 20) with a mean age of 61 ± 7 years. Subjects received in random order resveratrol (150 mg per day) or placebo capsules for 4 weeks, separated by a 4-week wash-out period. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of each intervention period. Results: Compliance was excellent as indicated by capsule count and changes in resveratrol and dihydroresveratrol concentrations. No difference between resveratrol and placebo was found in any of the fasting serum or plasma metabolic risk markers (mean ± SD for differences between day 28 values of resveratrol vs. placebo: apoA-I; 0.00 ± 0.12 g/L (P = 0.791), apoB100; -0.01 ± 0.11 g/L (P = 0.545), HDL cholesterol; 0.00 ± 0.09 mmol/L (P = 0.721), LDL cholesterol -0.03 ± 0.57 mmol/L (P = 0.718), triacylglycerol; 0.10 ± 0.54 mmol/L (P = 0.687), glucose; -0.08 ± 0.28 mmol/L (P = 0.064), insulin; -0.3 ± 2.5 mU/L (P = 0.516)). Also, no effects on plasma markers for inflammation and endothelial function were observed. No adverse events related to resveratrol intake were observed. Conclusion: 150 mg of daily resveratrol intake for 4 weeks does not change metabolic risk markers related to cardiovascular health in overweight and slightly obese men and women. Effects on glucose metabolism warrant further study. © 2015 van der Made et al. Source

Aguirre M.,Top Institute of Food and Nutrition TIFN | Aguirre M.,Maastricht University | Aguirre M.,Applied Scientific Research | De Souza C.B.,Applied Scientific Research | And 4 more authors.

Background An aberrant metabolic activity or a compositional alteration of the gut microbiota has been proposed as a factor that makes us more prone to disease. Therefore, we explored the effect of two dietary fibers (arabinogalactan and inulin) on the microbiota from lean and obese subjects during 72 h in vitro fermentation experiments using the validated TNO dynamic in vitro model of the proximal colon: TIM-2. Metabolically, arabinogalactan fermentation showed a higher production of propionate when compared to n-butyrate in the obese microbiota fermentations. In general, lean microbiota produced more n-butyrate from the fermentation of both substrates when compared to the obese microbiota. Furthermore, the obese microbiota extracted more energy from the fermentation of both fibers. Results Compositionally, bacteria belonging to Gemmiger, Dorea, Roseburia, Alistipes, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium genera were found to be highly abundant or stimulated by the prebiotics in the lean microbiota suggesting a potential role in leanness. Furthermore, a significant correlation between known butyrogenic strains including B. adolescentis,an unclassified Bifidobacterium and F. prausnitzii with this metabolite in the fermentation of inulin in both microbiotas was found. Conclusions Although supplementary in vivo studies are needed, the current study provides more evidence for the consumption of specific ingredients with the aim of modulating the gut microbiota in the context of obesity. © 2016 Aguirre et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Joris P.J.,Maastricht University | Joris P.J.,Top Institute of Food and Nutrition TIFN | Mensink R.P.,Maastricht University | Mensink R.P.,Top Institute of Food and Nutrition TIFN

Background: Through effects on nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, endothelial function is improved after the intake of beetroot juice-which is rich in inorganic nitrate-, but decreased after the intake of a meal. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine if beetroot juice could counteract the impairment of endothelial function associated with the ingestion of a mixed meal. Methods: Twenty healthy overweight and slightly obese men with a BMI between 28 and 35kg/m2 received in random order a mixed meal providing 56.6g of fat with beetroot juice or a control drink. The beetroot juice (140mL) provided approximately 500mg dietary nitrate. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery was measured before and 2h after meal consumption. Blood was sampled at regular intervals. Results: Postprandial changes in serum triacylglycerol (TAG) ( P=0.69), plasma glucose ( P=0.84) and insulin ( P=0.67) concentrations were comparable between the meals. After consumption of beetroot juice, the postprandial impairment in FMD following a standardized mixed meal was improved ( P=0.030) compared with the control drink (-0.37±2.92% versus-1.56±2.90%). Following beetroot juice consumption, plasma concentrations of the circulating NO pool were higher at T60, T120, and T240 ( P<0.001 at all time points). Conclusion: In healthy overweight and slightly obese men a single dose of beetroot juice attenuates the postprandial impairment of FMD following a mixed meal, possibly through increases in plasma NO concentrations. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Joris P.J.,Maastricht University | Joris P.J.,Top Institute of Food and Nutrition TIFN | Zeegers M.P.,Maastricht University | Mensink R.P.,Maastricht University | Mensink R.P.,Top Institute of Food and Nutrition TIFN

Background: Obesity is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction. Effects of weight loss on endothelial function are however not clear. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to quantify effects of weight loss on flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, a measurement of endothelial function. Methods: Studies with experimental (RCTs) and quasi-experimental designs published before June 2014 were identified by a systematic search. Changes in FMD were defined as the difference between measurements before and after the study. For RCTs, changes were corrected for those in the no-weight loss control group. Summary estimates of weighted mean differences (WMDs) in FMD and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effect meta-analyses. The impact of subject characteristics, type of weight-loss treatment, and dietary composition on changes in FMD was also investigated. Results: Four RCTs involving 265 subjects were included. Weight loss increased FMD vs. control by 3.29% (95% CI: 0.98-5.59%; P=0.005; mean weight loss: 8.6kg). A total of 1517 subjects participated in 33 studies with 49 relevant study arms. It was estimated that each 10kg decrease in body weight increased fasting FMD by 1.11% (95% CI: 0.47-1.76%; P=0.001). Effects were more pronounced when participants had coexisting obesity-related morbidities. Also, effects may be larger when subjects received low-fat diets or weight-reduction regimens including exercise therapy or weight-loss medication. Conclusion: Weight loss significantly improves fasting FMD in adults, which is a risk marker for cardiovascular disease. Effects may depend on subject characteristics, type of weight-loss treatment, and dietary composition. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

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