Wageningen, Netherlands
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de Boer A.,University of Groningen | Ter Horst G.J.,University of Groningen | Ter Horst G.J.,Top Institute Food and Nutrition | Lorist M.M.,University of Groningen
Ageing Research Reviews | Year: 2013

Dietary intake changes during the course of aging. Normally an increase in food intake is observed around 55 years of age, which is followed by a reduction in food intake in individuals over 65 years of age. This reduction in dietary intake results in lowered levels of body fat and body weight, a phenomenon known as anorexia of aging. Anorexia of aging has a variety of consequences, including a decline in functional status, impaired muscle function, decreased bone mass, micronutrient deficiencies, reduced cognitive functions, increased hospital admission and even premature death. Several changes during lifetime have been implicated to play a role in the reduction in food intake and the development of anorexia of aging. These changes are both physiological, involving peripheral hormones, senses and central brain regulation and non-physiological, with differences in psychological and social factors. In the present review, we will focus on age-related changes in physiological and especially non-physiological factors, that play a role in the age-related changes in food intake and in the etiology of anorexia of aging. At the end we conclude with suggestions for future nutritional research to gain greater understanding of the development of anorexia of aging which could lead to earlier detection and better prevention. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Steele J.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Broadbent J.,Utah State University | Kok J.,University of Groningen | Kok J.,Top Institute Food and Nutrition
Current Opinion in Biotechnology | Year: 2013

It has been known since the 1960s that lactic acid bacteria are essential for the development of cheese flavor. In the ensuing 50 years significant research has been directed at understanding the microbiology, genetics and biochemistry of this process. This review briefly covers the current status of cheese flavor development and then provides our vision for approaches which will enhance our understanding of this process. The long-term goal of this area of research is to enable technology (i.e. cultures and enzymes) that results in consistent rapid development of cheese variety-specific characteristic flavors. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Grimbergen A.J.,University of Groningen | Siebring J.,University of Groningen | Siebring J.,Top Institute Food and Nutrition | Solopova A.,University of Groningen | And 2 more authors.
Current Opinion in Microbiology | Year: 2015

Bet-hedging is an evolutionary theory that describes how risk spreading can increase fitness of a genotype in an unpredictably changing environment. To achieve risk spreading, maladapted phenotypes develop within isogenic populations that may be fit for a future environment. In recent years, various observations of microbial phenotypic heterogeneity have been denoted as bet-hedging strategies, sometimes without sufficient evidence to support this claim. Here, we discuss selected examples of microbial phenotypic heterogeneity that so far do seem consistent with the evolutionary theory concept of bet-hedging. © 2015.


Mols M.,University of Groningen | Mols M.,Wageningen University | Abee T.,Wageningen University | Abee T.,Top Institute Food and Nutrition
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2011

Coping with acid environments is one of the prerequisites for the soil saprophytic and human pathogenic lifestyle of Bacillus cereus. This minireview highlights novel insights in the responses displayed by vegetative cells and germinating spores of B. cereus upon exposure to low pH as well as organic acids, including acetic acid, lactic acid and sorbic acid. Insights regarding the possible acid-inflicted damage, physiological responses and protective mechanisms have been compiled based on single cell fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and transcriptome analyses. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Annema W.,University of Groningen | Annema W.,Top Institute Food and Nutrition | Tietge U.J.F.,University of Groningen | Tietge U.J.F.,Top Institute Food and Nutrition
Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2012

Plasma levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are strongly inversely correlated to the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. A major recognized functional property of HDL particles is to elicit cholesterol efflux and consequently mediate reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). The recent introduction of a surrogate method aiming at determining specifically RCT from the macrophage compartment has facilitated research on the different components and pathways relevant for RCT. The current review provides a comprehensive overview of studies carried out on macrophage-specific RCT including a quick reference guide of available data. Knowledge and insights gained on the regulation of the RCT pathway are summarized. A discussion of methodological issues as well as of the respective relevance of specific pathways for RCT is also included. © 2012 Annema and Tietge; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Teunissen-Beekman K.F.M.,Maastricht University | Teunissen-Beekman K.F.M.,Top Institute Food and Nutrition | Van Baak M.A.,Maastricht University | Van Baak M.A.,Top Institute Food and Nutrition
Current Opinion in Lipidology | Year: 2013

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite a considerable amount of research, the blood pressure (BP) lowering effect of dietary proteins is still not fully established. This review discusses the most recent findings on BP lowering of dietary proteins and protein sources, the possible mechanisms and the safety of increasing protein intake. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent short-term, strictly controlled, randomized clinical trials show a BP lowering effect of increased protein intake. Longer-term trials, however, show inconsistent results. Because all recent trials exchanged carbohydrates, and not fats, for proteins, the question remains whether potential beneficial effects of high protein diets are due to increased protein intake or decreased carbohydrate intake. No clear differences between plant protein and animal protein are found in observational studies, and trials comparing plant versus animal protein are lacking. Different protein sources may lower BP via different mechanisms, which might explain divergent findings. Potential harms of high protein diets are not confirmed in recent trials in healthy persons. SUMMARY: Increasing dietary protein intake or decreasing carbohydrate intake within reasonable limits may be beneficial for BP. The most and least beneficial protein sources still need to be determined. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Luijsterburg B.,Top Institute Food and Nutrition | Luijsterburg B.,TU Eindhoven | Goossens H.,TU Eindhoven
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2014

The global plastics production has increased annually and a substantial part is used for packaging (in Europe 39%). Most plastic packages are discarded after a relatively short service life and the resulting plastic packaging waste is subsequently landfilled, incinerated or recycled. Laws of several European and Asian countries require that plastic packaging waste collected from households has to be sorted, reprocessed, compounded and reused. These recycling schemes typically produce milled goods of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), poly(ethylene) (PE), isotactic poly(propylene) (PP), mixed plastics, and agglomerates from film material. The present study documents the composition and properties of post-consumer polyolefin recyclates originating from both source separation and mechanical recovery from municipal solid refuse waste (MSRW). The overall composition by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were determined and compared with the sorting results of the sorted fractions prior to the reprocessing into milled goods. This study shows that the collection method for the plastic packaging waste has hardly any influence on the final quality of the recyclate; however, the sorting and reprocessing steps influence the final quality of the recyclate. Although the mechanical properties of recyclate are clearly different than those of virgin polymers, changes to the sorting and reprocessing steps can improve the quality. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Van Der Sman R.G.M.,Wageningen University | Meinders M.B.J.,Wageningen University | Meinders M.B.J.,Top Institute Food and Nutrition
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

This paper investigates whether moisture diffusion can be predicted for food materials. We focus especially on mixtures of glucose homopolymers and water. The predictions are based on three theories: (1) the Darken relation, linking the mutual diffusivity to the self diffusivities, (2) the generalised Stokes-Einstein relation for the solute self diffusivity, and (3) the free volume theory for water self diffusivity. Using literature data obtained for the whole class of glucose homopolymer, we show that these theories predict the moisture diffusivity for the whole range of volume fractions, from zero to one, and a broad range of temperatures. Furthermore, we show that the theories equally holds for other hydrophilic biopolymers one finds in food. In the concentrated regime, all experimental data collapse to a single curve. This universal behaviour arises because these biopolymers form a hydrogen bonded network, where water molecules move via rearrangement of the free volume. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ras R.T.,Unilever | Streppel M.T.,Wageningen University | Draijer R.,Unilever | Zock P.L.,Unilever | Zock P.L.,Top Institute Food and Nutrition
International Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2013

Background: Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is an accepted technique to quantify endothelial function and has shown to have prognostic value for future cardiovascular disease (CVD). The predictive strength of FMD in CVD patients compared to populations not diagnosed for CVD warrants further investigation. We systematically reviewed prospective studies that investigated the association between brachial FMD and future cardiovascular events, with particular focus on the role of underlying health status. Methods: To obtain eligible studies, several literature databases were systematically searched through March 2011. Pooled overall risk estimates were calculated separately for continuous risk estimates for CVD (per 1% higher FMD) and for categorical risk estimates for CVD (having high vs. low FMD), based on random-effects models. Results: A total of 23 studies including 14,753 subjects were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. For studies reporting continuous risk estimates, the pooled overall CVD risk was 0.92 (95%CI: 0.88; 0.95) per 1% higher FMD. The observed association seemed stronger (P-value < 0.01) in diseased populations than in asymptomatic populations (0.87 (95%CI: 0.83; 0.92) and 0.96 (95%CI: 0.92; 1.00) per 1% higher FMD, respectively). For studies reporting categorical risk estimates, the pooled overall CVD risk for high vs. low FMD was similar in both types of populations, on average 0.49 (95%CI: 0.39; 0.62). Conclusions: Our findings show that brachial FMD is inversely associated with future CVD events, with some indications for a stronger relation in diseased populations. Endothelial dysfunction may be considered relevant for classifying subjects in terms of CVD risk. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


Smid E.J.,Wageningen University | Smid E.J.,Top Institute Food and Nutrition | Kleerebezem M.,Wageningen University | Kleerebezem M.,Top Institute Food and Nutrition
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

This review describes recent scientific research on the production of aroma compounds by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fermented food products. We discuss the various precursor molecules for the formation of aroma compounds in connection with the metabolic pathways involved. The roles of nonmetabolic properties such as cell lysis are also described in relation to aroma formation. Finally, we provide an overview of the literature on methods to steer and control aroma formation by LAB in mixed culture fermentations. We demonstrate that the technological progress made recently in high-throughput analysis methods has been driving the development of new approaches to understand, control, and steer aroma formation in (dairy) fermentation processes. This currently entails proposing new rules for designing stable, high-performance mixed cultures constituting a selection of strains, which in concert and on the basis of their individual predicted gene contents deliver the required functionalities. Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews.

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