Lee H.J.,Seoul National University |
Lee H.J.,Washington University in St. Louis |
Kweon J.,Seoul National University |
Kim E.,Seoul National University |
And 3 more authors.
Genome Research | Year: 2012
Despite the recent discoveries of and interest in numerous structural variations (SVs) - which include duplications and inversions - in the human and other higher eukaryotic genomes, little is known about the etiology and biology of these SVs, partly due to the lack of molecular tools with which to create individual SVs in cultured cells and model organisms. Here, we present a novelmethod of inducing duplications and inversions in a targeted manner without pre-manipulation of the genome. We found that zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) designed to target two different sites in a human chromosome could introduce two concurrent double-strand breaks, whose repair via non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) gives rise to targeted duplications and inversions of the genomic segments of up to a mega base pair (bp) in length between the two sites. Furthermore, we demonstrated that a ZFN pair could induce the inversion of a 140-kbp chromosomal segment that contains a portion of the blood coagulation factor VIII gene to mimic the inversion genotype that is associated with some cases of severe hemophilia A. This same ZFN pair could be used, in theory, to revert the inverted region to restore genomic integrity in these hemophilia A patients.We propose that ZFNs can be employed asmolecular tools to study mechanisms of chromosomal rearrangements and to create SVs in a predetermined manner so as to study their biological roles. In addition, our method raises the possibility of correcting genetic defects caused by chromosomal rearrangements and holds new promise in gene and cell therapy. © 2012 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Sung Y.H.,Yonsei University |
Jin Y.,Yonsei University |
Kim S.,ToolGen INC |
Lee H.-W.,Yonsei University
Methods | Year: 2014
The use of engineered nucleases in one-cell stage mouse embryos is emerging as an efficient alternative to conventional gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. These nucleases are designed or reprogrammed to specifically induce double strand breaks (DSBs) at a desired genomic locus, and efficiently introduce mutations by both error-prone and error-free DNA repair mechanisms. Since these mutations frequently result in the loss or alteration of gene function by inserting, deleting, or substituting nucleotide sequences, engineered nucleases are enabling us to efficiently generate gene knockout and knockin mice. Three kinds of engineered endonucleases have been developed and successfully applied to the generation of mutant mice: zinc-finger nuclease (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and RNA-guided endonucleases (RGENs). Based on recent advances, here we provide experimentally validated, detailed guidelines for generating non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ)-mediated mutant mice by microinjecting TALENs and RGENs into the cytoplasm or the pronucleus of one-cell stage mouse embryos. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Li Q.,Dalian University of Technology |
Li Q.,Dalian University |
Zhao X.,Dalian University of Technology |
Kim J.-S.,ToolGen INC |
Bai F.,Dalian University of Technology
Shengwu Gongcheng Xuebao/Chinese Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2013
Ethanol tolerance is related to the expression of multiple genes, and genome-based engineering approaches are much more efficient than manipulation of single genes. In this study, ultraviolet (UV) mutagenesis, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) air plasma mutagenesis, and artificial transcription factor (ATF) technology were adopted to treat an industrial yeast strain S. cerevisiae Sc4126 to obtain mutants with improved ethanol tolerance. Mutants with high ethanol tolerance were obtained, and the ratio of positive mutants was compared. Among the three approaches, the rate of positive mutation obtained by ATF technology was 10- to 100-folds of that of the two other methods, with highest genetic stability, suggesting the ATF technology promising for rapid alteration of phenotypes of industry yeast strains for efficient ethanol fermentation. © 2013 by the Institute of Microbiology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Society for Microbiology.
Kim J.M.,Seoul National University |
Kim D.,Seoul National University |
Kim S.,ToolGen INC |
Kim J.-S.,Seoul National University
Nature Communications | Year: 2014
Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis is one of the oldest, most convenient and least expensive methods of genotyping, but is limited by the availability of restriction endonuclease sites. Here we present a novel method of employing CRISPR/Cas-derived RNA-guided engineered nucleases (RGENs) in RFLP analysis. We prepare RGENs by complexing recombinant Cas9 protein derived from Streptococcus pyogenes with in vitro transcribed guide RNAs that are complementary to the DNA sequences of interest. Then, we genotype recurrent mutations found in cancer and small insertions or deletions (indels) induced in cultured cells and animals by RGENs and other engineered nucleases such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). Unlike T7 endonuclease I or Surveyor assays that are widely used for genotyping engineered nuclease-induced mutations, RGEN-mediated RFLP analysis can detect homozygous mutant clones that contain identical biallelic indel sequences and is not limited by sequence polymorphisms near the nuclease target sites. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Toolgen Incorporated | Date: 2015-04-13
The present invention relates to targeted genome editing in eukaryotic cells or organisms. More particularly, the present invention relates to a composition for cleaving a target DNA in eukaryotic cells or organisms comprising a guide RNA specific for the target DNA and Cas protein-encoding nucleic acid or Cas protein, and use thereof.